Limba engleza I sinteza ?· 2018-03-20 · Limba engleza I sinteza Anul I semestrul 1 An universitar:…

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Universitatea Spiru Haret Facultatea de Psihologie si Stiintele educatiei Limba engleza I sinteza Anul I semestrul 1 An universitar: 2017 - 2018 Lector univ dr. Ana Munteanu 2Obiectivele generale ale cursului de Limba engleza I Dobndirea competenei orale i competenei scrise n limba englez; Dezvoltarea fondului lexical de baza si a structurilor gramaticale corecte; Integrarea cunotinelor i a deprinderilor lingvistice i de interpretare n diferite situaii de comunicare. Obiectivele specifice ale ccursului de Limba engleza I Prin audierea, nsuirea problemelor dezbtute i prin promovarea acestui curs, cursanii vor fi capabili: - s-i dezvolte abilitile de comprehensiune oral i scris; - s reacioneze n mod adecvat la diferite tipuri de texte i contexte; - s identifice ideile centrale ale unui text scris sau oral; - s recunoasc referinele culturale din textele studiate, s realizeze comparaii; - s selecteze i s sintetizeze informaia necesar dintr-un text dat; - s aplice n mod practic cunotinele de gramatic dobndite n cadrul cursului; - s-i perfecioneze ortografia prin exerciii practice; - s-i dezvolte vocabularul; - s-i exprime propriile opinii n mod corect, fluent i coerent n limba englez; - s exerseze conversaii/dialoguri pe teme specifice meseriei. 3Bibliografie obligatorie Barbu A., Chirimbu S., English Language for Daily Use, Bucuresti, Editura Fundatiei Romnia de Mine, 2006/2009. Munteanu A, Step by Step, Editura Alma Mater, Sibiu, 2011. Voakes, Greg, The 5 Highest Paying Jobs You Can Get With A Psychology Degree, Business Insider, the online edition, at (last accessed on 25th May 2017) Lynne, Body Language, English Magazine, the online edition, at (last accessed on 25th May 2017) Bibliografie facultativa Costache I, Ghid de conversatie si civilizatie romn-englez, Bucuresti, Editura Aramis, 2005. Bonner, M., Fuchs, M., Focus on Grammar. High intermediate, Longman, 2000. Heathfield, D., Spontaneous Speaking: Drama Activities for Confidence and Fluency. DELTA Publishing, 2005. Munteanu A., General English, Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, Bucureti, 2012. Prodromou, Luke, Grammar and Vocabulary for First Certificate, Longman, 2010. Doyle, Alison, What is a letter of application? at (last accessed on 5th May 2017) Rebecca, How to talk about your career at (last accessed on 5th MAy 2017) Cuprins I. General Language II. Grammar III. Exercises IV. Information about the exam 4I. General Language 1. GREETINGS Success in ones life and career depends to a great extent on ones ability to communicate effectively. The first impression one makes is important so we should know certain rules of greeting, of presenting oneself and of having a brief opening conversation. 1. Read the following dialogue and try to make up a similar one taking place between your family and your new colleague, Diana. Tom Black: How do you do! My name is Tom Black. Diana Smith: Pleased to meet you, Tom. I am Diana Smith. Tom Black: Nice to meet you, Diana. I am a new civil servant. This is my first day. Diana Smith: Im a new civil servant as well. This is my first day, too. Tom Black: Lets ask the secretary to tell Mr Jhonson were here. Diana Smith: Yes, all right. Tom Black: Good morning.. Secretary: Good morning. Tom Black: My names Tom Black. This is Diana Smith. Were new civil servants. Today is our first day. Will you please tell Mr Jhonson were here? Secretary: Certainly - one moment please... (on phone ) Good morning, Mr Jhonson. Mr Black and Ms Smith are here. They are new civil servants. Today is their first day ... Yes, all right, Ill send them up (puts down the receiver)... Will you please go up to Mr Jhonsons office? Its number 11, on the first floor. Diana Smith: Thank you. Tom Black: Thanks very much. Secretary: Thats all right! 5Mr Jhonson (when the two young people come into his office he gets up and shakes hands with them): How do you do, Ms Smith. How do you do, Mr Black. My name is Jhonson. Diana: How do you do, Mr Johnson. Tom: How do you do, Mr Johnson. Mr Jhonson: Please sit down. Welcome. I hope youre going to enjoy working for us. Diana: Thank you. Tom: Thank you very much. Mr Jhonson: Would you like a cup of coffee? Diana: Not for me, thank you. I dont drink coffee. Mr Jhonson: How about you, Mr Black? Tom: Yes, please. Mr Jhonson: Now, have you any questions? Tom: Who is the head of the Department we will work with? Mr Jhonson: Mrs Turner is in charge there. Diana: Is there a staff canteen? Mr Jhonson: Yes, there is. Its a very good one. Its on the ground floor. Now, my secretary is going to take you to your new offices. Good luck to you both! Tom: Thank you, Mr Jhonson. Good bye. Diana: Thank you. Good bye, Mr. Jhonson. Mr. Johnson: Good bye. 2. Read the text and answer the following questions: a. Why is it natural for Diana and Tom to use each others first names from the first meeting? b. How does Diana answer to Toms How do you do? c. What informal greetings does the text mention? d. Do English people shake hands whenever they meet? Why (not)? Informal greetings Tom and Diana are young people of the same age and background and it is natural for them to use each others first 6names as soon as they meet. When Tom first speaks to Diana he uses the conventional phrase How do you do. It is quite usual for both parties to an introduction to say How do you do and to shake hands, and no further greeting is necessary. But many people, young people in particular, prefer to use the less formal Pleased to meet you, Nice to know you or just Hello when meeting others of their own age. How do you do is always correct and when you first go to England you should use this form of greeting until you become familiar with English habits. It is not customary in England to shake hands with friends and colleagues whom we meet frequently, either socially or at work. Do Romanian people shake hands when they meet? Why (not)? 3. Tom is from the United Kingdom and English is his mother tongue. He is British. Study these. Country Nationality Australia Australian Belgium Belgian Brazil Brazilian Denmark Danish France the French = the people of France Frenchwoman/Frenchman Germany German Greece Greek Japan Japanese Portugal Portuguese Romania Romanian Switzerland Swiss Turkey Turkish The Netherlands Dutchwoman/Dutchman Pakistan Pakistani 74. What are the nationalities from these countries? Put them in the correct group below. Australia, South Africa, Spain, Poland, Canada, Italy, China, Taiwan, Sweden, Hungary, Ireland -ish -ese -n -ian 6. We refer to different nationalities in the following ways: the British, British people, people from Britain Language focus With nationality nouns ending in sh, -ch, -ss, or ese, we use the. With all other nationality nouns except the Scots we use zero article. For more information read the grammar compendium. Fill in the blanks with the where necessary. 1. Japanese tend to eat a lot more fish than British. 2. Chinese have an interesting way of eating eggs. 3. French tend to drink a lot of wine. 4. We have a group of Germans staying at the hotel. 5. English dont eat as much rice as Scots. 6. I adore Italian food. 7. Talking about yourself Say a few words about yourself (personal details and interests). Use the Language box to help you. Language box: Talking about yourself Im / My names 8Im 25 years old. Im from I was born in and/but I live in/near Im married/single. I have children. Im interested in (+ V-ing); Im good at (+ V-ing) I like (+ V-ing) I play 8. My name is Munteanu Ana. How do you spell it, please? / Can you spell that for me? M-U-N-T-E-A-N-U A-N-A [em ju: en ti: i: ei en ju: ei en ei] Spell these names: Maria, Ion, Bianca, Andropov, Cervantes, Wingers, Baysun, Dropper. 9. To be este folosit pentru: exprimarea vrstei: How old are you? Im 20 (years old). How old is your son? He is 12. He is 12 years old. How old are your children? They are both 11. exprimarea preului: How much is this book? Its 2 dollars. How much are these shoes? They are 100 dollars. Expresii compuse cu verbul to be: to be hungry (a-i fi foame), to be thirsty (a-i fi sete), to be cold (a-i fi frig), to be hot (a-i fi foarte cald), to be warm (a-i fi cald), to be right (a avea dreptate), to be wrong (a nu avea dreptate, a grei), to be late (a ntrzia), to be early (a veni/ ajunge devreme), to be sorry (a-i prea ru). 9Work in pairs. Ask your partner if s/he is thirsty/warm/right. Find out how old s/he is. Language focus In English we do not normally leave out subject pronouns. The possessive adjective replaces the person who possesses something and determines the noun that expresses the object which is possessed. For more information read the grammar compendium. 10. Choose the correct word: 1. Tom (am/is) a teacher. 2. (-/It) is a nice day. 3. Diana (is/are) right. 4. Mr Dobrovets is from Russia. He is (Russian/Russish). 5. How old (have/are) you? 6. I (am/have) 32 years old. 7. Wheres (he/they) from? 8. Can you spell that for (me/my)? 9. This is his book. It is (there/here). 10. That is their car. It is (there/here). 102. DAILY DUTIES Do you work in a company or work from home? 1. Read the following text and underline the prepositions of place. Every afternoon I sit at my desk to work, to search the Internet and write emails. Several times a day, I am on the phone which is right in the middle of the desk. The printer in the right corner helps me a lot to get the materials for my work. Next to it, there is a modern monitor. In front of the printer I have many phone books. There are lots of pictures and post cards on the notice board. Above it, I keep a large world map. A file cabinet stands beside my desk. I love plants, so you can find a red rose in a pot between the monitor and the framed family picture. 2. Now make sentences about your desk using some of the prepositions underlined. Begin: Theres a / an ... There isnt a / an .... There are some ... There arent any ... Language focus Use there is /there are to say things exist or not. e.g. There isnt a fax here. Also, use there when you talk about something for the first time, and it for details. e.g. Theres a rose on the desk. Its red. 3. Read the text and use it to write about you. 11During the week Helen gets up at seven oclock. She washes and combs her hair. Then she dresses. She feeds her pet, Domino, a very nice cat. She has breakfast at seven thirty. She drinks a cup of coffee and eats bread and butter and eggs. At a quarter to eight she goes to university. There she meets her friends and talks with them about teachers, new subjects, future jobs, fashion and music. She sometimes listens to the teachers explanations. When they ask questions, the students usually answer. They are often quiet. When they are not, the teacher says, Pay attention! While she is away, her cat is alone at home. In the middle of the morning Domino visits his friend, Mrs Tucker. She usually gives him something nice to eat. In the afternoon he sleeps. Hes got a secret place on top of the garden shed. Half past five is Dominos dinner time. He usually has cat food from a tin. In the evening he watches TV. He likes wildlife programmes. On Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday, Helen goes home at four oclock. Wednesday is sports afternoon and Helen goes swimming. She watches TV from seven to eight. She has dinner at eight oclock. She usually eats meat and potatoes and fruit. When she has a cold or when she has no appetite, she just drinks some tea. After dinner she watches TV or listens to music or meets some friends. She goes to bed at around ten oclock. She usually sleeps well, but she sometimes has nightmares. 4. Read the text again. Are these statements true or false? Correct any false statements. a. Helen never wakes up early in the morning. b. Domino is Mrs Tuckers cat. c. Half past five is Helens dinner time. d. Helen always has bad dreams. Language focus We use the Present Simple for regular activities and situations. Affirmative: S + V; S(3rd, sg) + V-s 12Negative: S + do+not + V; S(3rd, sg) + does+not + V Interrogative: Do + S + V?; Does + S(3rd, sg) + V? For more information read the grammar compendium. 4. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. Tom (not/work) .. on Sundays. 2. Her neighbour (give) ..... Domino some milk every day. 3. Where you (work)? 4. The hotel (not/offer) room service after 11 pm. 5. We (watch) TV from seven to eight. 5. Ask questions to the underlined words. See the example. e.g. Mary likes cats. Who likes cats? Mary likes cats. What does Mary like? a. Tom drinks tea. b. Tom drinks tea. c. An elephant eats grass. d. An elephant eats grass. e. Sara does her homework. f. Sara does her homework. g. Her uncle plays football. h. Her uncle plays football. 6. Write a question for each answer: a) How is your sister? Shes fine, thank you. b) It takes me half an hour to get to work. c) Id have some coffee, please. d) Two, English and French. e) The 21st of October. 13f) 5 euros and 50 cents. g) Its half past ten sharp. h) How do you do. i) Im a consultant. j) J-o-n-a-t-h-a-n 7. Unscramble the sentences. e.g. use/I/phone/mobile/day/every/my I use my mobile phone every day. a. boils/water/100/at/degrees b. to/very/upset/she/appears/be c. Tom/has/always/at/lunch/noon d. he/slowly/does/work? e. usually/her/takes/Diana/sugar/coffee/with Language focus: Adverbs of frequency go after the verb be e.g. We are usually busy in the morning. go before the main verb (others than be) e.g. Our customers never complain. He usually has cat food from a tin. 8. Work in pairs. Write five sentences about your partner, using: always, usually, often, sometimes, never. 9. Put in on, at or in: a. Tom goes to school the morning. b. Elephants sleep night. c. the afternoon he does his homework. d. We have lunch noon. e. He has English Friday. 10. Work in pairs. Ask your partner if s/he: 14a. speaks German b. uses a computer c. works d. attends a language course e. drinks coffee f. travels a lot e.g. Do you speak German? Yes, I do. / No, I dont. Now report the answers to the group. e.g. She speaks German. / She doesnt speak German. 11. Complete the following text with words from the box. oclock, bed, and, classes, dinner, do, have, home, finish, plays, parents, wake, gets, to, watch, the, we I usually up at 7 oclock. My brother up at 7:30 a.m. We breakfast and then go school. The start at 8 . and at one. After lunch I my homework and he the guitar. Next, we TV. Our parents come at 5:00 p.m. They have with us. In evening we play have fun. At about half past nine . say good night to our .and go to . 15 163. HOLIDAYS Do you like spending your holidays in foreign countries? Why (not)? 1. Put the words in the box under the following headings: Types of holiday Things people do on holiday Places where people stay on holiday Places people visit on holiday Beach holiday; swimming; zoos; seaside; backpacking; bed and breakfast; camping; cathedrals; coach tour; skiing; cruise; museums; sailing; activity holiday; sightseeing holiday; walking; castles; relax; tent; sunbathing; youth hostel; resort; caravan site; churches; hotel; winter holiday . 2. You are going to read three advertisements. Recommend one of the holidays to someone who: has a sense of adventure has young children likes wild life likes city life likes boats enjoys parades enjoys travelling by coach This Week at Walt Disney World Nov 15, 2012: From a sparkling ice castle to legendary international customs to magical entertainment and musical delights, Walt Disney World Resort unwraps an enchanting celebration of the holiday season in 2012. Electrifying fireworks, charming parades and all the sounds 17of the season help transform the 40-square-mile resort into a winter wonderland where holiday fun begins as early as Nov. 8. Our guests can spend the holidays at Mickeys place 1Day Base Ticket Adult (Non-discounted) Ages 10+ ... $ 91.35 1 Day Base Ticket Child (Non- discounted) Ages 3-9 $ 79.55 2 Day Base Ticket Adult with 14 Day Expiration (Non- discounted) Ages 10+$165.21 2 Day Base Ticket Child with 14 Day Expiration (Non- discounted) Ages 3-9 .$ 150.45 Package for $1,318+ 3-night/4-day for a family of four in a Value Resort standard room (adapted from **** South Africa **** South Africa is an amazing country, beautiful at any time of year, with its ever changing mixture of landscapes, cultures and wildlife. Sense of adventure? Taste of life? South Africa delivers on a grand scale! Come and see the white rhino and the blue wildebeest; Enjoy a sunset cruise on the Orange river; Visit the Augrabies Falls National Park; Discover ancient mountains and fossils in the Makhonjwa Mountains. For full itineraries and further information please contact: South African Tourism Ltd. PO Box 108, Johannesburg, 10021, South Africa e-mail: tel: + 27 (0)11 895 3000 (adapted from The Big Bus Open Top Sightseeing Tour is the best way to DISCOVER LONDON 18 Book now and save 4 on adult tickets and 2 on child tickets. (Normal adult price - 26.00, normal child price - 12.00)! Hop-on Hop-off Sightseeing Tour 48 Hour Ticket Live English Commentary Recorded Commentary in 8 Languages See All the Key Sights Over 70 Stops Free River Cruise Free Walking Tours Free Reward Voucher Book (adapted from 3. Choose one of the holidays and explain why that is your choice. 4. Diana Popescu is going on holiday to South Africa. Look at the email to her friend, Ravi, and answer these questions: a. Why is Diana writing to Ravi? b. How long is Diana staying in South Africa? c. Where is she flying to? d. When is she arriving in South Africa? e. What time is she arriving? To: ravi Subject: holiday Hi Ravi, Sorry for the delay in replying, but Im working very hard at the moment. Yes, Im coming to South Africa. Ive booked my flight. My friend Dora isnt coming with me because her child is in hospital. Im staying for a fortnight. 19Im flying to Johannesburg on August 12th and Im arriving at 9.30 am. Could you pick me up from the airport? Id love to meet you. I really want to see the Augrabies Falls and the Moon Rock. Taking any holidays in August? Maybe you can take some days off and come with me. Ill be thrilled. Hope youre well. See you soon! Diana 5. Missing out words is common in informal emails (if people know each other well and the situation is relaxed and friendly) when the meaning is clear from the context. Read Ravis answer and put the missing words back into the email. To: Diana Popescu Subject: Re: holiday Hi Diana, Glad you answered. Im OK and really want to see you. Ill be at the airport at 9.30 am. About holiday sounds great. Never seen the Augrabies Falls and the Moon Rock how come youre interested in them? so Id like to go there. Sounds like fun! Pity things still a bit uncertain at work. Might be possible to take a week off in August, but cant be sure. Two weeks impossible. See you soon! Ravi Language focus We use the Present Continuous for current or temporary activities. e.g. Im working very hard at the moment. We also use the Present Continuous for future arrangements. e.g. Are you taking any holidays in June? 20Some verbs are not used in the Present Continuous. e.g. Tom knows Diana. Affirmative: S + to be + V-ing Negative: S + to be + not + V-ing Interrogative: to be + S + V-ing ? For more information read the grammar compendium. 1. Make comments on the sentences below. Use the Present tense continuous: e.g. Tom is at his desk. (to write) Tom is writing. a. Diana is in her office. (to work) b. Ravi is in his car. (to drive) c. The General Manager is with some important guests. (to talk) d. Dianas friend is in the park. (to jog) e. Ravis friends are at a table in a restaurant. (to eat) f. Sally is in the bathroom. (to have a bath) 2. Complete these sentences with one of the verbs in the box in the correct form of the Present Continuous. holiday, have, look, not rain, stay, work a. I . dinner with my associates tonight, but Im free at the weekend. b. Why everybody ..out of the window? Whats happened? c. They can take a walk now. It any more. d. Sorry for the delay in replying, but I very hard at the moment. e. you with us for a week? f. My parents in Spain this year. 3. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present tense continuous wherever possible. 21a. Ravi (know) a good travel agent. b. Diana . (want) to go to South Africa. c. Why Diana (sound) tired? d. I ... (have) dinner at the moment. Can I phone you back? e. Tony . (play) football now. f. I (think) your hair looks great! g. I (think) of going to South Africa next year. h. Sally (see) Tom next week. i. I (see). Youre interested. j. What you . (look) at? k. It (look) as if the situation is getting worse. l. Lemons .. (taste) sour. m. The cook (taste) the soup to see if it is salty enough. n. We .. (have) two houses. o. Ravinder . (be) a travel agent. 4. Imagine it is National Change it Day. On this day everybody is changing their daily routine. Read the examples. Then tell your partner what things you are going to do in a different way than usually. I have a cup of coffee for breakfast nearly every day, but today Im having ham and eggs. I usually wear a black blouse, but today Im wearing a red one. 5. Write your plans for today, tomorrow and next holiday. today tomorrow next holiday Im studying Now work in groups. Ask your colleagues What are you doing today/tomorrow/ next holiday? in order to find out about their plans and arrangements for today, tomorrow and this weekend. Decide whose plans and arrangements are the most interesting. 226. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the Present simple or the Present continuous. a. What time .......... the Johannesburg train (leave)? b. The Johnsons (go) on holiday in August this year. c. Mary (not come) with us on the tour. d. The Big Bus . (leave) at 9:15 a.m. e. What time the plane ...(land)? f. I usually (have) cereals in the morning, but this week I (drink) tea. g. How many days a week (work)? h. Sandra always (watch) TV on Saturdays. i. Listen, . you . (want) to meet at 3:00 p.m.? j. Look! It (rain)! k. You (not spend) any time in Brasov next weekend. l. You see, we (stay) in Bran for a few days. m. We . (fly) to Constanta next week. n. Ravi (not live) in Florida near an amazing theme park. o. When Anna and David (get) married? 12. There are mistakes in some of these sentences. Find the mistakes and correct them. 1. Im hating cold water. 2. Are you learning at the moment? 3. He's wanting a drink. 4. Im not believing you. 5. Harry is having dinner now. 6. I'm thinking you are right. 7. I know what you are meaning. 8. Who are you seeing opposite the street? Is it Anny? 9. Oh, I recognise her now. 10. Be quiet! Im thinking. 23 244. ON THE PHONE Do you like using the phone? Is intonation important on the telephone? Why? 1. Read the dialogue below between a companys receptionist and a caller and answer these questions about it: a. Does the receptionist answer the phone professionally? b. Does the caller identify himself? c. Does the receptionist make any excuses? d. Does the receptionist ask for information? e. Is the conversation appropriate? Receptionist: Yes, please! Caller: I want to speak with your boss. Receptionist: Hes not here. Want to speak to secretary? Caller: No. Tell him to phone me back. Im Cezar Ionescu. Receptionist: Just a second Repeat, please. Caller: Cezar Ionescu. Receptionist: Whats your phone number? Caller: Its 0723 145 966. Receptionist: OK. Ill tell him. Caller: Bye. Receptionist: Bye. 2. How can you improve the conversation above? Study the Language box below and role play the improved telephone call. Language box: Answering the phone Good morning, thanks for calling the XYZ Company. My name is AB, how may I help you? Good morning, XYZ Hotel. How can I help you? Good afternoon, XYZ Company. Hello, AB speaking. 