MobilelearningnewsSpecial issue | 2011www.molenet.org.uk
Consulting | Outsourcing | Research | Technology | Training
Proven eective,sustainable m-learningKey messages from 3 years of MoLeNET
MoLeNET has been a deliberate andsuccessful attempt to move mobilelearning on from research anddevelopment or small scale pilots, to embedding the use of handheldtechnologies into mainstreameducation delivery, enabling learners to benet from some of the transformative eects ofadopting new technologiesexperienced by other sectors.
Over 3 years 40,000 learners andover 7,000 sta have taken part in 104 MoLeNET projects, jointlynanced by the Learning and Skills Council (LSC, a predecessor of the Skills Funding Agency) andparticipating colleges and schools.The projects have been very diversein terms of subjects studied, level ofstudy, abilities and ages of learners,learning context, location, goals andtechnologies used e.g. Smartphones,MP3/4 players, mini notebooks/tablets, Nintendo DS, Sony PSP,voting systems, GPS and scientic/environmental handhelds.
The impact of the projects has beenmonitored by research activitiesembedded into the LSN supportprogramme and into every project.
Research ndings, which have beenvery consistent, provide evidence ofimproved access to resources and
support, more motivated andengaged learners, better attendance,less drop out, improved assessmentprocesses and improved achievement.
Positive impact on teaching has also been witnessed with mobiletechnologies enabling learningactivities to be made more relevant,realistic and personalised. Teachingand learning practices are changingand pedagogy is evolving.
It took some courage and vision for LSC to take a multi-million pound punt on an innovative,relatively new, and unproven,approach to learning. It is atestimony to that vision that threeyears down the line thousands oflearners and teachers in FurtherEducation have been inspired andmotivated, achieved and attendedmore and progressed to higherlevels of provision.Bob Harrison, Toshiba Adviser
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The MoLeNET model forsuccessful embeddingof mobile learning
The MoLeNET model for 2successful embedding of mobile learning
Measuring the impact 3
Eective learner engagement 4and retention
Improving performance and 5achievement
Mobile learning good practice 6
Tried and tested mobile 8learning pedagogy
Eciency and cost eectiveness 9
But is mobile learning 10sustainable?
Looking to the future 11
LSN mobile learning 12
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Infrastructure and start upinvestment
Practitioner led actionresearch
The design of the MoLeNET initiative sought to avoid the experience of toomany previous initiatives and programmes of progress stalling when initialfunding ran out. The result is a proven model for successful introduction andembedding of mobile learning in education settings:
For mobile learning to be sustainableinfrastructure investment, particularlyinvestment in installing or improvingwireless networks, is essential. Thisnot only supports initial handheldhardware but prepares for futuresupport of learners own technologyand reduces dependence on relativelyexpensive mobile data networking.Start up funding for mobiletechnologies provided a low riskopportunity to test a variety oftechnologies with diverse groups oflearners in a variety of contexts and toassess their relative usefulness.
MoLeNET research found evidencethat shared cost funding encouragedgreater feelings of ownership by andbetter engagement with seniormanagement teams. Whilstsupported projects, rather than justprovision of funding for mobiletechnology, ensured that technologypurchase was accompanied byappropriate planning and sucientsta development.
In every phase of MoLeNET LSN Technology for Learning researchers andpractitioner researchers based in participating colleges and schools havecollected and analysed an enormous amount of evidence of the impact ofmobile learning on teaching, learning, learners, teachers and institutions.The following diagram describes the dierent sources of data collected in anevaluation approach which has practitioner-led action research at its heart.
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Knowledge and resource sharingvia www.moleshare.org.uk,www.moletv.org.uk and theMoLeNET Moodle virtual learningenvironment has helped projectsand institutions to learn fromothers experiences and toachieve more, quicker, withouthaving to relearn and reinvent.
Involvement of teaching andtechnical sta is vital at all stages.Training and supporting sta aspractitioner researchers ensuresthat evaluation is built intoprojects together with detailedplanning of what data is requiredto assess impact and how thisdata will be collected. Stadevelopment, both face to faceand on-line, is important for alltypes and levels of sta involved.This is supplemented andstrengthened by mentoring forproject managers andpractitioner researches and bythe work of local champions both technical/pedagogic andmanagement encouraging,enabling and supportingteaching sta whilst they acquirenew skills and condence.
