Middle English Middle English Survival of the fittest…WORDS!
Slide 1 Middle English Middle English Survival of the fittestWORDS! Slide 2 Middle English Influences Middle English Influences William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, invaded and conquered England and the Anglo-Saxons in invaded and conquered England and the Anglo-Saxons in 1066 AD 1066 AD Until this point Latin had only been a minor influence on the English language. influence on the English language. Now there is an influx of Anglo-Norman (Romance) and French Words. French Words. Old English + Latin influence + French influence= MIDDLE ENGLISH MIDDLE ENGLISH Some Basics: Slide 3 Middle English Vocabulary Middle English Vocabulary FRENCH loan words: Administration - authority, bailiff, baron, chamberlain, chancellor, constable, council, court, crown, duke, empire, government, liberty, majesty, messenger, minister, noble, palace, parliament, royal, servant, sir, tax, treaty, tyrant Law- accuse, adultery, advocate, arrest, arson, assault, attorney, bail, blame, crime, evidence, felon, fine, fraud, heir, jail, judge, jury, justice, perjury, prison, punishment, trespass, verdict, warrant Religion - baptism, cardinal, cathedral, charity, clergy, confess, creator, crucifix, divine, faith, heresy, homily, immortality, incense, mercy, miracle, prayer, sacrament, saint, salvation, temptation, trinity Slide 4 Military- ambush, army, battle, captain, combat, defend, enemy, guard, lance, lieutenant, moat, navy, peace, retreat, siege, soldier, spy Food and Drink- appetite, bacon, beef, biscuit, confection, cream, date, dinner, feast, fig, fruit, grape, gravy, gruel, jelly, lemon, lettuce, mince, mustard, olive, orange, oyster, pigeon, plate, pork, poultry, raisin, roast, salad, salmon, sardine, sausage, spice, stew, sugar, supper, taste, toast, veal, venison, vinegar Fashion - apparel, attire, boots, brooch, buckle, button, cape, chemise, cloak, collar, diamond, dress, embroidery, emerald, frock, fur, garment, gown, jewel, lace, mitten, ornament, pearl, petticoat rove, satin, wardrobe Leisure and the Arts- art, beauty, chess, colour, conversation, dance, falcon, fool, harness, image, jollity, joust, juggler, lay, leisure, literature, melody, music, noun, painting, paper, park, pavilion, pen, poet, prose, recreation, retrieve, rhyme, romance, sculpture, stallion, story, terrier, title, tragedy, trot, volume Slide 5 Science and Learning- alkali, anatomy, calendar, clause, copy, gender, geometry, grammar, leper, logic, medicine, metal, ointment, pain, physician, plague, poison, pulse, sphere, square, stomach, study, surgeon Home- basin, blanket, bucket, ceiling, cellar, chair, chamber, chandelier, chimney, closet, couch, counterpane, curtain, cushion, joist, lamp, lantern, latch, lattice, pantry, pillar, porch, quilt, towel Nouns- action, adventure, affection, age, air, city, coast, comfort, country, courage, courtesy, debt, deceit, dozen, envy, error, face, flower, grief, hour, joy, labour, manner, marriage, mountain, noise, number, ocean, opinion, people, person, piece, poverty, power, quality, reason, river, scandal, season, sign, sound, spirit, task, tavern, unity, vision Adjectives- active, amorous, blue, brown, calm, certain, clear, common, cruel, curious, eager, easy, final, foreign, gay, gentle, honest, horrible, large, mean, nice, original, perfect, poor, precious, probable, real, safe, second, simple, single, solid, special, strange, sudden, sure, usual Slide 6 Verbs- advise, allow, arrange, carry, change, close, continue, cry, deceive, delay, enjoy, enter, form, grant, inform, join, marry, move, obey, pass, pay, please, prefer, prove, push, quit, receive, refuse, remember, reply, satisfy, save, serve, suppose, travel, trip, wait, waste Phrases- by heart, come to a head, do homage, do justice to, have mercy on, hold ones peace, make complaint, on the point of, take leave, take pity on Slide 7 LATIN loan words that continue to be used today: Administration and Law- alias, arbitrator, client, conspiracy, conviction, custody, gratis homicide, implement, incumbent, legal, legitimate, memorandum, pauper, prosecute, proviso, summary, suppress, testify Religion- collect, diocese, immoral, incarnate, infinite, limbo, magnificat, mediator, memento, missal, pulpit, requiem, rosary, scripture, tract Slide 8 Science and Learning- allegory, etcetera, comet, contradiction, desk, diaphragm, discuss, dislocate, equator, essence, explicit, formal, genius, history, index, inferior, innumerable, intellect, item, library, ligament, magnify, major, mechanical, minor, neuter, notary, prosody, recipe, scribe, simile, solar General- admit, adjacent, collision, combine, conclude, conductor, contempt, depression, distract, exclude, expedition, gesture, imaginary, include, incredible, individual, infancy, interest, interrupt, lucrative, lunatic, moderate, necessary, nervous, ornate, picture, popular, private, quiet, reject, solitary, spacious, subjugate, substitute, temperate, tolerance, ulcer Slide 9 Survivors Survivors abhominacion- abomination chest abil- able bitter abilite- ability deep accident defense ache denounce amyable- amiable familier- familiar big fat cabinet fikel- fickle calme- calm forest candel- candle Slide 10 fortune peel frekel- freckle plite- plight hail querel- quarrel happy rage helpless ram kingdom recluse licour- liquor ryme- rhyme liht- light same mantel- mantle sermoun- sermon martyr slowe- slow meschief- mischief sly office smell offspring taking ontill- until tale peas- peace tente- tent Slide 11 SURVIVORS!! trechery- treachery unce- once unhappyuse ussher- usher vassal venymous- venemous waswaterworm yistirday- yesterday youthe- youth Slide 12 Those Words That Were VOTED OFF: Those Words That Were VOTED OFF: achape encorsife affrayen erme biheste faunt caitif for-spent capul gedelynge chekelew gipser baber-lipped luguler comynere lafe defless lare-fadir dinten layking edmod mamely Slide 13 The Tribe Has Spoken! mennisscnesse tutelen nameliche unkeuelen noye waith ondful wankel peren wose queyntise yemerness quideraueynourredlichesanderbodessellichteolung Slide 14 Thank you for your help ! Thank you for your help !