25Identifying yourself This is AB. My names AB. Im AB. Making contact Id like to speak to AB, extension 123, please. Id like to speak to AB. Could I have the X department, please? Making excuses Im sorry, hes in a meeting. Im afraid Mr AB is not available at the moment. Im afraid Mr AB is engaged right now. Im sorry, hes out of the office at the moment / all day. Im sorry but hes tied up all morning. Asking for information Could I have your name? Can I take your number? Checking Im sorry, I didnt catch your name. Could you spell it for me, please? Could you spell that? Can I read that back to you? Messages Would you like to leave a message? Can I take a message? Can I leave a message? Promising action Ill make sure he gets the/your message. Ill tell her when she gets back. Ending a call Thanks for your help. Goodbye. Goodbye. Thanks for calling. 3. Mary Thompson, Sales Director at The Best in New York, makes a call to Diana Popescu, a fashion buyer in Bucharest. Read the dialogues and note the purpose of the calls. 26 Receptionist: Good afternoon, For Ladies Ltd. How may I help you? Thompson: Good afternoon. Im Mary Thompson. Id like to speak to Diana Popescu, extension 123, please. Receptionist: Hold the line, please. Ill see if shes in. Hello, Im afraid shes engaged at the moment. Will you hold or can I take a message? Thompson: Ill leave a message please. Ill be in Bucharest next week and Id like to meet her and tell her about our new collection. Ill call her again this afternoon. Is that OK? Receptionist: Right. Ill make sure she gets the message. Thompson: Thanks for your help. Goodbye. Receptionist: Youre welcome. Goodbye. (2 hours later) Receptionist: Good afternoon, For Ladies Ltd. Thompson: Good afternoon. Im Mary Thompson. Could you put me through to extension 123, please? Receptionist: Certainly. Im putting you through. Popescu: Hello. This is Diana Popescu. Thompson: Hello, Diana. Its Mary Thompson here. Popescu: Hi, Mary, how are you? Thompson: Fine, thanks. Im planning a trip to Bucharest and I would like to make an appointment to see you. Popescu: Thats great. When will you be arriving in Bucharest? Thompson: Ill be arriving in Bucharest on Tarom flight TA987 at 10:45 a.m. on Monday, 23 January 2012. I will be staying at the Happy Hotel. Could we meet on Monday at 3:30 p.m.? Popescu: Let me check. No sorry, I cant make it then. My diarys rather full that day. Could we fix another time? Thompson: Thats OK Lets see What about Wednesday? Popescu: Great. Im fairly free that day. What time? Thompson: In the morning. 10.30. Is that OK? 27Popescu: Yes. Thatd be no problem at all. So, January 25th, Wednesday, 10.30 a.m. Thompson: Perfect. Thank you very much. Itll be great to see you again. Well have plenty to talk about. Popescu: Thats for sure. See you next week then. Give me a call if you have any problems. Thompson: Right, Ill do that. Give my regards to your partner, Mr Ionescu. Popescu: OK. Ill tell him you called. Goodbye. Thompson: Goodbye. 4. Read the dialogues again. a. What expressions does MS Thomson use to make arrangements? b. What expressions does Ms Popescu use in order to change arrangements? 5. Study the Language box below. Then do the exercises that follow it. Language box Suggesting/Making arrangements Are you free on Monday? Could we meet on Friday at 9:30? Would Friday at 10:30 suit you? What about January 27th? How about next Monday?(informal) When would suit you? Is 10:30 convenient (for you)? (formal) Changing arrangements Im afraid I cant come on Monday. Could we fix another time? Weve got an appointment on Monday, but Im afraid somethings come up. Could we fix another day? Im afraid Im busy on Monday afternoon. What about Tuesday? 28Unfortunately, I wont be able to make our meeting. Responding Thatll be fine. Thats OK. No sorry, I cant make it then. My diarys rather full that day. Im out of the office until lunchtime, but any time after that would be fine. Sorry, Ive already got an appointment at that time. 6. Complete the sentences below using words from the box. How, about, call, calling, do, fairly, make, p.m., ring, see, seeing, suit, time 1. Is this a good time to.? 2. Im fine. Im because Ill be in Bucharest next week and Id like to see you. I want to tell you about our new services. 3. How next Tuesday afternoon? What time on Tuesday can you it? 4. Great. When would you? Im free next week, I think. 5. Let me .., Im out of the office until lunchtime, but any .after that would be fine. 6. Right, Ill that. 7. OK, Ill see you at 2.00 . 8. Right, I look forward to you here in Bucharest next Tuesday. Give me a ..if you have any problems. 9. Yes, it is. are you? Now put the sentences in the correct order to make a dialogue arranging an appointment. 8. You can use the following phrasal verbs before making a call: look sth. up, pick up; at the beginning of a call: get through, put sb. through; during a call: hold on, speak up; for ending a call: hang up; and after a call: call sb. back, get back to, but do you 29know what they mean? Choose their correct meaning from the expressions below: answer, connect, contact again later, find, to succeed in talking to someone on the telephone, talk louder, telephone again, wait, to end a telephone conversation. 9. Complete these sentences with the phrasal verbs from exercise 8. 1. I tried to phone her but couldn't . 2. Let me speak to Beth before you .. 3. I'm a bit busy - can I . you .. later? 4. If you don't know his telephone number, .. it . in the directory. 5. I tried his home number but he didn't .. 6. Could you .. me . to the managers office, please? 7. I'll . to you later with those figures. 8. Could you ? I can't hear you very well. 9. , I'll check in my diary. Language focus Ways of expressing futurity Present Continuous Im seeing Mary tomorrow. Present Simple Her plane gets to Henri Coand at 10:45. (To Be) Going To Were going to discuss the new discounts. Future Simple / will She thinks more tourists will visit Romania this year. Future Continuous Mary will be staying at the Happy Hotel. Future Perfect Simple Hell have arranged her hotel accommodation by then. For more information read the grammar compendium. 3010. Make these sentences interrogative and then negative: a. Sophie will be shopping at this time tomorrow. b. Ill go to the theatre next Monday. c. Their train arrives at 4.00 p.m. d. Next year the company will be ten years old. e. I am going to stop smoking. f. We are flying to Scotland tomorrow. g. Theres going to be an increase in the price of oil. 11. Put the verbs in brackets into the corresponding verbal tense indicated in italics: a. Tom to the seaside next week. (to go Future Simple) b. you .. come to our Head Office tomorrow? (to come Future Simple) c. What David . ? (to sell Going to) d. The term on January 22nd. (to end Present Simple) e. We .. back from our holiday on September 10th. (to come Present Continuous) f. Research says more people special activity holidays in future. (to book Going to) g. .. Mr Thomson . at 10:00 a.m. tomorrow, too? (to lecture Future Continuous) h. Diana at the end of the year. (to retire Future Continuous) i. At the end of the year we our initial investment. (to recover Future Perfect Simple) j. I dont know if I can finish the job by Thursday but I . my best. (to do Future Simple) k. I the Chief Executive on Tuesday. (to see Present Continuous) Language focus The future is never used in temporal and conditional clauses! 31 12. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. a. While Tom (go) to the post office, Ben .. (take) the car in for inspection. b. Tom (go) swimming when he (have) enough time. c. We(have) breakfast as soon as we (reach) the restaurant. d. If Debbie (miss) the bus, she (be) late for the conference. e. The guests(find out) what rooms they have when they (arrive) at the destination. f. I (not leave) the room until you ..(come back). g. If my parents ..(not arrive) before noon, they .. (not find) available rooms. h. If my telephone. (not be) out of order as usual, I(call) you when we ............ (leave) home. i. They(get) the message sooner if you (send) it by e-mail. j. In case it . (rain) tomorrow, I (stay) at home. 13. Put the verbs in brackets into the corresponding verbal tense indicated in italics: a. We............ (meet) him outside the cinema at 6.30 p.m. (Present continuous) b. They................(find) a new supplier. (Going to) c. I expect it (be) another good year for us. (Future simple) d. Im busy now but I (call) you back in half an hour. (Future Simple) e. He . (have) lunch with Tom Barrymore on Friday at 1 p.m. (Present continuous) f. you .. (come) to the concert? (Future continuous) g. By the time you get home I . (clean) the house from top to bottom. (Future perfect) 32h. I.. (let) you know when she (get) here. (Future simple, Present simple) i. I still (not feel) very well, so I think I (see) the doctor some time this week. (Present continuous, going to) 33 345. CAREERS 1. Here are some well-known occupations and professions: babysitter, businessman, burglar, beggar, cameraman, cartoonist, chef, chemist, decorator, economist, electrician, governor, gardener, journalist, lawyer, librarian, manager, milkman, mathematician, mechanic, musician, photographer, politician, professor, policeman, physicist, psychiatrist, psychologist, salesman, sailor, singer, scientist, shop-assistant, surgeon, taxi-driver, teacher, translator, waiter, window-cleaner. Work in groups of three. Choose five of the above occupations and professions and describe the work that each of them do. For example: A gardener works in a garden. He plants seeds, he grows flowers and vegetables, he mows the lawn and he spends a lot of time digging and weeding. 2. How well a career suits you, and how satisfied you are with it, very much depends on your personality. It also depends on how well it matches your interests and the values that are important to you. What kind of personality do you have? Find out by solving this quiz. Tick the statement you agree with: 1. Id love to do a parachute jump. 2. I dont like telling other people what to do. 3. I prefer spending time on my own rather than in a crowd. 4. I find it easy to set myself objectives. 5. I have difficulties in making decisions. 6. I find it difficult getting to know new people. 7. Id love to travel abroad. 8. Friends sometimes complain that I order them around. 9. I like to have the advice and support of experienced people. 10. I dont like volunteering opinions in case they are 35unpopular. 11. I like to try to find new solutions to old problems. 12. I would prefer to be team captain than team member. 13. I get embarrassed easily. 14. I don't mind where I go with my friends as long as they are happy. 15. I like the latest fashions. 16. I like to be fully responsible for anything I do. Check your scores now. Three or four ticks in any category indicate personality characteristics you should take account of when choosing a job. Scoring A. 1, 7, 11, 15 B. 2, 5, 9, 14 C. 3, 6, 10, 13 D. 4, 8, 12, 16 A. positive answer for 1, 7, 11, 15: the entrepreneur - you are adventurous; you enjoy challenges and taking risks; you could find success in creative work. B. positive answer for 2, 5, 9, 14: the team worker - you work well with others, but dislike to be given responsibility, so you prefer to put into practice other peoples plans; you would do well in the army. C. positive answer for 3, 6, 10, 13: the backroom worker - you are a little shy and find it difficult to mix with new people. You would do well in any behind-the-scene job where you dont have to come face to face with strangers; you could be a researcher. D. positive answer for 4, 8, 12, 16: the leader - you are confident in your abilities and you want to be in charge, not to take orders; you enjoy having lots of people around and organising them. 363. Match the occupational interests with the aptitudes needed for them and with the job that best reflect them. A. Occupational interests: 1. Scientific 2. Computational 3. Artistic 4. Persuasive 5. Practical 6. Literary 7. Welfare B. Aptitudes a. working with tools and materials b. investigating natural phenomena to understand how things happen c. concerning yourself with helping others d. dealing with figures e. expressing ideas and feelings through words f. influencing others to accept your ideas g. creating and appreciating things of beauty C. Careers Surgeon; lathe operator (strungar); priest; lawyer; judge; blacksmith; pilot; novelist; salesperson; advertising agent; teacher; plumber; accountant; nurse; counsellor. 