Mixed Marriages: Can the Problem Be Solved?
Fortnight Publications Ltd.Mixed Marriages: Can the Problem Be Solved?Source: Fortnight, No. 108 (Jul. 4, 1975), pp. 4-7Published by: Fortnight Publications Ltd.Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25545464 .Accessed: 28/06/2014 18:26Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp .JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. .Fortnight Publications Ltd. is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Fortnight.http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Sat, 28 Jun 2014 18:26:19 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=fortpubhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/25545464?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp4/FORTNIGHT > ?????' I ? ' ?? ?????????? III IH. I ??? I .I. I ii ??I II I II ?i?? , Mixed Marriages: Can the Problem Be Solved? The clash of personalities between Father Des Wilson and Bishop Philbin has obscured the more important issues which lie beneath Father Wilson's resignation. The most important of these is the need in the present political situation far the Roman Catholic Church to give leadership to its members on the vexed issues of mixed marriage and segregated education. In this issue we look in depth at the position of each of the main churches on mixed marriages, and at the real and irrational fears of the Protestant community North and South of the border. . . . A * * * * 1. The Problem The issue of mixed marriage and separate education has arisen in every country where there are substantial Roman Catholic and Protestant communities. The fundamental prob lem is the claim of the Roman Catholic Church to be the one true Church; in the words of Father Devine in a recent article on mixed marriage (Reality, May 1975), 'God's plan for the salvation of mankind through his Church, which subsists only in its fullness in the Roman Catholic Church' imposes an obligation of divine law on the Catholic to bring up his children as Catholics. This law, as explained by the recent International Consultation on Mixed Marriage held in Dublin last autumn, is not created by the Pope's decrees but merely given human and practical effect by them. Protestant denominations make no, such claim to exclusive religious truth and find it impossible to accept the Roman Catholic position. It is this basic clash which has prevented any real progress being made at the Ballymascanlon talks. The Roman Catholic position has been eased in recent years, as shown in the panel opposite, but it is still a rule of the Church that any' Roman Catholic must have permission from his or her bishop before entering into a marriage with a non-Catholic, whether in a Catholic church or anywhere else. If he or she proceeds to get married in a registry office or in a Protestant church without permission the marriage is not recognised by the Roman Catholic Church, and the Roman Catholic is technically living in sin, and may be debarrred from communion and other benefits of church membership. The problem in Ireland has been made worse by the extremely conservative attitude taken by many Roman Catholic bishops on the granting of dispensations, particularly in the Cork diocese under Bishop Lucy and to a lesser extent in Down and Connor under Bishop Philbin. In areas like these a written undertaking may still be required from the Catholic party to secure the promise which is required under Canon Law about the education of the children. The only ground on which a dispensation will be readily granted allowing the Roman Catholic to be married in a Protestant Church is when the Protestant party is son or daughter of a clergyman. Before any dispensation is granted, even if the marriage is to take place in the Roman Catholic Church, the priest must fill in the form printed opposite, which requires him to report on the likelihood of the Catholic's promises being carried out. 2 Protestant fears Protestants' reaction to this attitude is a mixture of annoyance and fear. They are annoyed at the inconsisten cies of the Roman Catholic position which adopts broad statements about freedom of conscience and mutual respect, as in Vatican II and even in the report of the Ballymascanlon Con ference, but seems in practice to deny the equal rights of the Catholic and Protestant partners. And they are afraid that the results of the'hard line attitude of the Roman Catholic Church on granting dispensation will be a progressive weakening of the Protestant community both North and South of the border. It is is this fear which in the words of the Irish Foreign Minister, Dr Garret FitzGerald speaking to the International Consul tation last September, makes the issue of mixed marriages one of the most divisive in Protestant/Catholic rela tions both in the Republic and in Northern Ireland. In the Republic the fear is very simply that the Protestant community will slowly and inexorably be extinguished, a fear which is expressed primarily by Church of Ireland ministers. The plain figures are hard to