Monitoring and Laboratory Division April 25, 2002 Planning and Technical Support Division Mobile Source Control Division California Air Resources Board.

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  • Monitoring and Laboratory Division April 25, 2002 Planning and Technical Support Division Mobile Source Control Division California Air Resources BoardProposed Control Measure to Reduce Emissions from Small Off-Road Engines (SORE)

  • Elements of SORE Control MeasureExhaust Element Revises exhaust emission standards for non-handheld equipmentEvaporative ElementNew evaporative emission standard for walk-behind mowers (WBMs)Requires new fuel tanks to meet a permeation standard (applicable to all handheld and non-handheld SORE categories)Proposing design-based certification requirements

  • Goals of the Evaporative Element of SORE Control MeasureReduce diurnal evaporative emissions from non-handheld equipment by 70% (17.6 TPD)Reduce diurnal evaporative emissions from handheld equipment by 40% (1.5 TPD)Use readily available technology to reduce emissionsAllow flexible certification requirements to reduce burden on industry

  • Status of the Regulatory EffortIdentified evaporative emission processesFinalizing OFFROAD emissions inventoryDeveloped evaporative emission test proceduresQuantified SORE evaporative emissionsPerformed emission reduction testingDeveloping draft regulatory language

  • Evaporative Emission ProcessesRunning Loss EmissionsEvaporative emissions that occur during equipment operationHot Soak EmissionsEvaporative emissions that result from latent heatTypically generated for a one-hour period after equipment operationDiurnal EmissionsEvaporative emissions that result from daily temperature variationsIncludes permeation emissions (fuel line and tank)

  • Status of Inventory DevelopmentContract testing at Automotive Testing Laboratories (ATL) nearly completeWill repeat wintertime testing with winter pump fuel (High RVP) to develop temperature correction factor Have requested a contract augmentation to perform additional tank replacement testing on handheld and large non-handheld equipmentPerforming data reduction to modify current OFFROAD emission factors

  • In-House Evaporative Emissions TestingBaseline EmissionsBackground diurnal emissions from new equipmentSummertime hot soak and diurnal emissionsSummertime ROG emissions using fuel containing ethanolFuel tank vented emissionsWintertime hot soak and diurnal emissionsFuel tank permeation emissionsEmissions Reduction TestingWalk-behind mowersBarrier treated HDPE fuel tanks

  • Manufactured at least one month prior to testingEmissions less than 0.1 gram/day

    Chart1

    0.014

    0.016

    0.017

    0.026

    0.066

    Chainsaw

    grams HC/day

    Background Diurnal Emissions from New Equipment

    Sheet1

    Background Emissions (grams/day)

    Chainsaw0.014

    Leaf Blower0.016

    String Trimmer0.017

    Mower0.026

    Front Engine Tractor0.066

  • Test fuel - summertime pump (low RVP, ~ 7 PSI)Temperature profile - (65F - 105F - 65 F)Emissions below 1.0 gram/day except for leaf blowers

    Chart1

    0.356ChainsawChainsaw

    0.673Hedge TrimmerHedge Trimmer

    1.3361.51.779

    0.7150.907String Trimmer

    grams HC/day

    Summertime Diurnal Emissions(Handheld Equipment)

    Sheet1

    Background Emissions (grams/day)

    Chainsaw0.356

    Hedge Trimmer0.673

    Leaf Blower1.3361.5001.779

    String Trimmer0.7150.907

  • Test fuel - summertime pump (low RVP, ~ 7 PSI)Temperature profile - (1-hour @ 95F)

    Chart1

    0.097ChainsawChainsaw

    0.066Hedge TrimmerHedge Trimmer

    0.1130.1630.074

    0.0710.08String Trimmer

    grams HC/day

    Summertime Hot Soak Emissions(Handheld Equipment)

    Sheet1

    Background Emissions (grams/day)

    Chainsaw0.097

    Hedge Trimmer0.066

    Leaf Blower0.1130.1630.074

    String Trimmer0.0710.080

  • Test fuel - summertime pump (low RVP, ~ 7 PSI)Temperature profile - (65F - 105F - 65 F)Average diurnal emissions from new mowers 2.312 grams/day

    Chart1

    2.068

    2.181

    2.256

    2.289

    2.446

    2.45

    2.495

    4.123

    7.064

    grams HC/day

    Summertime Diurnal Emissions(Walk-Behind Mowers)

    Sheet1

    Background Emissions (grams/day)

    Lawnboy2.068

    Craftsman2.181

    Craftsman2.256

    Yard Machine2.289

    Yard Machine2.446

    Yard Machine2.450

    Honda2.495

    Murray (Used)4.123

    Murray (Used)7.064

  • Test fuel - summertime pump (low RVP, ~ 7 PSI)Temperature profile - (1-hour @ 95F)Average hot soak emissions from new mowers 0.524 grams/day

    Chart1

    0.412

    0.58

    0.546

    0.406

    0.614

    0.632

    0.475

    0.699

    0.528

    grams HC/day

    Summertime Hot Soak Emissions(Walk-Behind Mowers)

    Sheet1

    Background Emissions (grams/day)

    Lawnboy0.412

    Craftsman0.580

    Craftsman0.546

    Yard Machine0.406

    Yard Machine0.614

    Yard Machine0.632

    Honda0.475

    Murray (Used)0.699

    Murray (Used)0.528

  • Test fuel - summertime pump (low RVP, ~ 7 PSI)Temperature profile - (65F - 105F - 65 F)Large (> 0.5 gal) vented fuel tanks are a major source of emissions

    Chart1

    7.39215.045Generator

    5.9497.14213.015

    1.2041.846Edger

    4.123TillerTiller

    grams HC/day

    Summertime Diurnal Emissions(Other Non-handheld Equipment)

    Sheet1

    Diurnal Emissions (grams/day)

    Generator7.39215.045

    Front Engine Tractor5.9497.14213.015

    Edger1.2041.846

    Tiller4.123

  • Tank Vented Emissions

    3.2642.33916

    2.4851.637412

    2.4291.9415028

    5.5924.561362

    6.8145.8479

    7.7245.8479

    1.6540.8654892

    0.4770.3391782

    0.5890.4444404

    0.5960.292395

    0.4430.292395

    0.4990.292395

    0.4430.292395

    1.1660.4444404

    Total Hydrocarbons (grams)

    Reddy Equation Estimate

    Vapor Volume (gallons)

    Total Hydrocarbons (grams)

    Diurnal Emissions from Passively Vented HDPE Off-Road Equipment Fuel Tanks

    Grams Hydrocarbons = 2.9579*(Vapor Volume)

    Grams Hydrocarbons = 2.3392*(Vapor Volume)

    All Tanks

    CategoryEquipment ManufacturerModelTank TypePassively VentedTank Volume (gallons)Vapor Volume (gallons)Tank Vented gms/day

    Commercial TurfBCS730NylonYes2.01.03.264

    Front Engine TractorMurray40508X92HDPEYes1.40.72.485

    Rear Engine TractorSnapperM301019BEHDPEYes1.660.832.429

    Front Engine TractorToro72045HDPEYes3.91.955.592

    Commercial TurfToro ProLine30177HDPEYes5.02.56.814

    TractorToro3100HDPENo7.53.757.262

    EdgerPower Trim208 HMetalYes0.370.1851.143

    GeneratorColemanPowerBase 5000HDPEYes5.02.57.724

    Hedge TrimmerEchoHC 1500HDPENo0.080.040.080

    Leaf BlowerShindaiwaEB 500HDPENo0.550.2750.081

    Leaf BlowerStihlBR 320NylonNo0.380.192.171

    Leaf BlowerEchoPB-231HDPENo0.160.080.042

    TillerMaximOO-RMT50BHDPEYes0.740.371.654

    Walk Behind MowerHondaHR 216HDPEYes0.290.1450.477

    Walk Behind MowerToro20040HDPEYes0.500.256.091

    Walk Behind MowerLawn Boy10363HDPEYes0.380.190.589

    Walk Behind MowerYard Machine11A-021C000HDPEYes0.250.1250.596

    Walk Behind MowerYard Machine12A-559K401HDPEYes0.250.1250.443

    Walk Behind MowerYard Machine11A-089S700HDPEYes0.250.1250.499

    Walk Behind MowerCraftsman917379440HDPEYes0.250.1250.443

    Walk Behind MowerCraftsman917389580HDPEYes0.380.191.166

    String TrimmerHondaUMK 431HDPENo0.120.060.192

    String TrimmerEchoSRM-261HDPENo0.150.0750.296

    WelderMultiquipACX140MetalYes1.290.6453.473

    &C&"Arial,Bold"&14Small Off-Road Engine Evaporative Emission Testing Summary

    &L&D&RPage &P

    Non-Metallic Passively Vented

    CategoryEquipment ManufacturerModelTank TypePassively VentedTank Volume (gallons)Vapor Volume (gallons)Tank Vented (grams/day)Reddy Eq. Estimate (grams/day)