4. Work in pairs. Student A: Ask your partner the following questions, then answer his/her questions. 1. What do you look for in a job? 2. Is it a good idea to change jobs frequently? 3. What is a "part-time job'? 4. Have you ever had a part-time job? If so, has it brought you any satisfaction? Student B: Answer your partners questions, and then ask him/her the following questions: 1. Could a part-time job in any way prove useful to your future career? 2. What aspects did you take into account when you chose 37your career? 3. What do you plan to be doing in four years time and in ten years' time? 4. What are the good points and the bad points of your present job/of being a student? 5. What qualities do you think you will need for your chosen career? 5. The list below contains qualities that employers look for when they want to employ people. In pairs decide what these qualities are needed for. Qualities: pleasant personality, physical appearance, good academic record, intelligence, well-informed about the job applied for, good character, ambition, well-informed about the company or business. a pleasant personality What for? e.g. a pleasant personality - to fit into the working community - to be good for the public relations department 6. Put the words in the box under the following headings Selfish, reliable, tolerant, tactful, tactless, boastful, cheerful, helpful, shy, modest, brilliant, difficult, moody, pessimistic, optimistic, hard-working, handsome, easy-going, sociable, irritating, generous, ambitious, bad-tempered, obstinate. A. positive adjectives e.g. reliable B. negative adjectives e.g. tactless 7. Choose four adjectives from the box to describe the qualities you like most in an employer. Now choose another three 38to describe someone you dont like working with. Language focus We can increase or reduce the strength of adjectives by using modifiers. e.g. rather pessimistic, a bit boastful A bit quite/fairly rather/pretty really/veryextremely When there are two or more fact adjectives in a sentence, they usually go in the following order: (determiner) opinion size age shape colour origin material used for/be about (noun) For more information read the grammar compendium. 8. Put the adjectives in the correct order. a. The house belongs to a(n) old peculiar man. b. His girl has blue big lovely eyes. c. The missing person is wearing a leather full-length black coat. d. Im meeting a American, long-haired, tall boy. 9. The words nervous, bad-tempered, moody, and anxious are often confused. First read their definitions as given by the Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners and then complete the sentences with the most appropriate word. Nervous adj. feeling excited and worried, or slightly afraid + about; + of Bad-tempered adj. someone who is bad-tempered easily becomes annoyed or angry Moody adj. 1. likely to become unhappy or angry for no particular reason 2. creating a feeling of sadness or mystery Anxious adj. 1. worried because you think something bad might happen; + about 2. wanting something very much, especially when this makes you nervous, excited, or impatient; +for a) Parents who are always shouting are 39b) You dont want to miss your train; you feel c) Before an interview you may feel d) Your friend is often cheerful or depressed within a very short time. She is e) Hes always been a little of change. f) Toms boss is usually very on Monday morning. g) People are naturally about these tests. h) Jill admits shes , but says its because shes an artist. i) We were all for peace. Language focus Adjectives have the following degrees of comparison: 1. Positive e.g. tall, interesting, good 2. Comparative - of superiority e.g. taller, more interesting, better - of equality e.g. as tall as, as interesting as, as good as - of inferiority e.g. not so tall as, not so good as, not so interesting as/less interesting than 3. Superlative -absolute e.g. very tall, extremely good, very interesting - relative e.g. the tallest, the most interesting, the best For more information read the grammar compendium 10. Match the two parts of the sentences: 1. Meeting new people is really a. the most interesting person I have ever met. 2. Studying English is b. as interesting as the previous one. 3. Tom is c. small to medium sized. 4. The critics say his new book is d. more interesting than I expected. 405. Two star hotels are typically e. higher marks in her geography exam than last year. 6. She got f. interesting. 11. Fill in with the correct form of the adjective in brackets: a) Our new car is than the car you are driving. (fast) b) A hill is than a mountain. (high) c) I am . than you are. (optimistic) d) I puppy is as . as yours. (adorable) e) This boy is of all. (tall) f) The ice cream is . I have ever eaten. (good) g) That birthday cake is of all. (delicious) 12. Read the text and underline the things that can help you get a job. Getting a good job is directly related to your success and happiness, so you should begin your job search long before you are ready to find employment, building relationships with people who could help you find work when you need it. Such persons include classmates, professors and business people. When you are ready to search for your career job, you should start putting the necessary papers together: the letter of application or Covering letter and the CV/resume (in the US). The way you present yourself on paper is a vital step in any job application. A letter of application should mention: Where you have seen the advert; Why you are interested in the job advertised; Your achievements and responsibilities at school / university / former job; Your suitability for the job; When you are available for interview. A letter of application should be accompanied by a CV. The CV or curriculum vitae is a short personal history which provides your future employer with basic information about the applicant. 41There are many ways of writing it but it should always be set out so that it is very easy to read. A CV should include: Your full name, address and telephone number; Date and place of birth; Nationality; Marital status; Exact dates and places of education; Examinations passed, especially those internationally recognized; Knowledge of foreign languages; Previous employment and work experience; Other interests, hobbies; Names and addresses of two or three referees (e.g. teachers / professors who know you well or family friends). 13. The Europass CV is nowadays required by more and more employers. It enables you to make your skills and qualifications visible. Find an example at and write your CV. 14. Read again what a letter of application should mention and rearrange the following paragraphs in the correct order. Dear Sir/Madam, I am fluent in both English and French. I am not married and would be able to travel extensively for considerable periods. I look forward to hearing from you, I enclose a CV and I should be glad to receive an application form and further details of salary and conditions. I can be present for an interview at whatever time is suitable for you. I am writing about the job in your advertisement in today's 'Gazeta de Transilvania'. I would like to apply for the position of Children's Counselor. I have just graduated from high school where I was editor of the 42schools 'Talk to Me' Magazine. Mike Insecure Yours faithfully, 15. Translate into English this letter of application and compare the Romanian polite formulas with the English ones. You should complete the letter of application with the missing parts: senders address, date, inside address, signature. Stimate domn, Ref: Asistent - Departamentul Relaii Publice Am aflat prin intermediul anunului aprut n ziarul Transilvania expres din data de 15 septembrie 2010 despre oportunitile de angajare pe care firma dumneavoastr de publicitate le ofer studenilor. Am fost foarte ncntat c exist n Romnia companii care dau studenilor posibilitatea s nvee practic i s dobndeasc experien. Dup cum vei vedea din Curriculum Vitae alturat, sunt student in anul III la Facultatea de Psihologie - Pedagogie a Universitii Spiru Haret. Am obinut rezultate foarte bune n anii de studiu anteriori, iar perioadele de practic au constituit nceputurile formrii mele ca viitor specialist n domeniu. A dori s scot n eviden calitile pe care consider c le posed i care cred c vin n ntmpinarea cerinelor postului oferit de dumneavoastr. Caliti comunicaionale - tiu s m fac uor neles i reuesc n multe cazuri s i conving pe ceilali s adopte ideile mele; lucrez foarte bine n echip. Cunotine teoretice de comunicare social i relaii publice - dobndite la cursurile i seminariile din facultate. Cunotine temeinice de limba englez i computer - dobndite pe perioada liceului i a anilor de facultate. Dac aceste abiliti sunt de interes pentru firma dumneavoastr, sper c m vei contacta la adresa menionat mai 43sus. In cazul unui interviu, v voi explica mai amnunit de ce consider c sunt potrivit pentru postul de asistent la Departamentul Relaii Publice. Cu respect, Mike Insecure 6. BODY LANGUAGE 1. Read the text and find out what body language is. Body language is a broad term for forms of communication using body movements or gestures instead of, or in addition to, sounds, verbal language, or other forms of communication. It is important because it is more truthful than the spoken words. Many people send and receive non-verbal signals all the time. These include the most subtle of movements that many people are not aware of, including winking and slight movement of the eyebrows. In addition body language can also incorporate the use of facial expressions. Body language is used especially to express feelings. For instance, if we do not like someone, it is often difficult to say that directly to the person. However, we can make it clear either intentionally or unintentionally through body language. The technique of reading people is used frequently. For example, the idea of mirroring body language to put people at ease is commonly used in interviews. Mirroring the body language of someone else indicates that they are understood. People who lie tend to look to the left (fabricating information) while their face turns away and no eye contact is made. They may wipe their hands on pants to get rid of sweat. They may even gesticulate less. It is important to note that body language has different meanings in different cultures. How we can interpret body language depends on the situation, the culture, the relationship we have with the person as well as the gender of the other. This 44means that there is not one signal that has the same meaning all over the world. 2. Read the text again and answer these questions: a. Which shows what we really feel a persons words or their body language? b. What does body language include? c. Why do people mirror other peoples gestures and body posture? d. Does the same interpretation of body signs apply to people all over the world, regardless of culture or race? 3. Look at the words and phrases in the box. Which parts of the body are they associated with? 1. wink at someone; 2. frown at someone; 3. give someone a look; 4. wave at someone; 5. nod at someone; 6. shake your head; 7. shrug your shoulders; 8. drum your fingers; 9. shake hands with someone; 10. grin at someone / something; 11. keep an eye on someone / something 4. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word or phrase from exercise 3. a. To show agreement, approval or greeting, you . b. To show that you are not serious about something you have said, you c. To show that you are annoyed, puzzled or worried, you d. To show you dont know the answer to something someone asks you, you .. e. You can . to show you dont care or to show you do not know the answer to something. f. To show you are waiting impatiently, you g. To show that you are really happy or pleased, you at someone or something. 5. In pairs discuss the following questions. 