contest on this issue: in 1901 there were 343,000 Protestants in the Twenty Six Counties; in 1961 the figure had declined to a mere 144,000 and appeared to be dropping by upwards of 10% each decade. In an important article in 1971, on Religion THE CHURCH OF IRELAND POSITION: INSTRUCTION TO CLERGY FROM THE HOUSE OF BISHOPS, JANUARY 1975 /. Initially there should be consultation with both partners of the intended marriage. At this consultation the Church of Ireland doctrine of Holy Matrimony should be explained, and it should be clearly indicated that the marriage can be solemnised in a Church of Ireland Church according to the rites prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer, with all legal and spiritual propriety, and without the requirement of any prior promises concerning the baptism and upbringing of any children ofthe marriage. 2. Further, where possible, there should be joint consultation involving both partners with the respective Church of Ireland and Roman Catholic clergy in which assurance should be sought that the 'pro viribus' clause in the Motu Proprio regulations .. . will not be interpreted as to exclude the partners from exercising freely their responsibility in conscience regarding the baptism and upbringing of any children ofthe marriage. 3. At this joint consultation arrangements for the joint pastoral care of the family should be discussed and agreed by the respective clergy, recognising the equal responsibility of both churches and the equal responsibility of both partners for the religious upbringing of the children. 4. If the partners freely decide to be married in a Church of Ireland Church . . . the Church of Ireland clergyman may, in consultation with the partners . . . invite the clergyman ofthe Roman Catholic partner to assist in the marriage ceremony, remember ing that the administration ofthe vows must be reserved in all cases . .. to the Church of Ireland clergyman. If the partners decide freely to be married in a Roman Catholic church and the Church of Ireland clergyman be invited to take part in the marriage service he should accept such invitation only if the assurance sought in section 2 is given and if the arrangement for joint pastoral care in section 3 is agreed. ^ ^ ^ VHHHB This content downloaded from 184.108.40.206 on Sat, 28 Jun 2014 18:26:19 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspFRIDAY 4th JULY 1975/5 I- -' and Demographic Balance in Ireland Brendan Walsh isolated four main factors in the decline of the Protestant population in the Republic: high age, low fertility and marriage rates, and the mixed marriage phenomenon. By 1975 he had amended his position somewhat in claiming that mixed marriages as such have not had an important impact on Protestant birthrates. But his original view is supported by a study of what happens in mixed marriages in the Ferns diocese in the Wexford area. In 1973 H W Robinson published a very detailed study of the Church of Ireland community in the diocese which showed that of the 94 children of the 61 mixed marriages covered in the study 86 were being brought up as Roman Catholics and only eight as Protestants. Whether these figures are the natural result of a small minority community intermarrying with a majority community or are directly due to the Roman Catholic position on mixed marriages is arguable. But the Protestant community in the Republic certainly feels itself to be at risk, particularly in rural areas, and the conservative attitude of the Roman Catholic hierarchy seems to many to be deliberately geared towards continuing the process of absorption. 3, The Northern position Fears of the extinction of the Protestant community in Northern Ireland are clearly irrational. But the equally emotive fear that Roman Catholics will increase sufficiently to outvote the Unionists is quite enough to make mixed marriages an even more divisive issue than in the South. The figures which are available do not suggest that this is a very rational fear, at least in the short term. In the country areas, as exemplified by the Roman Catholic diocese of Armagh, the proportion of mixed marriages celebrated in Roman Catholic churches is relatively low: between 1971 it declined from just over 5% to 3% of all Roman Catholic marriages. In Belfast and other urban areas the figure is almost certainly higher; in some parishes it has been estimated that up to 25% of marriages in Roman Catholic churches are mixed, though the overall figure is probably more like 10% of 15%. In contrast the proportion of mixed marriages celebrated in Protestant churches is much lower, as indicated by the Church of Ireland figure for Antrim, Down and Belfast, in 1974, of a mere THE ROMAN CATHOLIC POSITION: MATRIMONIA MIXTA (1970) (Extracts from Reality, May 1975) The Roman Catholic attitude to mixed marriage is often but inaccurately referred to as the Ne Temere decree. This decree was originally issued by Pope Pius IX in 1907 and was primarily directed against secret marriages by Roman Catholics; to discourage