    Commercial TurfBCS730NylonYes2.01.03.2642.339

    Front Engine TractorMurray40508X92HDPEYes1.40.72.4851.637

    Rear Engine TractorSnapperM301019BEHDPEYes1.660.832.4291.942

    Front Engine TractorToro72045HDPEYes3.91.955.5924.561

    Commercial TurfToro ProLine30177HDPEYes5.02.56.8145.848

    GeneratorColemanPowerBase 5000HDPEYes5.02.57.7245.848

    TillerMaximOO-RMT50BHDPEYes0.740.371.6540.865

    Walk Behind MowerHondaHR 216HDPEYes0.290.1450.4770.339

    Walk Behind MowerLawn Boy10363HDPEYes0.380.190.5890.444

    Walk Behind MowerYard Machine11A-021C000HDPEYes0.250.1250.5960.292

    Walk Behind MowerYard Machine12A-559K401HDPEYes0.250.1250.4430.292

    Walk Behind MowerYard Machine11A-089S700HDPEYes0.250.1250.4990.292

    Walk Behind MowerCraftsman917379440HDPEYes0.250.1250.4430.292

    Walk Behind MowerCraftsman917389580HDPEYes0.380.191.1660.444

    Sheet3

  • Test fuel - summertime pump (low RVP, ~ 7 PSI)Temperature profile - (48.5F - 69.5F)Emissions significantly lower

    Chart1

    3.573

    2.239

    0.895

    0.526

    0.322

    grams HC/day

    Wintertime Diurnal Emissions

    Sheet1

    Diurnal Emissions (grams/day)

    Generator3.573

    Front Engine Tractor2.239

    Mower0.895

    Leaf Blower0.526

    String Trimmer0.322

  • Fuel Tank Permeation Emissions(Untreated HDPE Tanks) Tanks soaked for 30 DaysCertification fuel used for testingSubjected to multiple diurnal profilesPermeation result is the average daily weight loss divided by the internal surface areaThick Walled Tanks (> 0.125)Avg. handheld permeation rate (6.39 grams/m2/day)Avg. large non-handheld permeation rate (5.92 grams/m2/day)Thin Walled Tanks (< 0.125)Avg. small non-handheld permeation rate (10.60 grams/m2/day)

  • Fuel Tank Permeation Emissions(Fluorinated HDPE Tanks) 19 Tanks treated to level 5 fluorinationTanks soaked for 30 daysCertification fuel used for testingSubjected to multiple diurnal profilesPermeation result is the average daily weight loss divided by the internal surface areaAvg. permeation rate ~ 0.84 grams/m2/day92% Level of reduction

  • Results for Typical HDPE Mower Tanks 92% Level of reduction

    Chart1

    9.770.71

    9.40.38

    10.830.08

    14.320.38

    Untreated

    Treated

    grams HC/square meter/day

    Comparison of Untreated and Fluorinated HDPE Tanks

    Sheet1

    Permeation Rate (grams/m2/day)

    UntreatedTreated

    Tecumseh (0.25 gal)9.770.71

    Tecumseh (0.375 gal)9.400.38

    B&S (0.25 gal)10.830.08

    Honda (0.29 gal)14.320.38

  • Emission Reduction Testing Summary for Walk-Behind Mowers (WBMs)Three pairs of popular mower engines tested (B&S Intek, Tecumseh Magna Torque, Honda GCV 160)Measured hot soak and diurnal emissions in SHEDSummer pump fuel used for testingEquipment tested in four phasesBaseline with no controls, phase I With fluorinated tank, phase IIWith fluorinated tank and PermBlok fuel line, phase IIIWith fluorinated tank, PermBlok fuel line, and controlled venting mechanism, phase IV

  • Phase IV Configured Honda Mower

  • Diurnal Reduction Graph

    2.8491.491.110.643

    2.5781.3951.150.81

    3.2551.9521.8251.023

    3.5371.9991.830.944

    2.5381.5461.1790.836

    2.5061.6961.5350.877

    &L&8jwatson/SORE&R&D

    Proposed1.0 Gram DiurnalStandard

    No Control

    Fluorinated Tank

    Fluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line

    Fluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line + Controlled Venting

    Grams HC

    Mower Evaporative Emission Reduction Results(24-Hour Diurnal)

    Hot Soak Reduction Graph

    0.5150.4050.3560.169

    0.6740.3290.3120.146

    0.7010.5910.4870.146

    0.7540.7250.5470.166

    0.4660.3190.2480.142

    0.3930.3670.3510.112

    &L&8jwatson/SORE&R&D

    No Control

    Fluorinated Tank

    Fluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line

    Fluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line + Controlled Venting

    Grams HC

    Mower Evaporative Emission Reduction Results(1-Hour Hot Soak)

    Diurnal FI

    2.71351.621

    2.71351.896

    &L&8jwatson/SORE &D

    Typical Unmodified B&S

    Retrofitted with Fuel Injection

    Test Number

    Grams HC

    Evaporative Emission Reduction Results for Fuel Injected Mower(24-Hour Diurnal)

    Hot Soak FI

    0.59450.292

    0.59450.38

    &L&8jwatson/SORE &D

    Typical Unmodified B&S

    Retrofitted with Fuel Injection

    Test Number

    Grams HC

    Evaporative Emission Reduction Results for Fuel Injected Mower(1-Hour Hot Soak)

    Average Hot Soak Reductions

    0.58383333330.4560.38350.1538

    No Control

    Fluorinated Tank (22%)

    Fluorinated Tank (22%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (12%)

    Fluorinated Tank (22%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (12%) + Controlled Venting (39%)

    Level of Control

    Grams HC

    Average Emission Reductions(Hot Soak)

    Average Diurnal Reductions

    2.87716666671.67966666671.43816666670.8496

    No Control

    Fluorinated Tank (42%)

    Fluorinated Tank (42%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (8%)

    Fluorinated Tank (42%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (8%) + Controlled Venting (28%)

    Level of Control

    Grams HC

    Average Emission Reductions(24-hour Diurnal)

    Diurnal Pie Chart

    1.1975

    0.2415

    0.5885666667

    0.8496

    &L&8jwatson/SORE Project &D&R&"Arial,Bold"&12* Data based on tests of 6 new WBM** Remaining emissions attributed to carburetor

    **

    Distribution of Uncontrolled Evaporative Emissions from WBM(Average of 2.879 grams HC per 24-hour Diurnal Test)

    Hot Soak Pie Chart

    0.1278333333

    0.0725

    0.2297

    0.1538

    &L&8jwatson/SORE Project &D&R&"Arial,Bold"&12* Data based on tests of 6 new WBM** Remaining emissions attributed to carburetor

    **

    Distribution of Uncontrolled Hot Soak Emissions from WBM(Average of 0.585 grams HC per 1-hour Hot Soak Test)