45a. How do you normally greet your friends? b. Have you ever had to keep an eye on something? c. When was the last time you frown at someone? Why? Language focus We use past simple to talk about events and actions that are finished. Affirmative: S + V-ed/V2 Negative: S + did+not + V Interrogative: did + S + V? For more information read the grammar compendium 6. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form. a. Many people in the audience . in agreement. (nod) b. He his fist at the driver who out in front of him. (shake, pull) c. He . at me from the doorway. (grin) d. He his shoulders as if to say that there ... nothing he could do about it. (shrug, be) e. For a moment I .. he was being serious, but then he at me. (think, wink) f. He me a really dirty look. (give) g. I .. to him from the window but he . me. (wave, not see) 7. Complete the blank spaces with the corresponding verbs in the past tense simple: a. He always goes to work by car. Yesterday he ... to work by bus. b. They always get up early. This morning they ........... up late. c. Bill often loses his key. He ....................... one last Saturday. d. I write a letter to Jane every week. Last week I ... two letters. 46e. She meets her friends every evening. She ..... them yesterday evening, too. f. I usually read two newspapers every day. I only .................. a newspaper yesterday. g. They come to my house every Friday. Last Friday they ......., too. h. Tom always has a shower in the morning. Tom ............. a shower this morning, too. i. They buy a new car every year. Last year they ........... a new car, too. j. I eat an orange every day. Yesterday I .............. two oranges. k. We usually do our shopping on Monday. We ........... our shopping last Monday, too. l. Ann often takes photos. Last weekend she .............. some photos. m. We leave at 8.30 every morning. But yesterday we ....... at 8.00. Language focus We use past continuous to talk about actions that were going on at a certain moment in the past. Affirmative: S + was/were + V-ing Negative: S + was/were + not + V-ing Interrogative: was/were + S + V-ing? For more information read the grammar compendium 8. Put the verbs in brackets into the corresponding verbal tense indicated in italics: a. I . (wave) my hand madly but he never once (look) in my direction. (Past Continuous, Past Simple) b. What you (grin) about? (Past Continuous) c. Why Sara (take) sea-sickness pills? (Past Simple) d. The childs body .. (shake) with sobs. (Past Continuous) e. She (shake) as she opened the letter. (Past 47Continuous) f. They (run) when it (start) to rain. (Past Continuous, Past Simple) 9. Put in the Simple Past Tense or the Past Tense Continuous form of the verbs in brackets: 1. What he . when you phoned him? (do) 2. I an apple every morning when I was young. (eat) 3. he . two interviews this week? (give) 4. Diana a skirt when she someone calling her name. (buy, hear) 5. It .. a lot last spring. (rain) 6. What course the students last year? (have) 7. We the French course last Monday. (not attend) 8. David to go to London. (want) 9. I I couldnt see as well as Tom. (admit) 10. Last August we by plane to Turkey. (travel) 11. They constantly parties until the early hours of the morning. (have) 12. I said I him. (believe) 13. He always me. (interrupt) 14. This time last week we abroad. (travel) 15. . your friends . to Cluj last month? (fly) 48 49EATING OUT 1. Put the following words in the correct groups. (Use a dictionary to help you) banana, tuna, sole, trout, chicken, potatoes, carrots, beef, lamb Fish Meat Fruit Vegetables Now add more words to each list. 2. Read the dialogue and answer the following questions: a. Where are the people? b. Are they pleased? - Good evening, sir. A table for two? - Yes, I phoned yesterday. - What was the name, please? - Smith. - Ah, yes, sir. Over here, please. - Waiter, can we have the menu, please? - Yes, sir. Ill bring it right away. Mr. Smith: Wed like to order. Waiter: Yes, sir. What would you like to start with? Mr. Smith: Id like tomato soup. Mrs. Smith: Ill have the same. Waiter: Two tomato soups. And to follow? Mr. Smith: Id like roast chicken, please. Mrs. Smith: And Ill have fried trout with mashed potatoes. Waiter: Im afraid the trout is off. Mrs. Smith: Oh dear. Err... What else do you recommend? 50Waiter: The sole is very good. Mrs. Smith: OK. Ill have that. Do you have any coleslaw*? Waiter: No, Im sorry, we dont. Mrs. Smith: Just give me a small mixed salad then. Waiter: And what would you like to drink? Mr. Smith: I think Ill have a pint* of larger. Mrs. Smith: A glass of white wine for me, please. Waiter: Thank you. Mr. Smith: Whats your fish like? Mrs. Smith: Its very nice. And your chicken? Mr. Smith: Its not bad. Mr. Smith: Waiter, can we have the bill, please? Waiter: Yes, sir, here you are. Did you enjoy the meal? Mr. Smith: Yes, it was excellent. * Coleslaw = cold uncooked cabbage, carrot and onion, cut into long thin strips and covered in a thick creamy cold sauce * pint = a measure for liquid equal to about half a litre 3. In groups of three role play the situation above. Language focus: Some and any We use some in positive sentences and with offers and requests. We use any in negative sentences and questions. For more information read the grammar compendium 4. Complete the sentences with some, any or a/an. a. His wife doesnt want pint of beer. b. Would you like more wine, sir? c. Are there tables free? d. Could I have clean fork, please? e. She made me sandwiches. f. There isnt bread. g. Did you buy . milk? 51h. Can I have . Juice? i. Tom never eats vegetables. Language focus: Countable nouns have a singular or plural form. We can count them. Uncountable nouns only have a singular form. We cannot count them. For more information read the grammar compendium 5. Put these words in the correct groups. Potato, rice, chocolate, milk, salt, meal, broccoli, juice, coffee, paper, information, advice, sugar, food, child, burger Countable Both Uncountable Now add more words to each list. Language focus: Some nouns are countable in Romanian, but uncountable in English. e.g. news - veste/tire sau veti/tiri For more information read the grammar compendium 6. Complete the sentences with is or are. a. The news not very good. b. His money . dirty. c. The fish good. 52d. What time . the news on T.V.? e. Hamburgers often served with tomatoes and lettuce. f. . the information interesting? g. Your luggage . heavy. h. Your bags not so heavy. Language focus: Many / (a) few + countable nouns Much / (little) + uncountable nouns For more information read the grammar compendium 7. Underline the correct alternative. a. There isnt much / many cheese on the table. b. The information doesnt seem / dont seem to be correct. c. Have you got many / much luggage? d. My father gave me an advice / a piece of advice. e. Yesterday we had a little / a few tomatoes. f. Bill wants to read something. Buy him a paper / some paper! g. How many pieces of furniture / furniture will they bring? h. Tom hasnt made much / many progress. i. Dan bought a pair of trousers / trousers last week. j. Why is / are the police here? k. Are there many / much people in front of the statue? l. There is a little / a few apple juice in the fridge. m. How many / much bread do you want? n. He smokes too many / much cigarettes. 8. There are mistakes in some of these sentences. Find the mistakes and correct them. a. We have got a bread. b. There is some oil in the bottle. c. The money is in my pocket. d. Hes got some informations. 53e. The spaghettis are cooked. f. Your hairs are lovely today. g. There is some good news. Language focus: Modal verbs (requests and offers) We use can, could and may to ask for something. We use the modal verb could in polite requests. e.g. Could you repeat that, please? Would / Do you mind + V-ing? also expresses a polite request. e.g. Would you mind closing the door? Would you like ? is used to make a polite offer. e.g. Would you like to see the wine list? For more information read the grammar compendium 9. Ann is at Toms home. Tom offers her the following things: tea, ice cream, a sandwich, an aspirin. Complete what Tom says. Use Would you like a/an/some ? T: A: Oh, yes, please. Im really thirsty. T: A: Oh, yes, please. I love ice cream! T: Are you hungry? A: No, its all right. Im fine, thanks. Err in fact Ive got a headache. T: . A: Oh, yes, please. Thank you. 10. Ask for the following things in a restaurant: a menu, some coffee, the bill, a glass of red wine, spaghetti Bolognese, some mineral water. Use: 54Can Could May I have , please? 11. What requests can you make in these places? a. a hotel b. a post office c. a hairdressers d. a bank e. a florists e.g. Could I have a room with a shower? 55MEMORY 1. Read the following text about memory and write down the new words. Psychologists consider memory as the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information. Each of the three parts of this definition encoding, storage, and retrieval represents a different process, which you can think of as analogous to a computers keyboard (encoding), disk (storage), and screen (retrieval). Only if all three processes have operated will you experience success. Memory experts suggest that there are both similarities and differences in memory across cultures. According to psychologist Daniel Wagner, basic memory processes, such as short-term memory capacity and the structure of long-term memory, are universal and operate similarly in people of all cultures. In contrast, cultural differences can be seen in the way in which information is acquired, rehearsed, and retrieved from memory. Consequently, culture determines how people consider and frame information initially, how much they practice learning and recalling it, and the strategies they use to try to recall it. In sum, the association between culture and memory can be compared to the relationship between computer hardware and software. Basic memory processes, analogous to computer hardware, are universal across cultures. On the other hand, the software of memory the way information is initially acquired, rehearsed, and retrieved is influenced by the nature of a specific culture. (Adapted after Feldman, S. Robert Essentials of Understanding Psychology) 2. Match the words in column A with their definitions in column B and then with their Romanian equivalents in column C. 56 A B C 1. encode a. to get something I. similar 2. store b. to represent complicated information in a simple or short way II. a dobndi 3. retrieve c. comparing things which have similar features III. a stoca 4. analogous d. to repeat IV. a codifica 5. acquire e. to find and bring back something V. a repeta 6. rehearse f. to put or keep things in a special place for use in the future VI. a recupera, a salva 3. Read the text again and mark the following statements T (true) or F (false). Correct the false ones. a. Encoding information is the first step of the process. b. In order to memorize something successfully you need to encode, store and retrieve information. c. Daniel Wagner thinks that short-term memory and long-term memory are universal and operate similarly in people all over the world. 4. How many expressions can you think of containing the words brain and mind? Write as many expressions as you remember in no more than 2 minutes. 5. Read now the following expressions. How many of them appear on your list? Match the expressions in column A with their meanings in column B. A. B. 1. Hes really brainy. a. to be unable to take a decision 572. Can I pick your brains later? b. to share the ideas. 3. We need to do some brainstorming. c. to get some of your ideas. 4. He went out of his mind (with anger) d. to completely lose control. 5. He put it out of his mind. e. to be a little bit crazy and unstable. 6. Shes not in her right mind. f. to be boring, repetitive. 7. His job was completely mindless. g. to be really clever. 8. Hes in two minds. h. to decide not to think about something any more. Answer the following questions: What is the most mindless job you have ever done? Have you ever been in two minds about anything? Who is the brainiest person you know? Is there a time when you went out of your mind with anger or worry? Language focus: The present perfect simple can describe: - a life experience; - something that has never happened; - a recent event. Affirmative: S + to have + V-ed/V3 Interrogative: to have + S + V-ed/V3? Negative: S + to have + not + V-ed/V3 For more information read the grammar compendium 6. Fill in the blanks with the right form of the verb to have. 1. The teacher opened her book. 2. The students learned the lesson. 