Maximising the Value of Marine By-products

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  • Maximising the value of marine by-products

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  • Maximising the value ofmarine by-products

    Edited byFereidoon Shahidi

  • Published by Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington Hall, Abington,Cambridge CB21 6AH, Englandwww.woodheadpublishing.com

    Published in North America by CRC Press LLC, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway, NW,Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487, USA

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  • Contributor contact details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

    Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix

    Maximizing the value of marine by-products: an overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi

    Part I Marine by-products characterisation, recovery and

    processing

    1 Physical and chemical properties of protein seafood

    by-products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    T. Rustad, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway

    1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    1.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    1.3 Physical and chemical properties of protein-rich by-products

    seasonal, habitat, species and individual variations . . . . . . . . 11

    1.4 Implication for by-products valorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    1.5 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    1.6 Sources of further information and advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    1.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    2 Physical and chemical properties of lipid by-products from

    seafood waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    J. P. Kerry and S. C. Murphy, National University of Ireland, Cork,

    Ireland

    2.1 Introduction to fish lipids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    Contents

  • 2.2 Health benefits associated with fish lipids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    2.3 Fatty acids found in fish muscle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    2.4 Fatty acids found in fish by-products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    2.5 Factors affecting the fatty acid composition of fish and their

    associated by-products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    2.6 Deterioration of fish lipids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    2.7 Implications for fish fat by-product valorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    2.8 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    2.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    3 On-board handling of marine by-products to prevent microbial

    spoilage, enzymatic reactions and lipid oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    E. Falch, M. Sandbakk and M. Aursand, SINTEF Fisheries and

    Aquaculture, Norway

    3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    3.2 Deterioration of marine biomass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    3.3 Handling and sorting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    3.4 Conservation and stabilisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

    3.5 On-board processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

    3.6 Utilisation of by-products from gadiform species . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    3.7 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

    3.8 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

    3.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

    4 Recovery of by-products from seafood processing streams . . . . . 65

    J. A. Torres, Oregon State University, USA, Y. C. Chen, Chung Shan

    Medical University, Taiwan, J. Rodrigo-Garca, Universidad Autonoma

    de Ciudad Juarez, Mexico and J. Jaczynski, West Virginia University,

    USA

    4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    4.2 State of global fisheries and by-products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

    4.3 Basic properties of water, proteins and lipids in aquatic

    foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

    4.4 Recovery of functional proteins and lipids from

    by-products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

    4.5 Protein recovery from surimi processing water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

    4.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

    4.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

    5 Increasing processed flesh yield by recovery from marine

    by-products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

    K. D. A. Taylor and A. Himonides, University of Lincoln, UK and

    C. Alasalvar, TUBITAK, Turkey

    5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

    5.2 Recovery of flesh from filleting waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

    vi Contents

  • 5.3 Recovery of flesh from demersal species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

    5.4 Quality and improvement of fish mince . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

    5.5 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

    5.6 Sources of further information and advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

    5.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

    6 Enzymatic methods for marine by-products recovery . . . . . . . . . . 107

    F. Guerard, University of Western Brittany, France

    6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

    6.2 Overview of by-products extracted by enzymatic methods . . . 108

    6.3 Enzymatic extraction methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

    6.4 Traceability of by-products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

    6.5 Conclusions and future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

    6.6 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

    6.7 References and further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

    7 Chemical processing methods for protein recovery from marine

    by-products and underutilized fish species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

    H. G. Kristinsson, A. E. Theodore and B. Ingadottir, University of

    Florida, USA

    7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

    7.2 Chemical extraction: fish protein concentrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

    7.3 Chemical hydrolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

    7.4 Surimi processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

    7.5 Fish protein isolates: pH-shift processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

    7.6 Other processes using low or high pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

    7.7 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

    7.8 References and further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

    Part II Food uses of marine by-products

    8 By-catch, underutilized species and underutilized fish parts as

    food ingredients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

    I. Batista, Fish and Sea Research Institute, (IPIMAR), Portugal

    8.1 Introduction: by-catch, discards and by-products . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

    8.2 Key drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

    8.3 Using the by-catch and underutilized species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

    8.4 Using underutilized fish parts as food and food ingredients . . 179

    8.5 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

    8.6 Sources of further information and advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

    8.7 Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

    8.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

    Contents vii

  • 9 Mince from seafood processing by-product and surimi as food

    ingredients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

    J.-S. Kim, Gyeongsang National University, South Korea and

    J. W. Park, Oregon State University, USA

    9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

    9.2 Manufacturing fish mince/surimi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

    9.3 Machinery for preparation of fish mince/surimi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

    9.4 Mince/surimi processing by-products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

    9.5 Functional properties of fish mince/surimi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

    9.6 Nutritional characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

    9.7 Storage stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

    9.8 Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

    9.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

    10 Aquatic food protein hydrolysates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

    H. G. Kristinsson, University of Florida, USA

    10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

    10.2 The enzymatic hydrolysis process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

    10.3 Pro...

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