    Diurnal Statistics Summary

    Diurnal Evaporative Emissions Statistical Summary

    Mean0.888

    Standard Error0.039

    Median0.919

    Mode

    Standard Deviation0.117

    Sample Variance0.014

    Kurtosis1.591

    Skewness-1.073

    Range0.380

    Minimum0.643

    Maximum1.023

    Sum7.993

    Count9.000

    Confidence Level(95.0%)0.090

    Upper 95% Confidence Limit0.9780.0764384822

    Lower 95% Confidence Limit0.798

    Normal Distribution

    0.0000000001

    0.0000000245

    0.0000000397

    0.0000000639

    0.0000001023

    0.0000001627

    0.0000002571

    0.0000004036

    0.0000006298

    0.0000009764

    0.0000015043

    0.000002303

    0.0000035036

    0.0000052963

    0.0000079561

    0.0000118762

    0.0000176162

    0.0000259656

    0.0000380314

    0.0000553529

    0.0000800559

    0.000115054

    0.0001643103

    0.0002331756

    0.0003288184

    0.0004607701

    0.0006416045

    0.0008877804

    0.0012206712

    0.0016678109

    0.0022643833

    0.0030549779

    0.0040956346

    0.0054561881

    0.0072229143

    0.0095014654

    0.0124200607

    0.0161328779

    0.0208235597

    0.0267087213

    0.0340413066

    0.0431136057

    0.0542597101

    0.0678571464

    0.0843274008

    0.1041350274

    0.1277850233

    0.1558181618

    0.1888040023

    0.2273313417

    0.2719959475

    0.323385506

    0.3820618446

    0.4485406256

    0.5232688718

    0.606600851

    0.6987730222

    0.799878905

    0.9098448822

    1.0284080537

    1.1550973323

    1.2892189843

    1.4298477708

    1.5758247328

    1.7257624763

    1.878058562

    2.0309172967

    2.1823798629

    2.3303623355

    2.4727007379

    2.6072018993

    2.7316985277

    2.8441066166

    2.9424830931

    3.0250814953

    3.0904034585

    3.1372438939

    3.1647279569

    3.1723382218

    3.159930883

    3.1277402747

    3.0763715097

    3.0067815615

    2.9202496152

    2.8183379704

    2.7028451653

    2.5757532863

    2.4391716128

    2.2952788287

    2.1462659913

    1.9942823081

    1.8413855399

    1.6894985354

    1.5403730447

    1.3955615652

    1.2563975749

    1.1239841269

    0.9991904306

    0.8826557474

    0.7747996934

    0.6758378744

    0.5858016784

    0.5045610206

    0.4318488631

    0.3672864141

    0.3104080296

    0.2606849921

    0.217547507

    0.1804044274

    0.1486603914

    0.1217302045

    0.0990504449

    0.08008838

    0.0643483754

    0.0513760444

    0.0407604284

    0.0321345199

    0.0251744442

    0.0195976034

    0.0151600642

    0.0116534391

    0.0089014793

    0.0067565541

    0.0050961632

    0.0038195869

    0.0028447524

    0.0021053657

    0.0015483374

    0.0011315107

    0.0008216876

    0.0005929387

    0.0004251752

    0.000302957

    0.0002145107

    0.0001509288

    0.0001055237

    0.0000733134

    0.0000506141

    0.0000347228

    0.0000236708

    0.0000160349

    0.0000107938

    0.00000722

    0.000004799

    0.0000031698

    0.0000020804

    0.0000013569

    0.0000008794

    0.0000005663

    0.0000003624

    0.0000002305

    0.0000001456

    0.0000000915

    0.0000000571

    0.0000000354

    0.0000000218

    0.0000000133

    0.0000000081

    0.0000000049

    0.0000000029

    0.0000000018

    0.000000001

    0.0000000006

    0.0000000004

    0.0000000002

    0.0000000001

    0.0000000001

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    &Ljwatson/SORE/Project &D

    Mean - 1.96*0.659 grams hc

    Mean + 1.96*1.112 grams hc

    Mean 0.888 grams hc

    Probability

    Modified WBM Diurnal Emissions

    Probability

    Distribution of 9 WBM Tests

    Data

    Phase IPhase IIPhase II ReductionsPhase IIIPhase III ReductionsPhase IVPhase IV ReductionsPhase VPermeation RedctionsAreaPerm Rate

    MowerHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalB&S #1 (11065890)1.35917711.90

    B&S #1 (11065890)0.5152.8490.4051.4900.1101.3590.3561.1100.0490.3800.1690.6430.1870.467B&S #2 (1108568)1.18317710.36

    0.0000.1180.6950.2380.415

    B&S #2 (1108568)0.6742.5780.3291.3950.3451.1830.3121.1500.0170.2450.3630.926-0.0510.224Tecumseh #1 (74549065120242)1.30315513.03

    0.1460.8100.1660.340Tecumseh #2 (74549065120238)1.53815515.38

    Tecumseh #1 (74549065120242)0.7013.2550.5911.9520.1101.3030.4871.8250.1040.1270.2211.0150.2660.810Honda #1 (MZBZ-6127048)0.99213111.74

    0.1461.0230.3410.802Honda #2 (MZBZ-6127010)0.8101329.51

    Tecumseh #2 (74549065120238)0.7543.5370.7251.9990.0291.5380.5471.8300.1780.1690.1660.9440.3810.886

    Honda #1 (MZBZ-6127048)0.4662.5380.3191.5460.1470.9920.2481.1790.0710.3670.1171.2460.131-0.0670.2941.092Nozzle Well and Bowl Vent Open

    0.1420.8360.1060.3430.3421.324Nozzle Well Closed

    3.7718.293Nozzle and Bowl Vent Closed

    Honda #2 (MZBZ-6127010)0.3932.5060.3671.6960.0260.8100.3511.5350.0160.1610.1120.8770.2390.658

    0.1260.9190.2250.616

    Average0.5842.8770.4561.6800.1281.1980.3841.4380.0620.2420.1430.8690.2000.488

    Std. Dev.0.1460.4290.1650.2500.1170.2630.1120.3380.0630.1090.0200.1260.1240.301

    Min0.3932.5060.3191.3950.2481.1100.1120.643

    Max0.7543.5370.7251.9990.5471.8300.3631.246

    B&S #3 (11065863) Fuel Injection0.2931.622

    B&S #3 (11065863) Fuel Injection0.3801.896

    Hot Soak EmissionsNo ControlFluorinated TankFluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel LineFluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line + Controlled Venting

    B&S #10.5150.4050.3560.169

    B&S #20.6740.3290.3120.146

    Tecumseh #10.7010.5910.4870.146

    Tecumseh #20.7540.7250.5470.166

    Honda #10.4660.3190.2480.142

    Honda #20.3930.3670.3510.112

    Average0.5840.4560.3840.147

    Diurnal EmissionsNo ControlFluorinated TankFluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel LineFluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line + Controlled VentingDiurnal Emissions

    B&S #12.851.491.110.640.64300.000

    B&S #22.581.401.150.810.6950.10.000

    Tecumseh #13.261.951.831.020.9260.110.000

    Tecumseh #23.542.001.830.940.810.120.000

    Honda #12.541.551.180.841.0150.130.000

    Honda #22.511.701.540.881.0230.140.000

    Average2.8771.6801.4380.8560.9440.150.000

    0.8360.160.000

    0.8770.170.000

    Hot Soak EmissionsTypical Unmodified B&SRetrofitted with Fuel Injection0.9190.180.000

    B&S #3 Test #10.5950.292Average0.8690.190.000

    B&S #3 Test #20.5950.380Std. Dev.0.1260.20.000

    0.11932795150.210.000

    Diurnal EmissionsTypical Unmodified B&SRetrofitted with Fuel Injection0.220.000

    B&S #3 Test #12.7141.6210.230.000

    B&S #3 Test #22.7141.8960.240.000

    0.250.000

    0.260.000

    No Control0.5840.270.000

    Fluorinated Tank (22%)0.4560.280.000

    Fluorinated Tank (22%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (12%)0.3840.290.000

    Fluorinated Tank (22%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (12%) + Controlled Venting (39%)0.1540.30.000

    0.310.000

    0.320.000

    No Control2.8770.330.000

    Fluorinated Tank (42%)1.6800.340.000

    Fluorinated Tank (42%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (8%)1.4380.350.001

    Fluorinated Tank (42%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (8%) + Controlled Venting (28%)0.8500.360.001