this it declared that all Roman Catholics were ipso facto excommunicated if they attempted marriage before a non-Catholic minister. This was later incorporated in the Code of Canon Law of 1918, which prescribed the following requirements for mixed marriages: (a) The non-Catholic pam> had to guarantee to remove the danger of perversion ofthe Catholic party. (b)Both parites had to give guarantees to baptise and educate the children in the Roman Catholic faith alone, (c) There had to be moral certainty that these guarantees would be fulfilled, which was usually secured by demanding the promises in writing, (di The Catholic was bound to strive with prudence to convert the non-Catholic. In 1966 a new instruction, Matrimonii Sac ramentum, was issued by Pope Paul VI. Under this the Catholic party was to be instructed on the serious obligation of baptising the children and bringing them up in the Roman Catholic faith, and had to make an express promise to do so; the non-Catholic was to be informed of the Catholic's obligation and had to promise . sincerely hot to put any obstacle in the way of its fulfilment, a promise normally given in writing; if the non-Catholic could not in conscience make such a promise the matter was to be referred to Rome. In 1970 Pope Paul issued his Motu Proprio Matrimonia Mixta which modified still further the conditions of dispensation under which the Catholic is permitted to marry a non-Catholic under the Code of Canon Law: (a) The'Catholic party must declare himself ready to remove all dangers to his own faith. (b) He must promise to do all in his power to have the children baptised and educated in the Roman Catholic Church. . (c) The non-Catholic is to be informed of these obligations of the Catholic, but he himself is not required to make any promise. This rule is currently enforced in Northern Ireland by requiring the priest who is approached about a mixed marriage to complete the following form which is sent to the Bishop of the diocese who may then grant the. necessary dispensation. FORM OF APPLICATION FOR 1 DISPENSATION FOR MIXED MARRIAGES' My Lord Bishop, I request permission so that., a Catholic, aged.of the Parish of..may lawfully and validly marry.not a Catholic, who was baptised in the.denomination/has not been baptised. These two people have known each other for about. They first came to make arrangements for marriage on.-. and they would like the marriage to take place in the Church of .on.at. The required instructions have been given; the Prenuptial Enquiry form has been completed; and I have established their freedom to marry. The Catholic has made the following declaration and promise I DECLARE THAT I SHALL REMAIN STEADFAST IN THE CATHOLIC FAITH AND THAT I SHALL GUARD AGAINST ALL DANGERS OF FALLING AWAY FROM IT. ALSO I SINCERELY PROMISE TO DO EVERYTHING POSSIBLE TQ ENSURE THAT ALL THE CHILDREN BORN OF OUR MARRIAGE WILL BE BAPTISED IN THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND CAREFULLY BROUGHT UP IN THE KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF THE CATHOLIC RELIGION. Signed.Date. This declaration and promise has been explained by me/ and by the Catholic Party to the non-Catholic Party, whose reaction was. I think the likelihood ofthe children being baptised and brought up as Catholics is very good/good/slight. I am satisfied that the ends and essential properties of marriage, particularly its indissolubility, are not being excluded by either party. The circumstances ofthe case and the reasons why I recommend this request are. Signature of priest. Date. People in need of Advice and Assistance may contact the NORTHERN IRELAND MIXED MARRIAGE ASSOCIATION c/o 8 Upper Crescent, Belfast BT7 INT. Telephone 25008 This content downloaded from 220.127.116.11 on Sat, 28 Jun 2014 18:26:19 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp6/FORTNIGHT _ BALLYMASCANLON INTER-CHURCH MEETING Report of Working Party on Social and Community Problems MIXED MARRIAGES ! Yb. As long as our Churches remain divided Mixed Marriages will bring tensions, both for the marriage partners and their children. The acuteness of these tensions and of the problems they create is likely to be in proportion to the depths of the divisions between the respective Churches and the degree of Commitment felt toward their teachings and disciplines by the parties concerned. | 2. In some Mixed Marriages the members I have indeed found an enriched sense of j mutual respect and responsibility which has strengthened rather than weakened personal i faith and the Church allegiance of each party. In other cases such marriages have led I to a weakening or even loss of personal faith i and Church allegiance, bringing with it grave harm to the spiritual welfare^ of the children. Out of their experience, both the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches in Ireland continue to advise their members about the difficulties inherent in a mixed marriage. 