583. Ken typed a letter. 4. Our fax number changed. 5. They updated their website. 6. Tom and Ann had a good year so far. 7. The assistant housekeeper tidied the bedroom. 7. Put the verbs in italics in the present perfect tense as in the model below: Model: Mr. Harvest leave the company. Mr. Harvest has left the company. 1. Ms Brown work with children before. 2. Where is Tom? I dont know, I see him. 3. Yes, I know Ann. We be friends for a long time. 4. I complain about the traffic before. 5. I find the letter you were looking for. Here it is. 6. Nothing like this happen before. 7. She write five letters this morning. 8. If you not meet the captain yet, this is an ideal opportunity. 9. The manager is not in the office. He go home. 10. Ben is closing his workbook. He do his homework. 11. The chambermaids change the sheets and make the bed. 12. Diana not work at the hotel for very long. 13. You use a lot of cheese! 14. The waiter serve the drinks to the group. 15. He bring another steak. 8. Complete the sentences with for or since: 1. He has waited .. two hours to see you. 2. He has been here . 9 oclock. 3. The bank office has been staffed .. it came into being. 594. The founders of this body of principles have settled it.. the enterprise was founded, 5. They have finished .. several hours. 6. The clerks have worked in this office .. 20 years. 7. Many things have changed we were children. 8. The central heating has been on .. October. 9. Her husband has been very patient with her . she got ill. 10. The workers strike has lasted .. three weeks. 11. She has lost weight that tragic accident in which her baby died. 12. I havent eaten anything .. twenty-four hours. 9. Complete the sentences with the verb in brackets in the present perfect simple or the past simple. 1. you to the cinema last night? (go) 2. you ever to Australia? (be) 3. We to Russia last winter. (go) 4. I last Monday. (not work) 5. Tom is not here. He home. (go) 6. We arent hungry. We lunch. (have) 7. you breakfast yesterday? (have) 8. The bus . five minutes ago. (leave) 9. I a teacher since 1996. (be) 10. Tom in New York for ten years. (live) He lives there now. 11. She yet. (not arrive) Language focus: We use the present perfect continuous - to indicate that an action is unfinished; - to emphasize how long an action has been in progress; - for actions in the past that have a result in the present, or a relevance to the present. The action may or may not be finished. 60Affirmative: S + to have + been + V-ing Interrogative: to have + S + been + V-ing? Negative: S + to have + not + been + V-ing For more information read the grammar compendium 10. Complete the sentences with the verb in brackets in the past simple, the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. Dear Tom, I finally (find) time to write to you from London. Im sorry it (take) me so long, but I (be) really busy. We (be) here for four days already and we already (see) and done tons of things. I (dash) around every day, from one museum to another and theres still so much I (not manage) to see. I (been) to the British Museum, the Tate Gallery and the Tower of London. On Thursday I (visit) Windsor Castle, which is outside London. I (buy) you something really nice from there. Hope you are OK. you (miss) me? Hope you (not work) too hard. Take care, Ann 61TRANSPORT Do you travel a lot? What is your favourite way of travelling? Why? 1. Find ten forms of transport and three types of roads in the word puzzle. C A R D P I N M O T O R W A Y T U B E L S D O Y R E O A D P S D S T A X I T E A F A L P P U E V U N E X O R N G D D S A B U S S E H E R F E A B O A T C O A C H S H B S H I P D G H M O P E D I D I T S T R E E T T A N T R A T K F O O L V A N R I N G R O A E T R A M P I T 2. Read the following text and decide if the statements following it are true or false. A friend or an enemy? Traffic and pollution problems have become a matter of concern in the whole world. The number of accidents is high and is continually increasing. Pollution, due to exhaust fumes, is remarkably high. But we cant deny that since the 1900s the rising popularity of the car has had a major impact on the way we live. Whatever you call them motorways, freeways, inter-state highways, autobahns, auto routes special roads have been built in almost every country in the world. And towns and cities have been redesigned to make it possible for drivers to come and go and stop between. Cars are a global issue. By 2010, the total number of cars in the world is expected to rise by almost 10 per cent, and the jobs 62of many millions of workers are dependent on our love of driving. The car has brought us many benefits. It has made our lives easier: it has given us the freedom to travel at any time of day or night, to go anywhere, to take other people with us, to transport things we couldnt carry without the car. (Text adapted from Rosi Jillett, Cutting Edge Intermediate/Upper Intermediate Video Workbook, Longman, 2001) a. The car has had a minor impact on our lives. b. The popularity of the car has led to the construction of more and more roads. c. The popularity of the car has led to towns being redesigned. d. The car has given us the freedom to travel whenever we want wherever wed like to. 3. In pairs, answer and ask the following questions: a. Do you prefer to use public transport or your car? Why? b. When did you last travel by train? How did you feel? c. Could you live without a car? Why (not)? To indicate the means of transport we use: By + form of transport. Exceptions: on foot, on horseback. Some verbs are followed directly by forms of transport: to catch, to take, to ride. 4. Read the following dialogues. Underline with a simple line the sentences used to ask for directions and information and with a double line the sentences used to give directions / information. A. - Excuse me, sir, is there any hotel near here? - Yes, there is. - Can you tell me the way to the hotel, please? - Certainly. Go straight on, then turn left at the traffic light, go along for about a hundred meters and theres the Aro hotel. - Thank you very much, sir. - Not at all. 63 B. - Excuse me, how do I get to St. Paul's Cathedral? - You take the Central Line from here. - How many stops is it? - It's the fourth station. C. - Excuse me. - Yes? - I was wondering if you could help me. - Well, Ill try. - I need to find out where the town centre is. Now I see theres a sign up there that points to the left. - Ah well, let me see er it all depends if youre on foot or going by car. - Ah no, Im walking. - Well, you turn to the right and then carry straight on. - Ah, right, thanks! Er I wonder if you could tell me if theres a good hotel in town that I can use. - Oh, let me think a moment um yes, there are two hotels theyre in the Main Street one on each side of the road. - Right, well, I expect Ill manage to find one of those. I wonder if you could tell me anything about the castle in town, where it is, I mean. - Um, well, its actually further on er down the Main Street and then you cross over the bridge and its on the other side of the river. - I see. Could you tell me a bit more about it? Is it interesting? Is it old? - Im not really sure. Ive never actually been there myself. It yes, I think its quite old, I think its about um 500 years old something like that. - Do you happen to know when its open? - Im not really sure. I think it depends on what time of year you go. - Well, right, thank you, thank you. - Youre welcome. Have a nice stay! 64 5. Match the explanations in column A with the words given in column B: A B 1. In a town there is a lot of a) zebra-crossing 2. Pedestrians must walk on the b) stop 3. You must cross the street on a c) pavement 4. When you cross the street without looking you can be d) go/cross 5. A street where the traffic goes in one direction is a e) traffic 6. A green light means f) one way street 7. A red light means g) collide 8. When two cars drive into each other, they h) double-deckers 9. When there are many people on the bus we say i) knocked down by a car 10. Buses with two stores are j) the bus is crowded Language focus: We use the past perfect simple to indicate that an action was finished before another past action. Affirmative: S + had + V-ed/V3 Interrogative: had + S + V-ed/V3? Negative: S + had + not + V-ed/V3 For more information read the grammar compendium 6. Join these sentences using by the time as in the example. The play started. They arrived. The play had started by the time they arrived. 65 a) We had lunch. He came downstairs. b) She ate the ice cream. We got there. c) His wife did the ironing. He came back from work. d) The poor man died. The doctor arrived. e) He lost the phone number. He got to the phone booth. Language focus: We use the past perfect continuous for actions in the past that were in progress up to or near a time in the past. We often use it with for and since. Affirmative: S + had + been + V-ing Interrogative: had + S + been + V-ing? Negative: S + had + not + been + V-ing For more information read the grammar compendium 7. Answer these questions using the past perfect continuous and the verb between brackets. e.g. Why were Anns eyes red? (cry) She had been crying all night. a. Why were the roads wet? (rain) b. Why was Tom tired? (study) c. Why was tom coughing? (smoke/ too much) d. Why was Ann sick? (eat/ too much) e. Why was Tom in such a good mood last night? (dance) f. Why were Toms clothes dirty last afternoon? (play football) 66 67AMERICAN ENGLISH Can you tell the difference between British and American English? Do you know any words from American English? 1. Read the text and underline the areas in which British English (BE) and American English (AE) may be different. When the British landed in North America in 1620, they took their language with them. Since then, BE and AE have developed separately, and there are now some differences between them: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, idioms, formatting of dates and numbers. Although George Bernard Shaw said that the United States and United Kingdom were two countries divided by a common language and Oscar Wilde wrote We have really everything in common with America nowadays, except, of course, the language (The Canterville Ghost, 1888), people have to admit that the differences are quite small and speakers of American and British English usually have no problems understanding each other. Most of the differences in vocabulary between BE and AE are in connection with concepts originating from the 19th century to the mid 20th century, when new words were coined independently. More than half of the words belonging to the car/automobile and railway/railroad industries are different between the UK and US. Other sources of difference are slang or vulgar terms and idiomatic phrases, including phrasal verbs. Here are some vocabulary differences: BE AE crisps chips chips French fries underground subway flat apartment 68lift elevator lorry truck pavement sidewalk petrol station gas station jam jelly car boot trunk shop store autumn fall pushchair stroller Also, there are differences related to spelling: AE uses -or where BE uses -our and -er (AE) instead of -re (BE). For example, AE: color, neighbor, center BE: colour, neighbour, centre. The most noticeable difference from the grammatical point of view is the less use of the present perfect in AE than in BE. e.g. Ive just arrived home. (BE) I just arrived home. (AE) 2. Match the US English with the UK English words. AE BE 1. flashlight a. trousers 2. pants b. biscuits 3. jogging suit c. dustbin 4. cookies d. drugstore 5. chemist e. torch 6. trashcan f. tracksuit 3. Read the following sentences and say where each person comes from: Britain or America. Mary: Take the lift! Ken: Dont push the stroller! Bill: I live in a block of flats. Ben: Ill sell my lorry tomorrow. 