    0.370.001

    0.380.002

    Uncontrolled Emissions from Average of Representative Mowers0.5840.390.002

    Fuel Tank Permeation (22%)0.1280.40.003

    Fuel Line Permeation (12%)0.0730.410.004

    Fuel Tank Venting (40%)0.2300.420.005

    Cabuertor Venting (26%)0.1540.430.007

    0.440.010

    Uncontrolled Emissions from Average of Representative Mowers2.8770.450.012

    Fuel Tank Permeation (42%)1.1980.460.016

    Fuel Line Permeation (8%)0.2420.470.021

    Fuel Tank Venting (20%)0.5890.480.027

    Cabuertor Venting (30%)0.8500.490.034

    0.50.043

    0.510.054

    0.520.068

    0.530.084

    0.540.104

    0.550.128

    0.560.156

    0.570.189

    0.580.227

    0.590.272

    0.60.323

    0.610.382

    0.620.449

    0.630.523

    0.640.607

    0.650.699

    0.660.800

    0.670.910

    0.681.028

    0.691.155

    0.71.289

    0.711.430

    0.721.576

    0.731.726

    0.741.878

    0.752.031

    0.762.182

    0.772.330

    0.782.473

    0.792.607

    0.82.732

    0.812.844

    0.822.942

    0.833.025

    0.843.090

    0.853.137

    0.863.165

    0.873.172

    0.883.160

    0.893.128

    0.93.076

    0.913.007

    0.922.920

    0.932.818

    0.942.703

    0.952.576

    0.962.439

    0.972.295

    0.982.146

    0.991.994

    11.841

    1.011.689

    1.021.540

    1.031.396

    1.041.256

    1.051.124

    1.060.999

    1.070.883

    1.080.775

    1.090.676

    1.10.586

    1.110.505

    1.120.432

    1.130.367

    1.140.310

    1.150.261

    1.160.218

    1.170.180

    1.180.149

    1.190.122

    1.20.099

    1.210.080

    1.220.064

    1.230.051

    1.240.041

    1.250.032

    1.260.025

    1.270.020

    1.280.015

    1.290.012

    1.30.009

    1.310.007

    1.320.005

    1.330.004

    1.340.003

    1.350.002

    1.360.002

    1.370.001

    1.380.001

    1.390.001

    1.40.000

    1.410.000

    1.420.000

    1.430.000

    1.440.000

    1.450.000

    1.460.000

    1.470.000

    1.480.000

    1.490.000

    1.50.000

    1.510.000

    1.520.000

    1.530.000

    1.540.000

    1.550.000

    1.560.000

    1.570.000

    1.580.000

    1.590.000

    1.60.000

    1.610.000

    1.620.000

    1.630.000

    1.640.000

    1.650.000

    1.660.000

    1.670.000

    1.680.000

    1.690.000

    1.70.000

    1.710.000

    1.720.000

    1.730.000

    1.740.000

    1.750.000

    1.760.000

    1.770.000

    1.780.000

    1.790.000

    1.80.000

    1.810.000

    1.820.000

    1.830.000

    1.840.000

    1.850.000

    1.860.000

    1.870.000

    1.880.000

    1.890.000

    1.90.000

    1.910.000

    1.920.000

    1.930.000

    1.940.000

    1.950.000

    1.960.000

    1.970.000

    1.980.000

    1.990.000

    20.000

  • Diurnal Reduction Graph

    2.8491.491.110.643

    2.5781.3951.150.81

    3.2551.9521.8251.023

    3.5371.9991.830.944

    2.5381.5461.1790.836

    2.5061.6961.5350.877

    &L&8jwatson/SORE&R&D

    Proposed1.0 Gram DiurnalStandard

    No Control

    Fluorinated Tank

    Fluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line

    Fluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line + Controlled Venting

    Grams HC

    Mower Evaporative Emission Reduction Results(24-Hour Diurnal)

    Hot Soak Reduction Graph

    0.5150.4050.3560.169

    0.6740.3290.3120.146

    0.7010.5910.4870.146

    0.7540.7250.5470.166

    0.4660.3190.2480.142

    0.3930.3670.3510.112

    &L&8jwatson/SORE&R&D

    No Control

    Fluorinated Tank

    Fluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line

    Fluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line + Controlled Venting

    Grams HC

    Mower Evaporative Emission Reduction Results(1-Hour Hot Soak)

    Diurnal FI

    2.71351.621

    2.71351.896

    &L&8jwatson/SORE &D

    Typical Unmodified B&S

    Retrofitted with Fuel Injection

    Test Number

    Grams HC

    Evaporative Emission Reduction Results for Fuel Injected Mower(24-Hour Diurnal)

    Hot Soak FI

    0.59450.292

    0.59450.38

    &L&8jwatson/SORE &D

    Typical Unmodified B&S

    Retrofitted with Fuel Injection

    Test Number

    Grams HC

    Evaporative Emission Reduction Results for Fuel Injected Mower(1-Hour Hot Soak)

    Average Hot Soak Reductions

    0.58383333330.4560.38350.1538

    No Control

    Fluorinated Tank (22%)

    Fluorinated Tank (22%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (12%)

    Fluorinated Tank (22%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (12%) + Controlled Venting (39%)

    Level of Control

    Grams HC

    Average Emission Reductions(Hot Soak)

    Average Diurnal Reductions

    2.87716666671.67966666671.43816666670.8496

    No Control

    Fluorinated Tank (42%)

    Fluorinated Tank (42%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (8%)

    Fluorinated Tank (42%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (8%) + Controlled Venting (28%)

    Level of Control

    Grams HC

    Average Emission Reductions(24-hour Diurnal)

    Diurnal Pie Chart

    1.1975

    0.2415

    0.5885666667

    0.8496

    &L&8jwatson/SORE Project &D&R&"Arial,Bold"&12* Data based on tests of 6 new WBM** Remaining emissions attributed to carburetor

    **

    Distribution of Uncontrolled Evaporative Emissions from WBM(Average of 2.879 grams HC per 24-hour Diurnal Test)

    Hot Soak Pie Chart

    0.1278333333

    0.0725

    0.2297

    0.1538

    &L&8jwatson/SORE Project &D&R&"Arial,Bold"&12* Data based on tests of 6 new WBM** Remaining emissions attributed to carburetor

    **

    Distribution of Uncontrolled Hot Soak Emissions from WBM(Average of 0.585 grams HC per 1-hour Hot Soak Test)

    Diurnal Statistics Summary

    Diurnal Evaporative Emissions Statistical Summary

    Mean0.888

    Standard Error0.039

    Median0.919

    Mode

    Standard Deviation0.117

    Sample Variance0.014

    Kurtosis1.591

    Skewness-1.073

    Range0.380

    Minimum0.643

    Maximum1.023

    Sum7.993

    Count9.000

    Confidence Level(95.0%)0.090

    Upper 95% Confidence Limit0.9780.0764384822

    Lower 95% Confidence Limit0.798

    Normal Distribution

    0.0000000001

    0.0000000245

    0.0000000397

    0.0000000639

    0.0000001023

    0.0000001627

    0.0000002571

    0.0000004036

    0.0000006298

    0.0000009764

    0.0000015043

    0.000002303

    0.0000035036

    0.0000052963

    0.0000079561

    0.0000118762

    0.0000176162

    0.0000259656

    0.0000380314

    0.0000553529

    0.0000800559

    0.000115054

    0.0001643103

    0.0002331756

    0.0003288184

    0.0004607701

    0.0006416045

    0.0008877804

    0.0012206712

    0.0016678109

    0.0022643833

    0.0030549779

    0.0040956346

    0.0054561881

    0.0072229143

    0.0095014654

    0.0124200607

    0.0161328779

    0.0208235597

    0.0267087213

    0.0340413066

    0.0431136057

    0.0542597101

    0.0678571464

    0.0843274008

    0.1041350274

    0.1277850233

    0.1558181618

    0.1888040023

    0.2273313417

    0.2719959475

    0.323385506

    0.3820618446

    0.4485406256

    0.5232688718

    0.606600851

    0.6987730222

    0.799878905

    0.9098448822

    1.0284080537

    1.1550973323

    1.2892189843

    1.4298477708

    1.5758247328

    1.7257624763

    1.878058562

    2.0309172967

    2.1823798629

    2.3303623355

    2.4727007379

    2.6072018993

    2.7316985277

    2.8441066166

    2.9424830931

    3.0250814953

    3.0904034585

    3.1372438939

    3.1647279569

    3.1723382218

    3.159930883

    3.1277402747

    3.0763715097

    3.0067815615

    2.9202496152

    2.8183379704

    2.7028451653

    2.5757532863

    2.4391716128

    2.2952788287

    2.1462659913

    1.9942823081

    1.8413855399

    1.6894985354

    1.5403730447

    1.3955615652

    1.2563975749

    1.1239841269

    0.9991904306

    0.8826557474

    0.7747996934

    0.6758378744

    0.5858016784

    0.5045610206

    0.4318488631

    0.3672864141

    0.3104080296

    0.2606849921

    0.217547507

    0.1804044274

    0.1486603914

    0.1217302045

    0.0990504449

    0.08008838

    0.0643483754

    0.0513760444

    0.0407604284

    0.0321345199

    0.0251744442

    0.0195976034

    0.0151600642

    0.0116534391

    0.0089014793

    0.0067565541

    0.0050961632

    0.0038195869

    0.0028447524

    0.0021053657

    0.0015483374

    0.0011315107

    0.0008216876

    0.0005929387

    0.0004251752

    0.000302957

    0.0002145107

    0.0001509288

    0.0001055237

    0.0000733134

    0.0000506141

    0.0000347228

    0.0000236708

    0.0000160349

    0.0000107938

    0.00000722

    0.000004799

    0.0000031698

    0.0000020804

    0.0000013569

    0.0000008794

    0.0000005663

    0.0000003624

    0.0000002305

    0.0000001456

    0.0000000915

    0.0000000571

    0.0000000354

    0.0000000218

    0.0000000133

    0.0000000081

    0.0000000049

    0.0000000029

    0.0000000018

    0.000000001

    0.0000000006

    0.0000000004

    0.0000000002

    0.0000000001

    0.0000000001

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    &Ljwatson/SORE/Project &D