3. In Ireland where social and political division is often associated with ecclesiastical affiliation, the pressures on Mixed Marriages% can be intensified by non-theo logical factors. This can have an injurious effect not only upon the partners but also upon their families, relatives and friends. We recognise that the Churches have a duty j to help mitigate such situations by a more effective education of their clergy and laity in respect for the rights both of those who belong to their own Church and of those whose traditions and convictions are different. The responsibility for this falls upon the different Christian communities in proportion to the influence they exercise in any particular area. 4. Because of the deeply personal nature of the marriage relationship and of the way in which it impinges upon Church members in their daily lives it must be recognised that Church teaching and attitudes in this field I have a special importance for community relations. Should the tensions and problems of mixed marriages be compounded by any* failure to act in a spirit of sympathetic understanding and pastoral care, those responsible for such failure would be neglecting a fundamental Christian duty. 5. Pastorally it is important that those who intend to enter a mixed marriage should do so with genuine understanding for the conscientious religious beliefs of the other party. Pressures upon either partner to I change Church membership simply to fulfil I marriage requirements and without real conviction must be repudiated. 6. Full recognition should be given to the basic principle that in a mixed marriage husband and wife alike have a Christian duty to contribute spiritually to the marriage, to their children's upbringing and to the general life of the home. Their obligations in conscience towards God and in relation to Church membership are essentially of the same nature, whether explicitly declared or not. Each party must respect the inviolability of the conscientious convictions of the other and seek to resolve conflicts with the fullest regard for Christian truth and love. 7. The tensions arising from Mixed Marriages must be seen in the context ofthe obligation on all Christians to be faithful to the Will of Christ for His Church. To see the problem only in terms of obstacles to personal and community harmony, and not also as a challenge to each Christian to remain true, above all else, to his calling as a member of Christ's Church, is to miss the full range and seriousness of the issues with which it confronts the Christian conscience. A truly Christian approach to the problem also demands that in the delicate decisions which have to be taken in this field considerations relating to Christian faith and love and the Christian understanding of Marriage and parenthood should take priority over social and economic factdrs. 8. We see no easy way in which to resolve the basic problems of Mixed Marriages, such as those arising from the Churches' different ways of understanding the nature and identity of the Church, the principles for interpreting Scripture, obligations arising from the demands of the moral law and the relationship between Church Authority and the freedom ofthe individual Inevitably the impact of these differences on Mixed Marriages is affected, also, by the approach of the clergy involved. Pastoral instruction and care should be undertaken by them in a spirit of mutual respect and trust. Where such a spirit exists it cannot but have a beneficial effect on the relationship of the married partners to each other. 9. We recommend that the Churches establish a small joint Standing Committee to report annually to them on such general trends in Church practice concerning Mixed Marriages as appear to involve difficulties or misunderstandings calling for resolution or clarification. 10. While differences between our Churches in Marriage teaching and discipline, as indicated in last years interim Report, remain unresolved, much even now depends upon the spirit and the- degree of sensitivity in which traditions and directives are interpreted and applied. We believe therefore that each Church should review its own practice in this light and frame directives and give guidance, both for their ministers or priests and for their people, so as to demonstrate concern for the Christian conscience not only of their own members but of those ofthe other Churches. It is our opinion that this, supported by developing evidence of mutual goodwill and a cessation of recrimination, would make an important contribution to the Christian life of our country. 