Project overview data
Number of learners,subjects and levels,
technology purchased,learning contexts, aims
and objectives etc.
Learner and teacher voice
Feedback obtained throughthe action research
process; videos shared via www.MoLeTV.org.uk;
LSN SMS quizzes,questionnaires and
Predicted IndividualLearner Record (ILR)data benchmarked
against national actualin year ILR data for the previous year.
Practitioner ledaction research
institutions submitdata and ndingsfrom their formal
Project level evaluation
Project managementreports from theprojects, BectaGenerator and m-Maturity self
assessment tools data.
Case studies,resources and lesson
Good practice shared via
LSN training and support
All project data andndings collated,
analysed andsynthesised by LSN
The experience of MoLeNET colleges and schools is that mobile learning hasplayed a major role in motivating, engaging and reengaging learners. This isparticularly the case for learners previously considered disengaged, hard-to-reachor hard-to-teach, including young people classied as NEET (not in education,employment or training) but has also been reported for other groups.
Year 3 projects comment on the impact of mobile learning on engagement,behaviour, attitudes and retention
Improvements in learnerengagement and participationhave been found to lead toimprovements in attendanceand better retention of learners.Improved engagement andparticipation have resulted from:
improved personalisation andrelevance of learning activitieswhere each learner has easyaccess to a personal ICT devicein any learning situation
better support, morecommunication and quickerfeedback from tutors
more interactive and student-ledlearning experiences
use of technologies studentsare familiar with, enjoy usingand associate with lifeoutside of education
learners perceiving mobilelearning as not like schooland feeling better supportedby the institution
easier integration of morerelevant key skills and languageskills into vocational coursesand workbased learning
increased opportunities forrevising material learners nddicult or complex and theability to do this discretely
immediate access to web based information or virtuallearning environment materialswhen and where relevant
Learner retention Each year MoLeNET colleges have submitted Individual Learner Record (ILR) datato LSN for learners involved in MoLeNET.
This data has been compared with national actual in year ILR data and noticeabledierences have been found, suggesting a positive impact on learner retention.
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Eective learner engagementand retention
Improves learner attendance
improves learner retention
Makes learning more enjoyable
Makes learners feel valued
Improves learner behaviour
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
MoLeNET 2009/10 compared with ILR 2008/09
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
PercentageMoLeNET in year retention rate
National ILR in year retention rate
We have used the mobile devices in 2 dierent areas, businessadministration and nance and NEET (not in education, employmentor training) and in both areas, the engagement of students wassignicantly higher than with traditional teaching techniques. Head of Learning Development, City College Plymouth, MoLeNET year 3
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In each year of MoLeNET projects have reported perceived and evidencedimprovements in learner performance, success and achievement.
Year 3 projects comment on the impact of mobile learning on learnerperformance
Contributory factors leading to improvements in work andresults include being able towork in dierent ways,development of more ecientlearning habits and increasedself condence sometimesresulting from recognition oftheir knowledge of and skills inusing mobile technologies.
Use of mobile technologies hasimproved access to resourcesoutside the institution,including web based andpreloaded resources andpod/vodcasts helping learnersto consolidate, recap andrevise. Also learners withspecic needs have receivedpersonalised extra support viamobile technologies enablingthem to overcome barriers totheir learning.
Improving performance and achievement
Improves learner achievement
Improves learner progression
Enables learners to learn more quickly
Enables learners to complete a higher standard of work
Helps learners to retain knowledge more effectively
Enables learners to complete coursework more quickly
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Learner achievement Each year MoLeNET colleges submitted ILR data to LSN including predictedachievement data for learners involved in MoLeNET.
This data has been compared with national actual in year ILR data andnoticeable dierences in achievement rates have been observed.
MoLeNET 2009/10 compared with ILR 2008/09
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
MoLeNET in year achievement rate
National ILR in year achievement rate
Learners who have been seenas traditionally low achievershave for the rst time beenseen as the best at something.For example,an ESOL learnerwhose level of literacy andspeaking was very poorproduced the best narratedvideo as part of a MoLeNETproject. The learner waspraised and has grown incondence because of this. Deputy Principal, Ealing, Hammersmithand West London College
Please note: the MoLeNET gures are based on predicted not actual ILRgures. It has also not been possible to control for the many factors otherthan the introduction of mobile learning which may improve achievement.Some projects reported that retention and achievement improvementstrategies were running in parallel with MoLeNET. Initiatives that involverethinking delivery may lead to improvements in achievement whether ornot they involve new technologies.