    Mean - 1.96*0.659 grams hc

    Mean + 1.96*1.112 grams hc

    Mean 0.888 grams hc

    Probability

    Modified WBM Diurnal Emissions

    Probability

    Distribution of 9 WBM Tests

    Data

    Phase IPhase IIPhase II ReductionsPhase IIIPhase III ReductionsPhase IVPhase IV ReductionsPhase VPermeation RedctionsAreaPerm Rate

    MowerHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalB&S #1 (11065890)1.35917711.90

    B&S #1 (11065890)0.5152.8490.4051.4900.1101.3590.3561.1100.0490.3800.1690.6430.1870.467B&S #2 (1108568)1.18317710.36

    0.0000.1180.6950.2380.415

    B&S #2 (1108568)0.6742.5780.3291.3950.3451.1830.3121.1500.0170.2450.3630.926-0.0510.224Tecumseh #1 (74549065120242)1.30315513.03

    0.1460.8100.1660.340Tecumseh #2 (74549065120238)1.53815515.38

    Tecumseh #1 (74549065120242)0.7013.2550.5911.9520.1101.3030.4871.8250.1040.1270.2211.0150.2660.810Honda #1 (MZBZ-6127048)0.99213111.74

    0.1461.0230.3410.802Honda #2 (MZBZ-6127010)0.8101329.51

    Tecumseh #2 (74549065120238)0.7543.5370.7251.9990.0291.5380.5471.8300.1780.1690.1660.9440.3810.886

    Honda #1 (MZBZ-6127048)0.4662.5380.3191.5460.1470.9920.2481.1790.0710.3670.1171.2460.131-0.0670.2941.092Nozzle Well and Bowl Vent Open

    0.1420.8360.1060.3430.3421.324Nozzle Well Closed

    3.7718.293Nozzle and Bowl Vent Closed

    Honda #2 (MZBZ-6127010)0.3932.5060.3671.6960.0260.8100.3511.5350.0160.1610.1120.8770.2390.658

    0.1260.9190.2250.616

    Average0.5842.8770.4561.6800.1281.1980.3841.4380.0620.2420.1430.8690.2000.488

    Std. Dev.0.1460.4290.1650.2500.1170.2630.1120.3380.0630.1090.0200.1260.1240.301

    Min0.3932.5060.3191.3950.2481.1100.1120.643

    Max0.7543.5370.7251.9990.5471.8300.3631.246

    B&S #3 (11065863) Fuel Injection0.2931.622

    B&S #3 (11065863) Fuel Injection0.3801.896

    Hot Soak EmissionsNo ControlFluorinated TankFluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel LineFluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line + Controlled Venting

    B&S #10.520.410.360.17

    B&S #20.670.330.310.15

    Tecumseh #10.700.590.490.15

    Tecumseh #20.750.730.550.17

    Honda #10.470.320.250.14

    Honda #20.390.370.350.11

    Average0.5840.4560.3840.147

    Diurnal EmissionsNo ControlFluorinated TankFluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel LineFluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line + Controlled VentingDiurnal Emissions

    B&S #12.8491.4901.1100.6430.64300.000

    B&S #22.5781.3951.1500.8100.6950.10.000

    Tecumseh #13.2551.9521.8251.0230.9260.110.000

    Tecumseh #23.5371.9991.8300.9440.810.120.000

    Honda #12.5381.5461.1790.8361.0150.130.000

    Honda #22.5061.6961.5350.8771.0230.140.000

    Average2.8771.6801.4380.8560.9440.150.000

    0.8360.160.000

    0.8770.170.000

    Hot Soak EmissionsTypical Unmodified B&SRetrofitted with Fuel Injection0.9190.180.000

    B&S #3 Test #10.5950.292Average0.8690.190.000

    B&S #3 Test #20.5950.380Std. Dev.0.1260.20.000

    0.11932795150.210.000

    Diurnal EmissionsTypical Unmodified B&SRetrofitted with Fuel Injection0.220.000

    B&S #3 Test #12.7141.6210.230.000

    B&S #3 Test #22.7141.8960.240.000

    0.250.000

    0.260.000

    No Control0.5840.270.000

    Fluorinated Tank (22%)0.4560.280.000

    Fluorinated Tank (22%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (12%)0.3840.290.000

    Fluorinated Tank (22%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (12%) + Controlled Venting (39%)0.1540.30.000

    0.310.000

    0.320.000

    No Control2.8770.330.000

    Fluorinated Tank (42%)1.6800.340.000

    Fluorinated Tank (42%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (8%)1.4380.350.001

    Fluorinated Tank (42%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (8%) + Controlled Venting (28%)0.8500.360.001

    0.370.001

    0.380.002

    Uncontrolled Emissions from Average of Representative Mowers0.5840.390.002

    Fuel Tank Permeation (22%)0.1280.40.003

    Fuel Line Permeation (12%)0.0730.410.004

    Fuel Tank Venting (40%)0.2300.420.005

    Cabuertor Venting (26%)0.1540.430.007

    0.440.010

    Uncontrolled Emissions from Average of Representative Mowers2.8770.450.012

    Fuel Tank Permeation (42%)1.1980.460.016

    Fuel Line Permeation (8%)0.2420.470.021

    Fuel Tank Venting (20%)0.5890.480.027

    Cabuertor Venting (30%)0.8500.490.034

    0.50.043

    0.510.054

    0.520.068

    0.530.084

    0.540.104

    0.550.128

    0.560.156

    0.570.189

    0.580.227

    0.590.272

    0.60.323

    0.610.382

    0.620.449

    0.630.523

    0.640.607

    0.650.699

    0.660.800

    0.670.910

    0.681.028

    0.691.155

    0.71.289

    0.711.430

    0.721.576

    0.731.726

    0.741.878

    0.752.031

    0.762.182

    0.772.330

    0.782.473

    0.792.607

    0.82.732

    0.812.844

    0.822.942

    0.833.025

    0.843.090

    0.853.137

    0.863.165

    0.873.172

    0.883.160

    0.893.128

    0.93.076

    0.913.007

    0.922.920

    0.932.818

    0.942.703

    0.952.576

    0.962.439

    0.972.295

    0.982.146

    0.991.994

    11.841

    1.011.689

    1.021.540

    1.031.396

    1.041.256

    1.051.124

    1.060.999

    1.070.883

    1.080.775

    1.090.676

    1.10.586

    1.110.505

    1.120.432

    1.130.367

    1.140.310

    1.150.261

    1.160.218

    1.170.180

    1.180.149

    1.190.122

    1.20.099

    1.210.080

    1.220.064

    1.230.051

    1.240.041

    1.250.032

    1.260.025

    1.270.020

    1.280.015

    1.290.012

    1.30.009

    1.310.007

    1.320.005

    1.330.004

    1.340.003

    1.350.002

    1.360.002

    1.370.001

    1.380.001

    1.390.001

    1.40.000

    1.410.000

    1.420.000

    1.430.000

    1.440.000

    1.450.000

    1.460.000

    1.470.000

    1.480.000

    1.490.000

    1.50.000

    1.510.000

    1.520.000

    1.530.000

    1.540.000

    1.550.000

    1.560.000

    1.570.000

    1.580.000

    1.590.000

    1.60.000

    1.610.000

    1.620.000

    1.630.000

    1.640.000

    1.650.000

    1.660.000

    1.670.000

    1.680.000

    1.690.000

    1.70.000

    1.710.000

    1.720.000

    1.730.000

    1.740.000

    1.750.000

    1.760.000

    1.770.000

    1.780.000

    1.790.000

    1.80.000

    1.810.000

    1.820.000

    1.830.000

    1.840.000

    1.850.000

    1.860.000

    1.870.000

    1.880.000

    1.890.000

    1.90.000

    1.910.000

    1.920.000

    1.930.000

    1.940.000

    1.950.000

    1.960.000

    1.970.000

    1.980.000

    1.990.000

    20.000

  • ** Remaining emissions attributed to carburetor

    Diurnal Reduction Graph

    2.8491.491.110.643

    2.5781.3951.150.81

    3.2551.9521.8251.023

    3.5371.9991.830.944

    2.5381.5461.1790.836

    2.5061.6961.5350.877

    &L&8jwatson/SORE&R&D

    Proposed1.0 Gram DiurnalStandard

    No Control

    Fluorinated Tank

    Fluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line

    Fluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line + Controlled Venting