3% ; and of these most involved either non-practising Roman Catholics or soldiers and other non-local Catholics. Nor has there been any substantial increase in Registry Office marriages. I Overall the total proportion of Roman ' Catholic marriages has been creeping up, as shown by the Registrar General's figures, while marriages in Protestant churches have been static or have declined proportionally. But even if the promises as to Catholic upbringing are fully implemented, the net effect in terms of the balance of political power is negligible, given the fact that other social pressures operate to ensure a higher Roman Catholic j emigration rate. If present trends continue there is no reason to suppose that the Protestant majority in political terms is under any genuine threat. On the other hand the maintenance of the restrictive attitude by Catholic bishops to mixed marriages being celebrated in Protestant churches does I almost certainly help to maintain communal tensions. Churches with a Northern Irish outlook like the Presbyterians respond by maintaining an almost equally disapproving attitude to mixed marriages. Some Protestants explicitly or unconsciously feel it necessary to maintain discriminatory practices in employ- j ment to offset the effect of mixed marriages. It is even possible to attribute the warded thinking which i results in sectarian assassinations to the view that one Catholic less will help to keep the voting power of the two communities in balance. The *j explicit expression of the idea that Roman Catholics should keep up a high marriage and birth rate in order to outbreed the Protestants by such | Catholic propagandists as Father Faul in Dungannon does nothing to help the situation. In this sense the exclusive attitude of the Roman Catholic Church is part and parcel of the continuing political and social problem of the two communities in Northern Ireland. 4. The need for a gesture It is in an attempt to break this reli- j gious and political stalemate that Father Desmond Wilson and others have been campaigning for a more open and understanding attitude on the part of the hierarchy. The kind of solution which he looks forward to, as a devout Christian, is one in which the parties to a mixed marriage are genuinely left to decide for themselves m where to get married and how to bring I This content downloaded from 18.104.22.168 on Sat, 28 Jun 2014 18:26:19 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspFRIDAY 4th JULY 1975/7 t up their children. Much, could be achieved, in his view, simply by adopting the liberal interpretation of existing Roman Catholic regulations which is applied in Britain and in most European countries. He has suggested that both parties to the marriage be asked 'to use their best efforts of wisdom and grace in order to make sure that their children will have the benefit of worship and knowledge of God.' If this were adopted and if as a result there was greater equality in the number of mixed marriages celebrat ed in Protestant and Roman Catholic churches, and in the upbringing ofthe children, then the fears of the Protestants, both rational and irrational, and the hard political and social attitudes which go with them might begin to decline. This is what Father Wilson means by calling on the hierarchy to give a lead to the Roman Catholic people by making a gesture of friendship and understanding on mixed marriage and on integrated education. In another sense he is calling for the hierarchy to play their part in the search for new attitudes and greater partnership which John Hume has been calling for in the political sphere. The other path which churchmen and believers on both sides fear is the drift towards the secular approach to I marriage which has overtaken even the Roman Catholic community in Britain. A recently published study by Tony Spencer of the Social Studies Department of Queen's showed that there had been a steady decline in. England of all forms of religious observance among Catholics from marriage to baptism and perseverance in worship; though the proportion of mixed marriages in Catholic Churches in England had risen from 30% in 1958 to more than 46% in 1972, there had been no corresponding increase in practising members of the Catholic community there, as would be expected if the Matrrmonia Mixta promises were being fu filled. As one Swedish minister attending an lnterchurch consultation on mixed marriages in Ireland remarked, the churches in Ireland are lucky to have so many people bothering to get married in church at all. If they continue with their present antiquated attitudes all we can look forward to is continuing political and social confrontation. The only church which can really break the log-jam and solve the problem of mixed marriages is the Roman Catholic Church. Is it too much to hope that Cardinal Conway and Bishop Philbin are seriously considering the issues which Father Wilson has raised? -1 MIXED MARRIAGES IN NORTHERN IRELAND No official figures are collected of the number of mixed marriages. The Registrar-General publishes figures of marriages in the various denominational churches and in registry offices. The latest available figures are for 1973 and show a slight shift from church to registry office marriages since 1%5, but also a shift towards a greater proportion of marriages in Roman Catholic churches. Marriages in 1965 1971 1973 RC Churches 3707 35% 4672 38% 4340 39% Cofl Churches 2388 22% 2446 20% 2161 19% Presbvterian Ch. 3207 29% 3138 26% 2932 26% Other Churches 938 9% 1035 8% 929 8% Registry- Offices 545 5% 