Learners with learning dicultiesand/or disabilities have usedmainstream mobile technologies tosupport their learning and have alsobeneted from specialist deviceswith capabilities such as text tospeech to support communicationand talking photo albums tofacilitate independent travel.
Learners have used the NintendoDS to access games to supportliteracy and numeracy developmentand to communicate with peers andteaching sta via PictoChat , posingand answering questions andengaging in discussion
They have used the DSi and Sony PSP to video themselves andothers for reection and instructionand to access the internet forresearch purposes.
The Nintendo Wii has helpedlearners to access exercise andphysiotherapy opportunities and togenerate data (e.g. games scores)for analysis to support development of maths skills.
We have been using theNintendo DS devices in class tosupport literacy and numeracy,the January exam results wereout last week and they have beenfantastic for these students.Some students are now movingon to level 2 work which is anamazing achievement. Teacher, Ashton Sixth Form College, MoLeNET year 2
Learners use netbooks and UltraMobile PCs both in and outside ofthe classroom to:
access learning resources
complete online assessments;conduct research on the internet;type up notes
create presentations and posters;edit images and videos
upload evidence of their learning;share their work with teachers andassessors
communicate with peers andteaching sta through email, Skypeand social networks
Its been a revolution over the last 3 years of being involved inMoLeNET and using mobiletechnology. We have learners now that, if it hadnt been for thedevelopment of mobile technology,would still be reliant on support.Director of College Development National Star College, MoLeNET year 2.
Mobile learning good practiceThis section provides examples of how different mobile technologies have been used for teaching and learning in MoLeNET. Many more case studies and teaching ideas can be found at www.moleshare.org.uk
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Learners have used Smartphones to:
download educational Apps
access resources on the internet
communicate with peers andteaching sta via voice and textmessage
organise their work using thecalendar and notes functions
get involved in location based andaugmented reality learning usingGPS and QR codes.
They have used Smartphones andMP4 players to:
collect images and audio and videoevidence of their work
reect on their progress
follow instructional videos
access and create educationalpodcasts and vodcasts
Various scientic devices such asdata loggers and GPS equipmenthave been used by learners outsideof the classroom to collect and logdata to work on either in the eld orback in the classroom; to locatespecic points geographically; totake scientic and environmentalmeasurements for later analysis.
A breakthrough that has beenhighly motivating for Mike has beenaccess to an iPhone project at thecollege. The iPhone acted like arework igniting an interest incommunicating via text message.This style of communication doesnot require vowels or spelling rulesand has visibly widened his socialhorizons. Teacher, Loughborough College, MoLeNET year 3
Handheld voting systems havebeen used by learners to respond toquizzes and assessments, enablingthe learner to respond privatelywithout feeling self conscious, butstill allowing the teacher to collectindividual learner data.
The devices have given us aneective tool to engage withpotentially disaected learners and therefore to optimise theirpotential.
For example students on theplumbing courses becamebored with undertaking paperbased revision tests. By adaptingand using Activexpression, therevision became vibrant andengaging with a resultingincrease in achievement.Practitioner Researcher, Gloucestershire College,MoLeNET year 2
my iPod its just tiny in my pocket and I can just listen to it and nobody would know I was listening to stu about psychology or biology they would just think I was listening to normal music so it doesnt matter so I dont look like an idiot when Im revising 24/7. Learner, New College Swindon, MoLeNET year 1
Tried and tested mobile learning pedagogyResearch findings from MoLeNET indicate that mobile technologies are changingteaching and learning practices and that teaching strategies and pedagogy are evolving.
8 Mobile learning news
Evidence of good practice over thepast three years has highlightedsome of these changes. In yearthree MoLeNET projects teachingsta were asked to reect on theimpact of mobile technologies ontheir teaching and the way in whichlessons are conducted comparedwith the way they have previouslytaught specic sessions.