    Grams HC

    Mower Evaporative Emission Reduction Results(24-Hour Diurnal)

    Hot Soak Reduction Graph

    0.5150.4050.3560.169

    0.6740.3290.3120.146

    0.7010.5910.4870.146

    0.7540.7250.5470.166

    0.4660.3190.2480.142

    0.3930.3670.3510.112

    &L&8jwatson/SORE&R&D

    No Control

    Fluorinated Tank

    Fluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line

    Fluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line + Controlled Venting

    Grams HC

    Mower Evaporative Emission Reduction Results(1-Hour Hot Soak)

    Diurnal FI

    2.71351.621

    2.71351.896

    &L&8jwatson/SORE &D

    Typical Unmodified B&S

    Retrofitted with Fuel Injection

    Test Number

    Grams HC

    Evaporative Emission Reduction Results for Fuel Injected Mower(24-Hour Diurnal)

    Hot Soak FI

    0.59450.292

    0.59450.38

    &L&8jwatson/SORE &D

    Typical Unmodified B&S

    Retrofitted with Fuel Injection

    Test Number

    Grams HC

    Evaporative Emission Reduction Results for Fuel Injected Mower(1-Hour Hot Soak)

    Average Hot Soak Reductions

    0.58383333330.4560.38350.1538

    No Control

    Fluorinated Tank (22%)

    Fluorinated Tank (22%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (12%)

    Fluorinated Tank (22%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (12%) + Controlled Venting (39%)

    Level of Control

    Grams HC

    Average Emission Reductions(Hot Soak)

    Average Diurnal Reductions

    2.87716666671.67966666671.43816666670.8496

    No Control

    Fluorinated Tank (42%)

    Fluorinated Tank (42%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (8%)

    Fluorinated Tank (42%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (8%) + Controlled Venting (28%)

    Level of Control

    Grams HC

    Average Emission Reductions(24-hour Diurnal)

    Diurnal Pie Chart

    1.1975

    0.2415

    0.5885666667

    0.8496

    &L&8jwatson/SORE Project &D&R&"Arial,Bold"&12* Data based on tests of 6 new WBM** Remaining emissions attributed to carburetor

    **

    Distribution of Uncontrolled Evaporative Emissions from WBM(Average of 2.879 grams HC per 24-hour Diurnal Test)

    Hot Soak Pie Chart

    0.1278333333

    0.0725

    0.2297

    0.1538

    &L&8jwatson/SORE Project &D&R&"Arial,Bold"&12* Data based on tests of 6 new WBM** Remaining emissions attributed to carburetor

    **

    Distribution of Uncontrolled Hot Soak Emissions from WBM(Average of 0.585 grams HC per 1-hour Hot Soak Test)

    Diurnal Statistics Summary

    Diurnal Evaporative Emissions Statistical Summary

    Mean0.888

    Standard Error0.039

    Median0.919

    Mode

    Standard Deviation0.117

    Sample Variance0.014

    Kurtosis1.591

    Skewness-1.073

    Range0.380

    Minimum0.643

    Maximum1.023

    Sum7.993

    Count9.000

    Confidence Level(95.0%)0.090

    Upper 95% Confidence Limit0.9780.0764384822

    Lower 95% Confidence Limit0.798

    Normal Distribution

    0.0000000001

    0.0000000245

    0.0000000397

    0.0000000639

    0.0000001023

    0.0000001627

    0.0000002571

    0.0000004036

    0.0000006298

    0.0000009764

    0.0000015043

    0.000002303

    0.0000035036

    0.0000052963

    0.0000079561

    0.0000118762

    0.0000176162

    0.0000259656

    0.0000380314

    0.0000553529

    0.0000800559

    0.000115054

    0.0001643103

    0.0002331756

    0.0003288184

    0.0004607701

    0.0006416045

    0.0008877804

    0.0012206712

    0.0016678109

    0.0022643833

    0.0030549779

    0.0040956346

    0.0054561881

    0.0072229143

    0.0095014654

    0.0124200607

    0.0161328779

    0.0208235597

    0.0267087213

    0.0340413066

    0.0431136057

    0.0542597101

    0.0678571464

    0.0843274008

    0.1041350274

    0.1277850233

    0.1558181618

    0.1888040023

    0.2273313417

    0.2719959475

    0.323385506

    0.3820618446

    0.4485406256

    0.5232688718

    0.606600851

    0.6987730222

    0.799878905

    0.9098448822

    1.0284080537

    1.1550973323

    1.2892189843

    1.4298477708

    1.5758247328

    1.7257624763

    1.878058562

    2.0309172967

    2.1823798629

    2.3303623355

    2.4727007379

    2.6072018993

    2.7316985277

    2.8441066166

    2.9424830931

    3.0250814953

    3.0904034585

    3.1372438939

    3.1647279569

    3.1723382218

    3.159930883

    3.1277402747

    3.0763715097

    3.0067815615

    2.9202496152

    2.8183379704

    2.7028451653

    2.5757532863

    2.4391716128

    2.2952788287

    2.1462659913

    1.9942823081

    1.8413855399

    1.6894985354

    1.5403730447

    1.3955615652

    1.2563975749

    1.1239841269

    0.9991904306

    0.8826557474

    0.7747996934

    0.6758378744

    0.5858016784

    0.5045610206

    0.4318488631

    0.3672864141

    0.3104080296

    0.2606849921

    0.217547507

    0.1804044274

    0.1486603914

    0.1217302045

    0.0990504449

    0.08008838

    0.0643483754

    0.0513760444

    0.0407604284

    0.0321345199

    0.0251744442

    0.0195976034

    0.0151600642

    0.0116534391

    0.0089014793

    0.0067565541

    0.0050961632

    0.0038195869

    0.0028447524

    0.0021053657

    0.0015483374

    0.0011315107

    0.0008216876

    0.0005929387

    0.0004251752

    0.000302957

    0.0002145107

    0.0001509288

    0.0001055237

    0.0000733134

    0.0000506141

    0.0000347228

    0.0000236708

    0.0000160349

    0.0000107938

    0.00000722

    0.000004799

    0.0000031698

    0.0000020804

    0.0000013569

    0.0000008794

    0.0000005663

    0.0000003624

    0.0000002305

    0.0000001456

    0.0000000915

    0.0000000571

    0.0000000354

    0.0000000218

    0.0000000133

    0.0000000081

    0.0000000049

    0.0000000029

    0.0000000018

    0.000000001

    0.0000000006

    0.0000000004

    0.0000000002

    0.0000000001

    0.0000000001

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    &Ljwatson/SORE/Project &D

    Mean - 1.96*0.659 grams hc

    Mean + 1.96*1.112 grams hc

    Mean 0.888 grams hc

    Probability

    Modified WBM Diurnal Emissions

    Probability

    Distribution of 9 WBM Tests

    Data

    Phase IPhase IIPhase II ReductionsPhase IIIPhase III ReductionsPhase IVPhase IV ReductionsPhase VPermeation RedctionsAreaPerm Rate

    MowerHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalB&S #1 (11065890)1.35917711.90

    B&S #1 (11065890)0.5152.8490.4051.4900.1101.3590.3561.1100.0490.3800.1690.6430.1870.467B&S #2 (1108568)1.18317710.36

    0.0000.1180.6950.2380.415

    B&S #2 (1108568)0.6742.5780.3291.3950.3451.1830.3121.1500.0170.2450.3630.926-0.0510.224Tecumseh #1 (74549065120242)1.30315513.03

    0.1460.8100.1660.340Tecumseh #2 (74549065120238)1.53815515.38

    Tecumseh #1 (74549065120242)0.7013.2550.5911.9520.1101.3030.4871.8250.1040.1270.2211.0150.2660.810Honda #1 (MZBZ-6127048)0.99213111.74

    0.1461.0230.3410.802Honda #2 (MZBZ-6127010)0.8101329.51

    Tecumseh #2 (74549065120238)0.7543.5370.7251.9990.0291.5380.5471.8300.1780.1690.1660.9440.3810.886

    Honda #1 (MZBZ-6127048)0.4662.5380.3191.5460.1470.9920.2481.1790.0710.3670.1171.2460.131-0.0670.2941.092Nozzle Well and Bowl Vent Open

    0.1420.8360.1060.3430.3421.324Nozzle Well Closed

    3.7718.293Nozzle and Bowl Vent Closed

    Honda #2 (MZBZ-6127010)0.3932.5060.3671.6960.0260.8100.3511.5350.0160.1610.1120.8770.2390.658

