Molecules make Cells possible: Sugars for energy Proteins for building structures Lipids for cell membranes DNA/RNA for making more cells ATP for making.

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    25-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Molecules make Cells possible: Sugars for energy Proteins for building structures Lipids for cell membranes DNA/RNA for making more cells ATP for making energy possible
  • Slide 2
  • Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes DNA in single loop Very small No organelles Live in all environments DNA in chromosomes in nucleus Much larger Organelles handle complex cell tasks Live in restricted environments
  • Slide 3
  • Prokaryotic cells are structurally simpler than eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cell Nucleoid region Nucleus Eukar yotic cell Organelles Colorized TEM 15,000 Figure 4.3A
  • Slide 4
  • Surface Area to Volume Ratio A small cell has a greater ratio of sur face area to volume than a large cell of the same shape 30 m 10 m 30 m 10 m Surface area of one large cube 5,400 m 2 Total surface area of 27 small cubes 16,200 m 2 Figure 4.2B
  • Slide 5
  • Eukaryotic cellsplants, fungi, animals, protists Nucleus present Membrane surrounds cell Cell wall may be present (plants, fungi, but NOT animals)
  • Slide 6
  • Plasma membrane Surrounds entire cell Made of two lipid layers Allows certain molecules in/out = selectively permeable
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Nucleuscontrol center
  • Slide 9
  • Cytoskeletoninternal skeleton
  • Slide 10
  • Internal membrane system 3 important membranes : 1.Rough endoplasmic reticulum 2.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 3.Golgi complex
  • Slide 11
  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has a variety of functions: 1.Synthesizes lipids 2.Processes toxins and drugs in liver cells 3.Stores and releases calcium ions in muscle cells
  • Slide 12
  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum makes membrane and proteins Ribosomes on the sur face of the rough ER produce proteins that are secreted, inserted into membranes, or transported in vesicles to other organelles
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Lysosomes are sacs of enzymes that function in digestion within a cell Lysosomes in white blood cells destroy bacteria that have been ingested Lysosomes also recycle damaged organelles
  • Slide 15
  • The various organelles of the endomembrane system are interconnected structurally and functionally
  • Slide 16
  • Moving the cells around 3 ways: 1.Flagellumcell extends cytoplasm into tail-like structure 2.Ciliacell extends small hair-like structures 3.Pseudopodiacell extends itself to move around
  • Slide 17
  • Human cells move too! 1.Lung cells & fallopian tube cells use cilia to move things around. 2.Male sperm cells use a flagellum to get to the egg. 3.White blood cells use pseudopodia to move between other cells and get to where they need to be.
  • Slide 18
  • Organelles Membrane surrounds them Important organelles: Nucleus Cell membrane Lysosomes/peroxisomes Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Special organelles involved in energy: Mitochondrionproduces ATP (in all eukaryotes) In plants and some algae: Chloroplastproduces sugar from light energy
  • Slide 19
  • Mitochondria
  • Slide 20
  • Chloroplast
  • Slide 21
  • Can human diseases result from organelles? Yes! Lysosomes Mitochondria Peroxisomes (in plants) Even Cell Membranes! Aging? Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?
  • Slide 22
  • Quick Review! What are 5 organelles in the cell? In order, what organelles are responsible for moving the products of DNA to the Golgi Complex? What 3 things make up the cell membrane? What are the 4 foundational theories of biology? What are the 4 groups of biologically- important molecules?

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