69Doris: I have just eaten some strawberry jam. Dan: Do you have a trashcan here? Ann: Is there a subway near here? Tom: Can you tell me where the nearest chemist is? Language focus: When direct speech is converted into indirect speech, various changes take place in the form of the clause. Theses changes concern the tenses used, the pronouns, and the adverbial modifiers of place and time, because a persons words are often reported in a different time context, from the point of view of a different person, and in a different place. For more information read the grammar compendium 4. Report what the people in exercise 3 said. Use asked/ wanted to know/said/told e.g. Mary told us to take the lift. 5. Put the following statements into indirect speech, using reporting verbs in the past. e.g. Your English is getting better, Ann. He told Ann that her English was getting better. a. Youre looking very well, Ann. b. I didnt hear the bell ring. c. I dont like your new hat, Tom. d. Theyll start building the house in May. e. Tom, give aunt Emily this parcel! f. Miss Field, dont come late to office tomorrow. g. Mr Smith, Ms Smooth has just phoned. 6. Complete the reported speech sentences using one of the following verbs: promised, asked, explained, announced, told. 70a. He me to pass him the salt. b. She him not to do that. c. They they would give me back my money soon. d. Tom they had only finished because they had worked late every evening. e. Dan he was getting married to Sara. 7. Report the following using a reporting verb in the past. a. Will Tom go into the army next year? b. Can I possibly finish the work by 5 oclock? c. Is Dan going with you? d. Why did you join the police force? e. Have you worked in electronics before? 8. Choose the correct reported speech version of each statement. 1. Tom said, I want to visit my friends this weekend. a. Tom said he wants to visit his friends that weekend. b. Tom said he wanted to visit his friends that weekend. c. Tom said he wanted to visit his friends this weekend. 2. Jerry said, Im studying English a lot at the moment. a. Jerry said he was studying English a lot at that moment. b. Jerry said he was studying English a lot at the moment. c. Jerry said I was studying English a lot at that moment. 3. They said, Weve lived here for a long time. a. They said they have lived there for a long time. b. They said they lived here for a long time. c. They said they had lived there for a long time. 4. He asked me, Have you finished reading the newspaper? a. He asked me if had I finished reading the newspaper. b. He asked me if I had finished reading the newspaper. c. He asked me if I finished reading the newspaper. 5. I get up every morning at seven oclock, Peter said. a. Peter said he got up every morning at seven o'clock. b. Peter said I got up every morning at seven o'clock. c. Peter said he had got up every morning at seven o'clock. 71COMPLAINTS Have you ever made a complaint? Why? 1. Read the following letter and underline the complaints. Why are the guests dissatisfied? Dear Sir / Madam, I am writing this letter to complain about the service offered to my family and myself during our recent stay at your hotel. I have completed the Feedback Form, but I would like to add a few further points. To start with, on arrival we were told the suite we had booked was not free and we were offered instead accommodation in two double rooms. In a three-star hotel I expect to find a satellite TV, but there wasnt one in our rooms. When we asked the receptionist, she said there werent any TVs in the Sun Flower Hotel and that we could watch TV at home. Finally, I must mention the room service it was very slow. On the first day, I had to wait one hour for a cup of coffee. I hope you appreciate my disappointment and will consequently take action to improve the service in your hotel. Yours faithfully, TThompson Tom Thompson 2. Find words and expressions in the above letter that mean: to express (my) dissatisfaction - filled in - wish - 72understand - as a result - 3. Read the following conversation between a waiter and a client and answer the following questions: a. What is the guest complaining about? b. Do you think the waiter behaved appropriately? C: Excuse me! W: Ill be with you in a minute, sir. Is everything all right, sir? C: No. This steak is too rare. W: Im sorry, sir. C: Id like it medium, please. W: Certainly, Ill ask the chef to put it back under the grill, sir. () Here you are. One medium steak. C: Thank you. () C: Excuse me, but I think you overcharged us for the water. W: Let me see. It says two bottles of sparkling water. C: But we only had one bottle. W: Im sorry. Im afraid theres been a mistake. Ill ask the cashier to deduct one bottle. C: Thank you. 4. Read the conversion above again. Are the following statements true or false? c. The guest complains the food is too cold. d. The waiter returns with an overdone steak. e. The guest thinks there is a mistake on the bill. f. The guest had tow bottles of water. g. The cashier made a mistake. Language focus Useful phrases when complaining about food: 73- too + adjective e.g. Its too cold. - not + adjective + enough e.g. This beer isnt cold enough. - there + be not + enough + noun e.g. There isnt enough ice. - over / under + V-ed/V3 e.g. This steak is overdone. Language focus We make the passive voice by using the verb to be + the past participle. e.g.We were met at the airport by the tour representative. We use the passive voice especially when the agent is not known, is people in general, is unimportant, or is obvious. For more information read the grammar compendium 5. Change the following sentences into the passive voice. a. Somebody told us something. b. They offered us accommodation in two double rooms. c. They destroyed the building. d. Somebody introduced me to Mr. Petrescu last year. e. They have called for the doctor. f. The tomorrow newspaper will comment upon that great scientific event. g. We often refer to these lines of poetry. h. They spoke a lot about that outstanding composer. i. Somebody has bought the red car. j. Someone is describing the situation. k. The jury didnt award the prize to the writer. l. Someone was offering them flowers. 74Language focus Verbs that can be followed by either object + object or object + prepositional object in active clauses can have two corresponding passive forms. e.g. Somebody sold me flowers. I was sold flowers. or Flowers were sold to me. Verbs that cant be followed by object + object in the active voice have only one passive form. e.g. The teacher explained the lesson. The lesson was explained. For more information read the grammar compendium 6. Make one corresponding passive sentence or two, if possible, as in the example. e.g. Someone handed me a plate. I was handed a plate. / A plate was handed to me. a. They have thrown a ball to me. b. Someone will describe the situation. c. Someone gave the toy to Tom. d. They are telling a story to us. e. Someone explains the procedure to the beginners every year. f. She teaches us interesting things. g. Someone had reported the theft to the police. h. He promised me a new book. i. The waiter has brought him two clean knives. 75II. GRAMMAR THE PRONOUN 1. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN PERSON CASE NUMBER SINGULAR PLURAL FIRST PERSON NOMINATIVE I WE GENITIVE MINE OURS DATIVE (TO) ME (TO) US ACCUSATIVE ME US SECOND PERSON NOMINATIVE YOU YOU GENITIVE YOURS YOURS DATIVE (TO) YOU (TO) YOU ACCUSATIVE YOU YOU THIRD PERSON NOMINATIVE HE THEY GENITIVE HIS THEIRS DATIVE (TO) HIM (TO) THEM ACCUSATIVE HIM THEM NOMINATIVE SHE THEY GENITIVE HERS THEIRS DATIVE (TO) HER (TO) THEM ACCUSATIVE HER THEM NOMINATIVE IT THEY GENITIVE ITS THEIRS DATIVE (TO) IT (TO) THEM ACCUSATIVE IT THEM 76The personal pronoun is used to talk about the speaker I or speakers We, the person(s) we are speaking to you, the person we are speaking about he, she, or the persons and things we are speaking about "they". It is used: to talk about a thing or an animal. e.g. I 've got a bag. It is black. to talk about the time e.g. It is 2 o'clock. to talk about days e.g. It is Monday today. to talk about the weather e.g. It is sunny. to talk about distances e.g. It is 5 kilometres to the town centre. to emphasize a word or a phrase e.g. It was daddy who entered the room suddenly last night. as a subject when the subject clause comes later in the sentence. e.g. It is nice that you brought me flowers. You, they sometimes are used to speak about people in general (everyone). e.g. You are healthy if you eat fresh fruit. They say she is a good nurse. In English we do not normally leave out subject pronouns. e.g. It is cold today, (not: Is cold today.) Mary isnt from Bucharest. Shes from Brasov. (not: Is from Brasov.) 2. THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN AND THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE 2.1. THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN Person/Number Singular Plural First person mine ours Second person yours yours 77Third person his theirs hers theirs its theirs The possessive pronoun replaces both the object that is possessed and the person who possesses it. e.g. Marys book is new. Mine is old. The book is mine. 2.2. THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE Person/Number Singular Plural First person my our Second person your your Third person his their her their its their The possessive adjective replaces the person who possesses something and determines the noun that expresses the object which is possessed. e.g. This is his book. 3. THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN AND THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE 3.1. THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN Singular Plural near reference this these distant reference that those The demonstrative pronouns usually express spatial and temporal relationships between the objects they stand for and the speaker. 78 e.g. This is our university. 3.2. THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE Singular Plural near reference this these distant reference that those The demonstrative adjective determines a noun and expresses the place of the noun in time or space. e.g. This man helped me. 3.3. OTHER DEMONSTRATIVES Other demonstratives that can function both as pronouns and adjectives are: the former, the latter, the first, the last, the other, the others, the same, such. e.g. I met Mr Black and Mr White, the former had a white hat, the latter had a black one. We went to the conference. The others went home. 4. THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUN Person/Number Singular Plural First person myself ourselves Second person yourself yourselves Third person himself themselves herself themselves itself themselves We use a reflexive pronoun to talk about the same person or thing that we mentioned in the subject of the sentence. 79e.g. Im teaching myself English. 5. THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN AND THE INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE 5.1. THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN The indefinite pronouns: Some is used: to substitute a plural countable noun e.g. I didnt have any psychology books, so I went to buy some. to substitute an uncountable or mass noun e.g. Coffee? I could do with some. to suggest contrast e.g. Did you like these books? Some are interesting, some are boring. in questions, if the question is really a request or an invitation, or if the reply expected is Yes e.g. Would you like some? Something usually has non-personal reference. It may refer to some thing, object, event of an indefinite nature. e.g. She wants something to write with. Something may have personal reference when it signifies a person of importance or a person who has some position or other. e.g. Johanna is something at the Scientific Research Department. Someone and somebody substitute nouns having personal reference. They have singular association and as subject take a singular verb. The lack of a common gender personal pronoun may however cause them to be replaced by they. e.g. There is somebody in the classroom. Someone/somebody has broken the front window. Somebody is often used with the indefinite article or in the plural, when signifying a person of some importance. e.g. Now that he passed that exam, he is (a) somebody. 