    0.1260.9190.2250.616

    Average0.5842.8770.4561.6800.1281.1980.3841.4380.0620.2420.1430.8690.2000.488

    Std. Dev.0.1460.4290.1650.2500.1170.2630.1120.3380.0630.1090.0200.1260.1240.301

    Min0.3932.5060.3191.3950.2481.1100.1120.643

    Max0.7543.5370.7251.9990.5471.8300.3631.246

    B&S #3 (11065863) Fuel Injection0.2931.622

    B&S #3 (11065863) Fuel Injection0.3801.896

    Hot Soak EmissionsNo ControlFluorinated TankFluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel LineFluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line + Controlled Venting

    B&S #10.5150.4050.3560.169

    B&S #20.6740.3290.3120.146

    Tecumseh #10.7010.5910.4870.146

    Tecumseh #20.7540.7250.5470.166

    Honda #10.4660.3190.2480.142

    Honda #20.3930.3670.3510.112

    Average0.5840.4560.3840.147

    Diurnal EmissionsNo ControlFluorinated TankFluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel LineFluorinated Tank + PermBlok Fuel Line + Controlled VentingDiurnal Emissions

    B&S #12.8491.4901.1100.6430.64300.000

    B&S #22.5781.3951.1500.8100.6950.10.000

    Tecumseh #13.2551.9521.8251.0230.9260.110.000

    Tecumseh #23.5371.9991.8300.9440.810.120.000

    Honda #12.5381.5461.1790.8361.0150.130.000

    Honda #22.5061.6961.5350.8771.0230.140.000

    Average2.8771.6801.4380.8560.9440.150.000

    0.8360.160.000

    0.8770.170.000

    Hot Soak EmissionsTypical Unmodified B&SRetrofitted with Fuel Injection0.9190.180.000

    B&S #3 Test #10.5950.292Average0.8690.190.000

    B&S #3 Test #20.5950.380Std. Dev.0.1260.20.000

    0.11932795150.210.000

    Diurnal EmissionsTypical Unmodified B&SRetrofitted with Fuel Injection0.220.000

    B&S #3 Test #12.7141.6210.230.000

    B&S #3 Test #22.7141.8960.240.000

    0.250.000

    0.260.000

    No Control0.5840.270.000

    Fluorinated Tank (22%)0.4560.280.000

    Fluorinated Tank (22%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (12%)0.3840.290.000

    Fluorinated Tank (22%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (12%) + Controlled Venting (39%)0.1540.30.000

    0.310.000

    0.320.000

    No Control2.8770.330.000

    Fluorinated Tank (42%)1.6800.340.000

    Fluorinated Tank (42%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (8%)1.4380.350.001

    Fluorinated Tank (42%) + PermBlok Fuel Line (8%) + Controlled Venting (28%)0.8500.360.001

    0.370.001

    0.380.002

    Uncontrolled Emissions from Average of Representative Mowers0.5840.390.002

    Fuel Tank Permeation (22%)0.1280.40.003

    Fuel Line Permeation (12%)0.0730.410.004

    Fuel Tank Venting (40%)0.2300.420.005

    Cabuertor Venting (26%)0.1540.430.007

    0.440.010

    Uncontrolled Emissions from Average of Representative Mowers2.8770.450.012

    Fuel Tank Permeation (42%)1.1980.460.016

    Fuel Line Permeation (8%)0.2420.470.021

    Fuel Tank Venting (20%)0.5890.480.027

    Cabuertor Venting (30%)0.8500.490.034

    0.50.043

    0.510.054

    0.520.068

    0.530.084

    0.540.104

    0.550.128

    0.560.156

    0.570.189

    0.580.227

    0.590.272

    0.60.323

    0.610.382

    0.620.449

    0.630.523

    0.640.607

    0.650.699

    0.660.800

    0.670.910

    0.681.028

    0.691.155

    0.71.289

    0.711.430

    0.721.576

    0.731.726

    0.741.878

    0.752.031

    0.762.182

    0.772.330

    0.782.473

    0.792.607

    0.82.732

    0.812.844

    0.822.942

    0.833.025

    0.843.090

    0.853.137

    0.863.165

    0.873.172

    0.883.160

    0.893.128

    0.93.076

    0.913.007

    0.922.920

    0.932.818

    0.942.703

    0.952.576

    0.962.439

    0.972.295

    0.982.146

    0.991.994

    11.841

    1.011.689

    1.021.540

    1.031.396

    1.041.256

    1.051.124

    1.060.999

    1.070.883

    1.080.775

    1.090.676

    1.10.586

    1.110.505

    1.120.432

    1.130.367

    1.140.310

    1.150.261

    1.160.218

    1.170.180

    1.180.149

    1.190.122

    1.20.099

    1.210.080

    1.220.064

    1.230.051

    1.240.041

    1.250.032

    1.260.025

    1.270.020

    1.280.015

    1.290.012

    1.30.009

    1.310.007

    1.320.005

    1.330.004

    1.340.003

    1.350.002

    1.360.002

    1.370.001

    1.380.001

    1.390.001

    1.40.000

    1.410.000

    1.420.000

    1.430.000

    1.440.000

    1.450.000

    1.460.000

    1.470.000

    1.480.000

    1.490.000

    1.50.000

    1.510.000

    1.520.000

    1.530.000

    1.540.000

    1.550.000

    1.560.000

    1.570.000

    1.580.000

    1.590.000

    1.60.000

    1.610.000

    1.620.000

    1.630.000

    1.640.000

    1.650.000

    1.660.000

    1.670.000

    1.680.000

    1.690.000

    1.70.000

    1.710.000

    1.720.000

    1.730.000

    1.740.000

    1.750.000

    1.760.000

    1.770.000

    1.780.000

    1.790.000

    1.80.000

    1.810.000

    1.820.000

    1.830.000

    1.840.000

    1.850.000

    1.860.000

    1.870.000

    1.880.000

    1.890.000

    1.90.000

    1.910.000

    1.920.000

    1.930.000

    1.940.000

    1.950.000

    1.960.000

    1.970.000

    1.980.000

    1.990.000

    20.000

  • Previously Proposed Diurnal Standard for WBMsMaximum allowable diurnal emissions (1.0 grams HC/day)Result must be obtained with a 40 CFR Part 86 compliant SHEDTemperature profile - (65F - 105F - 65 F)Test fuel - California certification fuelFill level - tank will be tested at a 50% Fill LevelDiurnal test must be performed after a 1-hour hot soak test and subsequent 2-hour cold soak at 65 F

  • New ProposalDesign-Based StandardRequires no SHED testing by manufacturersManufacturers not held to a specific numerical standardCertification protocol to be developedARB performs in-use testingDesign Standards would apply to all non-handheld portable equipment

  • Example of Design Requirements for WBMsCertify by designUse or specify a fuel tank that is automatically sealed when equipment is storedUse or specify a fuel tank that meets a prescribed level of treatmentUse or specify a SAE 2260 category 1 low permeation fuel lineUse or specify a tethered fuel cap

  • Our Estimated Costs of Evaporative ControlsCost to Comply with the Permeation Standard ($2.00 - $3.00 per tank)Cost to Comply with the Design-Based Standard ($15.00 per unit)Controlled venting mechanism - ($7.00 - $10.00)Low permeation fuel line ($2.00)Compliant fuel tank ($2.00 - $3.00)We Request Industry Estimates of the Cost to Produce Equipment that Meets the Proposed Design-Based Requirements

  • SORE Emissions Inventory and Anticipated Reductions

    Untreated

    tank volume gallonssurface area square inchesavgerage hc loss grams/daypermeation rate grams/square meter/day

    0.0950.000.195.89

    0.0759.000.256.57

    0.0660.000.215.43

    0.0860.840.256.37

    0.1588.270.376.50

    0.1291.000.559.37

    0.1693.910.284.62

    6.39

    1.48

    0.25106.000.7110.38

    0.25106.000.689.94

    0.25106.000.679.80

    0.25106.000.679.80

    0.25106.000.669.65

    0.25106.000.629.079.77

    0.29131.001.2114.3214.32

    0.38155.000.949.409.4

    0.50170.001.4713.40

    0.25177.001.3111.47

    0.25177.001.2911.30

    0.25177.001.099.55

    0.25177.001.3111.47

    0.25177.001.018.84

    0.25177.001.3912.17

    0.25177.001.2611.0310.83

    0.50189.001.048.53

    10.60

    1.61

    1.40342.001.677.57

    1.75368.001.476.19

    5.0672.003.788.72

    3.901049.003.45.02

    7.51122.001.522.10

    Average5.92

    Std. Dev.2.55

    Fluorinated

    tank volume gallonssurface area square inchesavgerage hc loss grams/daypermeation rate grams/square meter/day

    0.25106.000.131.90

    0.25106.000.213.07

    0.0860.840.051.27

    0.1693.910.010.17

    0.1693.910.030.50

    0.2991.000.010.17

    0.1588.270.010.18

    0.1588.270.203.51

    0.25106.000.071.05

    0.25106.000.101.40

    0.25106.000.030.47

    0.25106.000.010.12

    0.25106.000.030.50

    0.25177.000.010.05

    0.25177.000.010.11

    0.38155.000.040.40

    0.38155.000.040.36

    0.29131.000.030.38

    0.29131.000.030.38

    0.84

    1.00

    Est 2020 Population

    2356902

    3263808

    1583165

    Est. 2020 Population

    Estimated 2020 Population

    Sheet3

    Handheld EquipmentWalk-Behind MowersNon-Handheld Equipment (Excluding WBMs)

    Est. 2020 Population235690232638081583165

    Est. Uncontrolled Emissions3.6723.423.27

    Est. Controlled Emissions2.25.816.98

    Est. Benefit1.4717.5916.29

  • SORE Emissions Inventory and Anticipated Reductions Cont.

