Meaningful learning with technology archie
1. Meaningful Learning with Technology By: Archie Ryan B. Cutanda 2. What Drives Learning? is the understanding of and effort invested in completing a task or activity It is the nature of the task that student Intend to perform that will best determine the nature of the learning that results. 3. In order for students to learn meaningfully -They must be willfully engaged in a meaningful task: Active activities. Constructive activities. Intentional activities. Authentic activities. Cooperative activities. 4. schools should help students to learn how to recognize and solve problems Comprehend new phenomena Construct mental models of those phenomena Given a new situation Set goals and regulate their own learning 5. Active(Manipulative/Observant) Learning is a natural, adaptive human process. learn and adapt to their environment. Developed sophisticated skills. Advanced knowledge about the world around them when they need to or want to. 6. Characteristics of Meaningful Learning. Active Manipulative/Observant Intentional Goal directed/Regulatory Constructive Articulate/Reflective Authentic Complex/Contextualized CooperativeCollaborative/Conversational 7. Constructive(Articulative/Reflective) Learn the lessons that their activity has to teach. Learners articulate what they have Accomplished. Learners Reflect on their activity and observation. Learners observe and what they understand. Learners integrate their new experiences with their prior knowledge about the world. Learners establish goals for what they need to learn in order to make sense out of what they observe. Learners begin constructing their own simple mental models that explain what they observe. learners mentally represent their understanding in different ways using different thought processes. 8. Intentional (Goal-Directed/Regulatory) All human behavior is goal directed (Schank, 1994). That is, everything that we do is intended to fulfill some goal. learners are actively and willfully trying to achieve a cognitive goal (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994) Technologies have traditionally been used to support teachers' goals but not those of learners. Technologies need to engage learners in articulating and representing their understanding, not that of teachers. Learners use technologies 'to represent their actions and construction. Learners use computers to do skillful planning for doing everyday tasks or constructing and executing a way to research a problem they want to solve, they are intentional and are learning meaningfully. 9. Authentic (Complex/Contextual) Most lessons learned in schools focus on general principles. Most lessons learned in schools focus theories. teachers and professors remove those ideas from their natural contexts in order to be able to cover the curriculum more efficiently. Teachers read a simplified problem and immediately represent the problem in a formula. 10. Cooperative (Collaborative/Conversational) Humans naturally work together in learning and knowledge-building communities. Humans naturally seek out others to help them to solve problems and perform tasks. learners seldom have the opportunity to "do anything that counts" in collaborative teams despite their natural inclinations. learners out of more natural and productive modes of thinking. Learners, they believe, must be accountable for their own knowledge, so even if you agree, at least in principle, with collaborative learning principles. learners in teams. Learners are strategic enough to know "what counts", in classrooms, so if they are evaluated individually, collaborative learning activities will fail because students realize that their outcomes are not important. Learners working in groups must socially negotiate a common understanding of the task and the methods they will use to accomplish it. Learners become part of knowledge-building communities both in class and outside of school, they learn that there are multiple ways of viewing the world and multiple solutions to most of life's problems. Characteristics of meaningful learning are interrelated, interactive; and interdependent. 11. How Does Technology Facilitate Learning? Some of the first educational technologies were illustrations in 17th-century books and slate chalkboards in 18th-century classrooms. Educational technologies in the 20th century include lantern-slide and opaque projectors, later radio, and then motion pictures.During the 1950s, programmed instruction emerged as the first true educational technology. first technology developed specifically to meet 6 Chapter 1 educational needs. technology, including computers, educators recognized its importance and debated how to apply each nascent commercial technology for educational purposes. 12. LearningWithTechnology Technology is more than hardware.Technology consists also of the designs and the environments that engage learners. Technology can also consist of any reliable technique or method for engaging learning, such as cognitive learning strategies and critical thinking skills. Learning technologies can be any environment or definable set of activities that engage learners in active, constructive, intentional, authentic, and cooperative learning. Technologies are not conveyors or communicators of meaning.Technologies support meaningful learning. when they fulfill a learning need. Technologies should function as intellectual tool kit~ that enable learners to build more meaningful personal interpretations and representations of the world. Learners and technologies should be intellectual partners, where the cognitive responsibility for performance is distributed by the part of the partnership that performs it better. 13. How Technologies Foster Learning Technology as tools to support knowledge construction. Technology as information vehicle for exploring knowledge to support learning by constructing. Technology as authentic context to support learning by doing. Technology as social medium to support learning by conversing. Technology as intellectual partner (Jonassen, 2000) to support learning by reflecting. 14. How Technologies Foster Thinking Causal Analogical Expressive Experiential Problem Solving 15. Conclusion Meaningful learning will 'result when technologies engage learners in the following: Knowledge construction, not reproduction Conversation, not reception Articulation, not repetition Collaboration, not competition Reflection, not prescription 16. References Becker, H. J.. (1985).How schools use microcomputers: Summary of a1983national survey.(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EO 257448) Clark, R. (1983). Mere vehicles.Review of Educational Research,53(4), 445-459. Hadley, M., & Sheingold, K. (1993).Comrnonalities and distinctive patterns in teacher interaction of computers.American Journal of Edilcation, 101(3),261-315. Hume, D. (1739/2000).A treatise of human nature.Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Jonassen, D. H. (2000).Computers as mindtools in schools: Engaging critical thinking ..Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Jonassen, D. H., & Ionas, 1. G. (2007). Designing effective supports for causal reasoning.Educational Technology: Research and Development, 55. Polkinghorne, D. (1988).Narrative knowing and the human sciences.Albany: State University of New York Press. Scardamalia, M. & Bereiter, C. (1994). Computer support for knowledge building communities.Journal of the Learning Sciences,3(3), 265-283. Schank, R. C. (1994). Goal-based scenarios. In R. C. Schank & E. Langer (Eds.),Beliefs, reasoning, and decision making: Psycho-logic in honor of Bob Abelson(pp. 1-33). Hillsdale, NI: Lawrence Erlbaum.