The following changes wereidentied:
more learner-led learning andactivities
increases in learners workingindependently
learners creating learning materials and resources
more informal learning
more opportunities for teachers to personalise the learningexperience to suit the learningstyles or preferences of individuallearners, including creating morekinaesthetic, auditory and visuallearning opportunities
Mobile technologies haveenhanced the learning processby transforming learners from passive recipients ofinformation to activeconstructors of knowledge.Practitioner Researcher Exeter consortium
Teachers noted that whilst a commoncriticism of e-learning delivered via PCs is that it can be isolating,
mobile technologies appear toencourage and provide moreopportunities for learners to workcollaboratively. This may help toexplain noted improvements inteamwork skills and social interaction.
It has been suggested that mobilelearning may result in quitesupercial learning and istherefore best suited to reviewingand revising. However over 60% ofteaching sta who respondedindicated a belief that mobilelearning can result in deep levelunderstanding and learning
The sophistication of thelearning activities that thelearners have been able toengage in has been a huge stepforward. I would say it has beentransformational full stop.Director of ILT, Bedford College
Whilst few teachers reportedchanging the layout of classroomfurniture as a result of introducingmobile technologies, mostteachers reported an increase inthe amount of teaching andlearning happening outside of theclassroom and beyond college orschool premises.
Also in year 3 almost half (45%) ofprojects reported that, following theintroduction of mobile learning,improvements were observed inlesson observation grades. Sixprojects reported that inspectioncomments highlightedimprovements in teaching andlearning and for three projects thiswas reected in improvements intheir Ofsted inspection grades.
Some key questions which require further consideration and discussion are:
How can teaching sta be supportedto become facilitators of mobilelearning processes and to have the condence to encouragelearners to take a leading role?
How can current curricula cope with the degree of informal learningthat mobile technologies enable?
How will informal learning and learner expertise in creatinglearning materials be recognisedand assessed?
How can the creation and sharing of good quality learning materialsand resources be supported andwhat does good quality mean in this context t for purpose ratherthan high production values?
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Learners have been able to collectevidence of their learning and skillsacquisition at a time and in a formatthat suits them and the learningcontext. This has enabled gatheringof evidence more quickly and easily,and often to a higher standard.Submitting evidence electronicallyhas also saved time. Assessors havebeen able to review evidence andprovide feedback electronically, thussaving travel time for observationsand face-to-face feedback. In somecases learners have been able tocomplete elements of their coursesmore quickly and as a resultinstitutions have been able torestructure courses making themmore ecient.
The Manchester consortiumeciency observations
Digital notepads have saved someassessors a huge amount of timebecause they have been able tohandwrite their observations andwitness statements whilst in theworkplace. As the digital notepadsdirectly convert the handwrittendocuments to electronic formats,assessors have not had to re-typetheir statements and have beenable to upload their work straight tothe ePortfolio system. This newprocess of using digital notepadswith the ePortfolio has saved someof the assessors hours of work
spent on typing and printingdocuments to be included in thetraditional portfolio systems. Thecombined use of the netbooks andphones has enabled the assessorsto access electronic portfolios withthe candidates during their visits.This had been an issue when thecandidates did not have access tothe Internet during assessmentvisits. Having this facility also meansthat the staff can work on portfoliosbetween visits and whilst travelling(e.g. on trains), which again, hasbeen a time saving measure.
Candidates have been able to takecontrol of their learning and havenot had to wait for around 2 weeksfor their work to be assessed and forconfirmation to be received fromtheir assessors in order to progressto the next stage. This level ofcandidate efficiency has only beenattained because of the provision ofaccess to useful technologies whichaid instant communication e.g.netbooks and wireless Internet.This highlights another efficiencygain from the project in respect ofthe reduction in the frequency ofvisits; as the less frequent the visits,the more the savings on travel costs.The fact that candidates have beenable to complete their units fasterimplies that there is a potential forincreased numbers of candidateenrolments.
At Chestereld College, time andmoney have been saved sinceintroducing mobile technologies inthe motor vehicle department as therehave been fewer exam re-sits. Statime for invigilation and administrationtime and costs for setting up examrooms has been saved.
Access to learning resources viamobiles has reduced the problem of oversubscribed IT suites in manycollegesThe National Star consortiumreported that increases in learnersaccessing learning remotely hasreduced classroom use makingsavings in light and heating costs.