    Untreated

    tank volume gallonssurface area square inchesavgerage hc loss grams/daypermeation rate grams/square meter/day

    0.0950.000.195.89

    0.0759.000.256.57

    0.0660.000.215.43

    0.0860.840.256.37

    0.1588.270.376.50

    0.1291.000.559.37

    0.1693.910.284.62

    6.39

    1.48

    0.25106.000.7110.38

    0.25106.000.689.94

    0.25106.000.679.80

    0.25106.000.679.80

    0.25106.000.669.65

    0.25106.000.629.079.77

    0.29131.001.2114.3214.32

    0.38155.000.949.409.4

    0.50170.001.4713.40

    0.25177.001.3111.47

    0.25177.001.2911.30

    0.25177.001.099.55

    0.25177.001.3111.47

    0.25177.001.018.84

    0.25177.001.3912.17

    0.25177.001.2611.0310.83

    0.50189.001.048.53

    10.60

    1.61

    1.40342.001.677.57

    1.75368.001.476.19

    5.0672.003.788.72

    3.901049.003.45.02

    7.51122.001.522.10

    Average5.92

    Std. Dev.2.55

    Fluorinated

    tank volume gallonssurface area square inchesavgerage hc loss grams/daypermeation rate grams/square meter/day

    0.25106.000.131.90

    0.25106.000.213.07

    0.0860.840.051.27

    0.1693.910.010.17

    0.1693.910.030.50

    0.2991.000.010.17

    0.1588.270.010.18

    0.1588.270.203.51

    0.25106.000.071.05

    0.25106.000.101.40

    0.25106.000.030.47

    0.25106.000.010.12

    0.25106.000.030.50

    0.25177.000.010.05

    0.25177.000.010.11

    0.38155.000.040.40

    0.38155.000.040.36

    0.29131.000.030.38

    0.29131.000.030.38

    0.84

    1.00

    Est 2020 Population

    2356902

    3263808

    1583165

    Est. 2020 Population

    Estimated Emissions

    3.672.2

    23.45.81

    23.276.98

    Est. Uncontrolled Emissions

    Est. Controlled Emissions

    Estimated 2020 SORE Emissions TPD

    Sheet3

    Handheld EquipmentWalk-Behind MowersNon-Handheld Equipment (Excluding WBMs)

    Est. 2020 Population235690232638081583165

    Est. Uncontrolled Emissions3.723.423.3

    Est. Controlled Emissions2.25.87.0

    Est. Benefit1.517.616.3

    Handheld EquipmentWalk-Behind MowersNon-Handheld Equipment (Excluding WBMs)

    Est. Uncontrolled Emissions3.723.423.3

    Est. Controlled Emissions2.25.87.0

    Est. Benefit1.517.616.3

  • Untreated

    tank volume gallonssurface area square inchesavgerage hc loss grams/daypermeation rate grams/square meter/day

    0.0950.000.195.89

    0.0759.000.256.57

    0.0660.000.215.43

    0.0860.840.256.37

    0.1588.270.376.50

    0.1291.000.559.37

    0.1693.910.284.62

    6.39

    1.48

    0.25106.000.7110.38

    0.25106.000.689.94

    0.25106.000.679.80

    0.25106.000.679.80

    0.25106.000.669.65

    0.25106.000.629.079.77

    0.29131.001.2114.3214.32

    0.38155.000.949.409.4

    0.50170.001.4713.40

    0.25177.001.3111.47

    0.25177.001.2911.30

    0.25177.001.099.55

    0.25177.001.3111.47

    0.25177.001.018.84

    0.25177.001.3912.17

    0.25177.001.2611.0310.83

    0.50189.001.048.53

    10.60

    1.61

    1.40342.001.677.57

    1.75368.001.476.19

    5.0672.003.788.72

    3.901049.003.45.02

    7.51122.001.522.10

    Average5.92

    Std. Dev.2.55

    Fluorinated

    tank volume gallonssurface area square inchesavgerage hc loss grams/daypermeation rate grams/square meter/day

    0.25106.000.131.90

    0.25106.000.213.07

    0.0860.840.051.27

    0.1693.910.010.17

    0.1693.910.030.50

    0.2991.000.010.17

    0.1588.270.010.18

    0.1588.270.203.51

    0.25106.000.071.05

    0.25106.000.101.40

    0.25106.000.030.47

    0.25106.000.010.12

    0.25106.000.030.50

    0.25177.000.010.05

    0.25177.000.010.11

    0.38155.000.040.40

    0.38155.000.040.36

    0.29131.000.030.38

    0.29131.000.030.38

    0.84

    1.00

    Est 2020 Population

    2356902

    3263808

    1583165

    Est. 2020 Population

    Estimated Emissions

    3.672.2

    23.45.81

    23.276.98

    Est. Uncontrolled Emissions TPD

    Est. Controlled Emissions TPD

    Estimated SORE Emissions

    Emission Benefit

    1.47

    17.59

    16.29

    Est. Benefit TPD

    Estimated 2020 Benefit TPD

    Sheet3

    Handheld EquipmentWalk-Behind MowersNon-Handheld Equipment (Excluding WBMs)

    Est. 2020 Population235690232638081583165

    Est. Uncontrolled Emissions3.6723.423.27

    Est. Controlled Emissions2.25.816.98

    Est. Benefit1.4717.5916.29

    Handheld EquipmentWalk-Behind MowersNon-Handheld Equipment (Excluding WBMs)

    Est. Uncontrolled Emissions TPD3.6723.423.27

    Est. Controlled Emissions TPD2.25.816.98

    Est. Benefit TPD1.4717.5916.29

    Handheld EquipmentWalk-Behind MowersNon-Handheld Equipment (Excluding WBMs)

    Est. Benefit TPD1.517.616.3

  • Next StepsConduct Additional TestingEmission reduction testing with fuel containing ethanoltesting to ascertain barrier durabilityEvaporative emission testing with catalystsDevelopment of wintertime correction factor for the OFFROAD modelDevelop Certification Procedures and AlternativesDevelop Control Measure Cost EstimateDraft Proposed Regulatory Language and Staff Report

  • Current Schedule

    Event or Task

    Target Date

    Additional Testing

    June, 2002

    Draft Regulatory Language

    July, 2002

    Third Workshop

    September, 2002

    Board Consideration

    December, 2002

  • Contacts and Additional Information

    Evaporative Emissions Information

    George Lew

    (916) 327-0900

    glew@arb.ca.gov

    Dean Bloudoff

    (916) 323-1169

    dbloudof@arb.ca.gov

    James Watson

    (916) 327-1282

    jwatson@arb.ca.gov

    Fax

    (916) 322-2444

    Emissions Inventory Information

    Mark Carlock

    (626) 575-6608

    mcarlock@arb.ca.gov

    Archana Agrawal

    (626) 450-6136

    aagrawal@arb.ca.gov

    Walter Wong

    (626) 450-6184

    wwong@arb.ca.gov

    OREFT WEB Page URL

    http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/offroad/sore/sore.htm

  • Conceptual WBM Certification ScenarioEngineManf.Fuel TankManf.Fuel LineOEMCertifies VentingMechanismCertifiesTank @ Level 5Certifies use ofLow Perm Fuel LineOEM Integrator Submits One CertificationApplicationFuel TankTreatmentFacilityARB Approves Design

    SORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop Presentation

    SORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop Presentation

    SORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop PresentationSORE Evaporative Emissions Workshop Presentation

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