Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Skill, what is it?

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Skill, what is it? </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Skill Acquisition Skill acquisition depends depends on learning. Motor skill learning involves a reorganisation of basic movement patterns. The coach tries to guide their athlete from the beginner stage through to skilled performance. Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Skill An action or particular movement How well an action or a particular movement is performed Coursework List 5 examples of skilled performers. Define the word skill in your own words Select a skilled performer in a sport you are familiar with and describe why you would refer to them as skilled. Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Skill vs ability Skill is a learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty of results Ability is the capacity of an individual to perform a variety (many) skills or actions </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Stages of Skill learning The 3 stages of learning are: 1.COGNITIVE (understanding) 2.ASSOCIATIVE (practice) 3.AUTONOMOUS (automatic performance) </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Cognitive Stage Need to learn what is needed in order to perform a skill Must identify the subroutines involved and their correct sequence Exploratory stage Beginner will make many errors This stage usually takes a short time The coach must; Provide demonstrations or videos Give a few clear instructions Provide specific feedback The learner must experience the feel of the correct action </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Associative Stage Practice phase Refine accuracy of performing the skill Amount of practice will depend on the complexity of the skill, the players ability, past experience and motivation Errors will decrease Performer can recognise errors and make adjustments This stage usually takes a long time Some players may never reach the autonomous stage. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Autonomous Stage Skill becomes much easier to perform Players level of anxiety is reduced Sequencing and timing of subroutines becomes automatic Less likely to be distracted Less cognitive control required Speed and efficiency of action is increased Performer can devote attention to other tasks Can use feedback precisely Relies more on internal feedback. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Classification of skills Motor skills can be classified into 3 types: Discrete Continuous Serial </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Discrete skills A discrete skill has a distinct beginning and end. Eg. A football kick </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Continuous Skills A continuous skill has no distinct beginning or end. Eg. Dribbling in basketball, driving a car. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Serial Skills Serial skills string together several discrete tasks to form a continuous performance. Eg. The steps making a up a dance routine, performing a dive off a 3 metre diving board. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Classification of skills Fine skills: involve intricate movements using small muscle groups, tend to be precise and generally involve high levels of hand-eye coordination. A snooker shot or playing the piano are examples fine skills. Gross skills: involve large muscle movements, where the major muscle groups are involved. The movements are not very precise, and include many fundamental movement patterns such as walking, running and jumping. The shot putt is an example of a primarily gross skill </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Open and Closed Skills The Open and Closed Continuum This continuum is concerned with the effects of the environment on skills - Barbara Knapp's open and closed skills also known as open and closed loop control. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education The Open and Closed Continuum Open skills: sports such as Netball, Football, and Hockey usually involve open skills. This is because the environment is constantly changing and so movements have to be continually adapted. Therefore, skills are predominantly perceptual. The skill is mostly externally paced, for example a pass in football. Closed skills. These skills take place in a stable, predictable environment and the performer knows exactly what to do and when. Therefore, skills are not affected by the environment and tend to be habitual. Movements follow set patterns and have a clear beginning and end. The skills tend to be self-paced, for example a free throw in Basketball, and serving in Squash or Tennis. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education The Open and Closed Continuum 10 Open Batting tee Pitching machine Batting thrown by a pitcher 1 Closed 5 </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Open Skills OPEN SKILLS ARE; Performed in an unpredictable environment Externally paced Timing Depends on factors external to the performer Decision making process usually occurs quickly Team sports are generally more open skills </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Examples of Open skills </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Examples of Closed skills CLOSED SKILLS ARE: Performed in a highly predictable environment Internally paced Performer controls timing of the movements Pre-learned motor programs are required </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Examples of closed skills </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education 3 Questions 1.Define the term "skill" 2.Using examples, discuss the difference between Fine and Gross motor skills. 3.Explain the difference between Discrete, Serial, and Continuous skills. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Learning Open and Closed Skills Skills are rarely purely open or closed Closed skills can be learned more easily because mastering of a specific movement pattern is required and repeated over and over in practice Open skills not only require good technique but also flexible responses Timing is externally paced and requires the performer to do the right thing at the right time. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Learning Open and Closed Skills When teaching open skills it is best to close the skill down first and then gradually open up the environment once the technique has been mastered. Sequential skill-building and varying the conditions of practice are vital for learning both open and closed skills. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Information Processing DISPLAY All the Information (cues) in the environment. SENSES Receive Information the display including feedback on performance. Central Nervous System Interprets, processes and stores Information. Makes decisions Neuromuscular System Executes and coordinates the Performance of the skill FEEDBACK Information about your performance </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Receiving Information Information from the external environment is received through the 5 senses and proprioceptors (sense of bodily movement) Pieces of information received from the environment are called CUES Irrelevant information is called NOISE A performers ability to filter out irrelevant information and attend only to relevant cues is referred to SELECTIVE ATTENTION </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Signal Detection Determining whether or not a signal (that is,a cue or stimulus is present The ability of the sense organs to receive a signal or stimulus depends on the intensity of the signal or stimulus and the effectiveness of the sense organs Intensity of the stimulus can be improved in the following ways: Larger size Brighter Colour Slow object down Background Colour Different Length of time object seen Louder signal Take away interfering Noise More pressure </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education Selective attention The ability to filter out irrelevant cues This cuts down the amount of information that has to be processed The ability to select only relevant cues depends on: Experience Quality of instruction Arousal level </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> </ul>

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