Royal Forest of Dean Collegereported reduced printing costs.This appears to be due to learnersbeing able to access the internet viatheir mobile devices wherever theyare, thus reducing the need to printout and carry around web pagesaccessed on desktop computers.
Eciency and costeectivenessMoLeNET projects have reported that mobile technologies have enabled staff andlearners to save time and money and increase productivity in a number of ways.
This project facilitated a very dierent perspective and that is very muchfocused now on our strategic theme of sustainability in teaching andlearning. It has reduced our carbon footprint and reduced travelling time. Deputy Principal, Hull College
The positive impact of mobiletechnologies on teaching, learning,learners and institutions has beenillustrated and rates of damage,loss and theft of mobile devicespurchased by MoLeNET projectshave totalled less than 1% .However mobile technologies arecontinuing to evolve very quickly,necessitating continuous updatingfor sta and an on-goingrequirement for creation of newlearning materials and activities.
In the second year of MoLeNETprojects were asked to consider alist of possible actions or strategiesthat could make mobile learningsustainable and over half agreedthat the following ideas could help:
Encouraging and enabling learnersto use their own mobile technologiesfor learning
Improving the range and/orcapacity of wireless networks
Making a mobile device one of thethings learners receive in return forcourse fees
More investment bycolleges/schools in mobiletechnologies for the institutionand/or for individual students
Enabling learners to purchasemobile technologies through thecollege/ school paying byinstalments
Switching some college/schoolinvestment from desktop to mobiletechnologies
In the third year projects wereasked to indicate whichsustainability strategies they hadimplemented. Most reported thatthey had set up a device loansystem enabling learners andteachers to borrow equipment. Oneproject had allowed learners to pay the institution for mobiletechnologies in instalments andtwo reported incorporating the costof a mobile device into course fees.
A third of projects said they hadreplaced some investment indesktop computers with purchaseof more mobile technologies andover half (57%) reported that theyare now encouraging and enablinglearners to bring in and use theirown mobile technologies.
Several projects reported greatenthusiasm by learners for usingtheir own technology. Smartphonesand netbooks have been used toaccess the college VLE, download
and bluetooth resources, receiveand send learning related SMSmessages, submit and receivefeedback, receive timetable andother information and accessinformation or resources via QR codes.
MoLeNET has made it easier for usto get students to use their owndevices and that is where it has had a big impact. I think before the MoLeNET project, we had about150 students using the devices on a limited, trial basis and we nowhave about 900 students usingtheir devices. Deputy Principal, John Leggott Sixth Form College
Colleges and schools felt that therewill still be a need to provideequipment for learners who do nothave their own mobile devices andthat this will be a key area to focuson in promoting sustainable mobilelearning. 71% of macro projectsreported using the institutions ownbudget to purchase additionalmobile technologies.
Many projects noted that robustand accessible infrastructure is akey requirement for continuing andexpanding mobile learning in thefuture and 62% of macro projectsreported that they had alreadyinvested some of their institutionsown budget to upgrade wirelessnetworks.
Sixty institutions previouslyinvolved in MoLeNET responded toa recent survey and 80% of thesereported that they plan to use theirown budgets to fund further mobilelearning in future.
But is mobile learningsustainable?
10 Mobile learning news
Special issue 2011 11
In the rst two years there were a number of strong concernsexpressed about exactly how thiscould be achieved without furtherexternal funding. However by theend of the third year institutionswere mostly more optimistic aboutthe likelihood of investing their ownresources in mobile learning. Thiscan be explained by a perceptionthat mobile learning now has a trackrecord of benetting teaching andlearning, learners and institutions.Therefore solutions are being foundto overcome funding barriers.
An independent researchercommissioned by LSN interviewedsenior managers at colleges andschools involved in MoLeNET years 2and 3 about the sustainability ofmobile learning and concluded:
Last year, many organisationsexpressed concerns over theirability to fund future mobile learningdevelopment to the extent theywould like. However, this year, wedetected a more proactive approachnow that the benets of mobilelearning have been proven and stahave become much more engagedwith the technology, to the extentthat the demand is coming from thesta. As a result of extensivetraining and an overall change inattitudes, sta are more prepared toembrace the use of new technologyfor teaching and learning. Barbara Lees, Force4Enterprise
Encouraging and enabling learnersto use their own technologies andusing internal funds to developappropriate infrastructure seems tobe something that institutions arerecognising as key for the future ofmobile learning. MoLeNET phase 3projects have also identied a needfor continuous development andconvenient deployment of appropriatemobile learning materials to ensurefuture sustainability.