861 7% 825 7% Total 10735 12152 11212 Part of the reason for this may be a great number of mixed marriages taking place in Roman Catholic Churches. Figures were not obtainable for the number of mixed marriages in Roman Catholic Churches?the Belfast area, but a spokesman for the RC diocese of Armagh supplied the following table, showing a substantial decline since 1971. MIXED AND ALL RC MARRIAGES IN RC CHURCHES IN THE ARMAGH DIOCESE 1971 1972 1973 1974 Mixed 76 49 51 43 BothRC 1317 1177 1331 1247 It has been estimated that some parishes of the RC diocese of Down and Connor have a proportion of mixed marriages in RC Churches maybe as high as 25%, though the average figure is probably lower. The number of mixed marriages in Protestant churches is much less. A survey in the Church of Ireland dioceses of Down/Dromore and Connor for 1974 gave the following figures: MIXED AND ALL PROTESTANT MARRIAGES ON CHURCH OF IRELAND CHURCHES IN 1974 Down/Dromore Connor (S Belfast/ Down) (N Belfast/ Antrim) Both Protestant 2% 387 Mixed 7 13 Almost all oi the mixed marriages were of non-attending Catholics or serving soldiers. THE PRESBYTERIAN POSITION: MARRIAGE. HOME AND CHURCH Greater problems arise where either ;he man or woman is a member of some special sect or ofthe Roman Catholic Church. Here ! the divisions are greater with serious differences in teaching and in discipline, both over the meaning of our Christian faith and over some of its practical applications to marriage and the home, to the birth and education ofthe children. It is not enough in these cases just to agree to differ, not to push religion into a corner. This will not only ' impoverish the home but will imperil it in many ways. It will lack the bond of shared Christian life and faith which may Jielp in times of stress. It may provide grounds for adding to personal disputes and additional I problems in bringing up the children. \ It is for reasons like these that all Churches agree in warning against the dangers of such mixed marriages and in trying to discourage their members for their own sakes from entering into them. If in spite of all they feel called to go ahead it he couple) should try to work out some sort of religious framework for their relationship together, for their home and for the upbringing of their children. Unless one joins the other's Church it means that the consciences and obligations of both husband and wife must be respected in these matters. The Roman Catholic Church does not allow its members to enter into such a marriage without dispensation. Since 1970 there is provision for such dispensation provided that the Roman Catholic declares that he is ready to remove dangers of falling away from the faith' and makes 'a sincere \ promise to do all in his power to have all the i children baptised and brought up in the \ j Catholic Church'. The other partner 'must \ be informed of these promises' and made I clear about the Roman Catholic's obliga tions, though, at least in theory, the I non-Roman Catholic is no longer obliged to promise that the children be brought up \ Roman Catholics. Theoretically a Roman j Catholic marrying without the permission of his own Church authorities need no longer be excommunicated, but he would still have I to make the promises afterwards if he wishes j I his marriage to be recognised and to I continue a fully practising member of his I Church. i Presbyterians-do not lay down any such specific promises of Church penalties: vet this does not mean that they are any less concerned. Our Church accepts the marriages performed by any Church or faith as well as civil marriages, but does not approve a double religious marriage ceremony before the one God If your attachment to the Protestant faith and the Presbyterian Church means something to you, do not renounce your religious convictions and practice even if you \ are marrying a Roman' Catholic and member of some special sect. Do not agree j to any undertaking about the children you will have, except to say that they will be baptised and brought up in the knowledge and faith of our Lord Jesus Christ'. In due course you must yourselves decide, in the light of your own home and religious development together, how best they may be taught about God and helped to grow up as good Church members.' This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Sat, 28 Jun 2014 18:26:19 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspArticle Contentsp. 4p. 5p. 6p. 7Issue Table of ContentsFortnight, No. 108 (Jul. 4, 1975), pp. 1-20Front MatterBritain's Viet Nam [p. 2-2]Power Sharing at Home and at School [p. 3-3]Mixed Marriages: Can the Problem Be Solved? [pp. 4-7]Dublin Letter: Waging Wage Warfare [p. 8-8]June [pp. 9-12]The Wrassler: Five Days with Fonsey [pp. 13-14]ReviewsReview: untitled [p. 14-14]Review: untitled [pp. 15-16]Review: Art [p. 16-16]Review: Theatre: Exits and Entrances [p. 16-16]Review: Films: The Four Musketeers (New Vic 30th June-5th July) [p. 17-17]Letters [pp. 17-18]Sidelines: Seeing Is Hearing [p. 19-19]Back Matter