A sustainable approach for us ismaking relevant and engagingresources available in a range ofdierent media formats which canbe accessed on the mobile devicesin learners' own pockets. From ourperspective one of the rst steps inrealising this ambition has beenthe setting up of an institutionalmedia streaming service using thesoftware solution developed byLSN for MoLeTV. Practitioner Researcher, Chesterfield College,MoLeNET year 3
Can suppliers and policymakers help?Some MoLeNET projects haveexpressed hopes that broadbandproviders and mobile technologysuppliers could work more eectivelywith the education system in thefuture as broadband and mobiledata costs and smartphone pricescan be a barrier for learners.
What would be very, very usefulwould be some strong frameworkagreements being put in place thatwere suitable for the educationsector with the network serviceproviders... that was one of thestruggles, their business objectiveswere in some cases very much atodds with what we really felt wouldbe to the benet of learners.Director of ILT, Bedford College
Many suppliers, whilst beingenthusiastically engaged, were notable to provide much direct support.It is becoming accepted practicethat suppliers of desktopworkstations and printers nowinclude the free collect and return ofredundant or replacementworkstations as part of supplyingnew equipment. This is an attractiveincentive but no supplier of mobiletechnology oered this facilityduring the course of the projectprocurement process.Project Manager, Gloucestershire consortium
Looking to the futureEvery year LSN have asked MoLeNET institutions whether they intend to continuemobile learning in the future and the answer has always been a resounding yes!
Mobile teaching andlearning inspirations and ideas
Parker,G and Petley, R
Teaching sta taking partin the third phase ofMoLeNET contributed anumber of simple triedand tested mobileteaching and learningideas, and these havebeen collated into thisbook. There are 95examples and ideas,spanning a range ofprogramme areas andutilising a variety ofhandheld technologies.
Work-based and vocationalmobile learning MakingIT work
Douch R, Savill-Smith C,Parker G and Attewell J
This publication includesmore than 40 case studiesfocusing on the use ofmobile technologies in thecontext of work-based andvocational learning. Theprojects that generatedthese case studies werepart of years one(2007/08) and two(2008/09) of the MoLeNETinitiative.
Modernising educationand training: Mobilisingtechnology for learning
Attewell J, Savill-Smith C,Douch R and Parker G
In recent years there havebeen amazing advances inconsumer technology. TheMoLeNET initiative hasenabled colleges andschools to harness someof this technology in orderto modernise aspects ofteaching, learning andtraining. The result hasbeen improvements inlearner engagement,retention, achievementand satisfaction. Thispublication draws on theexperiences of the 11,253learners and 2261teachers involved in the2nd year of MoLeNET andreports the ndings ofresearch which soughtevidence of the impact ofintroducing mobiletechnologies for learning.
Games technologies forlearning more than toys
Douch R, Attewell J andDawson D
Many MoLeNET projectshave utilised gamestechnologies, includinghandheld Sony PSPs andNintendo DSs and theNintendo Wii, to supportteaching and learning.This publication exploresthe benets of gamebased learning and theadditional functionalityoered by gamestechnologies. Thirty vecase studies andsnapshots from MoLeNETprojects illustrate the waysin which teachers andlearners have used gamestechnologies, both insideand outside of theclassroom, and describethe benets realised.
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Please visit www.moleshare.org.uk to read or download a detailed report of the ndings of MoLeNET year 3 research. This site also contains useful mobile learning resources, case studies, lesson plans, links and information.
For mobile learning advice and for more information aboutMoLeNET, mobile learning, LSNs technology enhancedlearning research and LSNs mobile learning products andservices please email firstname.lastname@example.org or callRebecca Petley +44 (0)20 7492 5174.
Mobile teaching andlearning inspirationsand ideas
LSN mobile learning researchpublications The following publications are recent outputs from the LSN MoLeNET Support andEvaluation Programme. They describe research findings and provide practical examplesand ideas for practitioners and institutions wishing to implement mobile learning.