80The indefinite pronouns any, anybody, anyone, anything have the same uses as the corresponding forms of some, but they occur in interrogative and negative sentences. e.g. We havent got any butter left. It was impossible for any air to get out. Some said they had seen everything, but I think it was too dark for any to see how it all started. Anybody, anyone are semantically and functionally similar to somebody and someone. e.g. Is anybody there? There isnt anyone here who can do it. Anything means a thing of any sort or, in affirmative sentences, no matter what. e.g. Has anything unusual happened? I want to drink something; anything will do. The indefinite pronouns none, nobody, no one, nothing occur in negative sentences when the verb is in the affirmative. Nobody and no one have personal reference and as a subject take a verb in the singular. Nothing has non-personal reference. e.g. Have we got any more sugar? Theres none in the kitchen. Nobody knows where he is. No one has seen him for two weeks. Nothing can help me. The indefinite pronouns everybody, everyone, everything are similar in function and connotation to the other compounds with -body, -one, -thing. e.g. Is everybody here? Tomorrow Ill write to everyone concerned. Everything is all right. 5.2. THE INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE The indefinite adjective some occurs in affirmative sentences. e.g. I have some important problems to solve. The indefinite adjective any is used in interrogative and negative sentences. e.g. I havent got any money. The indefinite adjective no occurs in negative sentences, when the 81verb is in the affirmative. e.g. There are no mistakes in your paper. The indefinite adjective every is used only with singular nouns. e.g. I have every reason to be angry. THE NOUN According to countability, nouns can be: I. Countable, when they can be counted (they have a singular and a plural form) and can be used with the indefinite article (a, an) with the singular form or with many, few, several with the plural form. Singular countable nouns cannot be used alone. e.g. The bird is nice. (not: Bird is nice.) II. Uncountable, when they cannot be used in the plural or with the indefinite article, but can be used with much, little. Uncountable nouns can be used alone. e.g. The pollution is dreadful today. Pollution is awful. Some nouns can be countable in one meaning and uncountable in another. e.g. paper (hrtie/ziar) Paper is expensive nowadays. / I've got an evening paper. I. COUNTABLE NOUNS [C] Countable nouns have two forms: singular and plural. The plural of countable nouns: most nouns add "-s" to the singular form: a boy - two boys 1z1 a map - two maps /s/ Spelling rules: 1. if the singular form of the noun ends in "-ss, - s, -se, -ch, -sh, -x, -z" we add "-es" /izl to that form: a glass - two glasses a rose - two roses a dish - two dishes a box - two boxes 822. some nouns ending in "-o" add "-es", others add "-s": a potato - two potatoes a hero - two heroes a Negro - two Negroes BUT a photo - two photos a radio - two radios 3. some nouns ending in "-f, -fe" substitute "-ves" for "-f, -fe": a calf - two calves; a loaf - two loaves a half two halves; a wife two wives a life two lives; a leaf two leaves BUT a roof two roofs a dwarf two dwarfs a chief two chiefs a proof two proofs 4. nouns ending in a consonant followed by "-y" change "-y" into "-i" and add"-es": a party - two parties a story - two stories some countable nouns have irregular plurals: a man - two men a woman - two women a child - two children an ox - two oxen a foot - two feet a goose - two geese a tooth two teeth a mouse - two mice a louse - two lice a deer - two deer a sheep - two sheep a spacecraft - two spacecraft a species - two species a fish - two fish ! fishes = different species of fish a fruit - two fruit ! fruits = different varieties of fruit some countable nouns come from Greek or Latin; their plural is different from the usual one in English: Datum data 83Symposium symposia Phenomenon phenomena Criterion - criteria Axis axes Crisis - crises II. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS [U] Uncountable nouns have only one form. They often refer to: - substances: coal, coffee, flour, ice, sand, sugar, water - human qualities: courage, cruelty, honesty, patience - feelings: anger, happiness, hope, joy, pride - activities: help, sleep, work - abstract ideas: freedom, fun, luck 1. singular invariable nouns, which take a verb in the singular, are: concrete uncountable nouns: bread, meat, luggage, baggage, furniture, money, equipment e.g. The money is on the table. (Banii sunt pe masa.) abstract uncountable nouns: advice, happiness, homework, housework, information, knowledge, music, nonsense, progress, peace e.g. Her advice is always good.. (Sfaturile ei sunt ntotdeauna bune.) proper nouns: Mary, The Netherlands, The Danube e.g. The Danube flows into the Black Sea. nouns ending in "-s": news, measles, mumps, athletics, cybernetics, economics, ethics, gymnastics, informatics, optics, mathematics, physics, cards, billiards, darts e.g. This news is good. (Aceste veti sunt bune.) To express quantity of uncountable nouns, we can use: much, little, piece, item, bar, loaf, slice, gramme, pound, kilogram, etc.: a piece of news - o veste/tire an item of information = o informaie a bar of soap = un spun a loaf of bread = o pine a slice of bread = o felie de pine a gramme of sugar a kilogram of flour 842. plural invariable nouns, which take a verb in the plural: - these nouns refer to single items that have two linked parts: nouns referring to clothes or other things people wear: (sun)glasses, jeans, pants, pyjamas, trousers, tights, shorts, slacks, knickers; nouns referring to tools or other things that people use: binoculars, compasses(the drawing instrument), nutcrackers, pincers, scissors, scales, tongs: - proper nouns: The Alps, The Carpathians, The Highlands - other "pluralia tantum": barracks, clothes, customs, contents, manners, means, wages, stairs, savings, surroundings - substantivized adjectives: the rich, the poor, goods - unmarked plurals: cattle, infantry, people, police e.g. The police are here. When we want to refer to one article of dress or instrument, we can use the word pair: a pair of trousers / scissors ... COLLECTIVE NOUNS - refer to a group of people or things. e.g. army, audience, committee, community, company, council, crew, enemy, family, flock, gang, government, group, herd, jury, press, public, staff, team... With collective nouns we can use either a singular verb or a plural verb. We choose the singular form of the verb if we think of the group as a single unit, when they are used generically. We choose a plural form of a verb if we think of the group as a number of individuals, when reference is made to the component elements. e.g. Her family is large. (Familia ei este mare) / Her family are at home. (Ai ei / membri familiei ei sunt acasa.) CASE OF NOUNS: THE GENITIVE 1. the analytical genitive with the preposition of is used with neuter nouns or with long noun phrases. 85e.g. the leg of the table; the wife of the man you have met 2. The synthetical genitive with "s added to the singular form of the noun or to irregular plurals, and " ' " added to regular plurals or to proper nouns ending in "-s". e.g. the boy's car; the man's results; the children's performance; the students' answers; Dickens' works The synthetical genitive is used with: - nouns denoting persons or other beings: e.g. Mary's car; the dog's tail - nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, value: e.g. a two months' holiday; yesterday's newspaper; a life's work; a mile's drive; a pound's weight; five dollars' worth. - geographical names or places: e.g. England's weather - collective nouns: e.g. the firm's investment - some phrases connected with nature (nouns that can be personified): e.g. the ocean's roar; the day's heat - some words followed by "sake": e.g. for peace's sake; for order's sake GENDER OF NOUNS There are four categories of gender in English: 1. masculine: man, brother 2. feminine: woman, sister 3. neuter: book, table 4. common: cousin, friend, patient Gender contrasts are expressed with the help of: - different words: husband - wife; boy - girl... - compounds: schoolboy - schoolgirl, he-bear - she bear, tom-cat - pussy-cat, - suffixes: host - hostess, hero - heroine 86THE ARTICLE 1. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE The English definite article is the. It is pronounced // in front of the words that start with a consonant and /i/ in front of the words that start with a vowel. The is used with nouns already mentioned or known to the listener/reader: e.g. There is an English student in our University. She met the English student. ( The student we have previously talked about) with nouns followed by a prepositional phrase, a relative clause, or an apposition. e.g. The parcel from Sibiu arrived yesterday. This is the student who handed your papers in. Mr Smith, the doctor, is a Welshman. with nouns considered unique: e.g. You can join the International Conservation Scouts. The sun rises in the east. with singular nouns, talking about the class in general e.g. The cow is a useful animal. before an adjective in the superlative degree e.g. That is the oldest tree in town. with nouns converted from adjectives, denoting a class, nationality or an abstraction e.g. We should help the poor. The English are nice people. The good is usually forgotten. with proper nouns in the plural, denoting a family e.g. The Smiths are here. with proper nouns denoting countries (if they represent a union, or if they are in the plural) e.g. I would like to visit the United States. with proper nouns denoting groups of islands, chains of mountains, deserts, oceans, seas, rivers e.g. I have never been to the Black Sea. We saw the Thames and the English Channel last year. 87 with proper nouns denoting hotels, shops, institutions e.g. We'll stay at the Hilton (hotel). with proper nouns denoting ships, trains, planes e.g. Have you ever seen the Queen Mary sailing? with proper nouns denoting newspapers and magazines e.g. He reads the Observer. in phrases e.g. to tell the time, by the way, to play the fool, on the whole 2. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE The English indefinite article is a/an. It is written a and pronounced // in front of the words that start with a consonant and an /n/ in front of the words that start with a vowel. The indefinite article is used: with a singular countable noun which is indefinite. Either we dont know which one, or it doesnt matter which one. e.g. Can I have a banana? with professions. e.g. Tom Cruise is an actor. Shes a research psychologist. to mean each/every in phrases. e.g. once a day/week/hour ten kilometres an hour 3. THE ZERO ARTICLE It has no written or spoken form. The zero article is used: with proper nouns denoting persons, continents, countries, regions, towns, mountains, lakes, capes, buildings, streets, bridges, months, festivals, days of the week, magazines and periodicals. e.g. Tom visited Oxford Street and Waterloo Bridge last year. with uncountable nouns or plural nouns used in a general sense: e.g. Oil is lighter than water. Chopsticks are used a lot in Japan. 88 with nouns like bed, church, college, hospital, prison, school, university, work: e.g. What time do you go to university? Tom is at work. with nouns denoting meals and seasons: e.g. He has breakfast at seven. Winter is coming. with nouns denoting languages: e.g. Tom speaks German. in phrases: day by day, in bed, at home, by sea, by car/bus/plane/etc., on foot, at sunset, to be in trouble, by mistake, in silence, watch television/TV, (be) on television/TV QUANTIFIERS 1. These quantifiers are used with singular nouns: another, each, either/neither, every. e.g. Please give me another apple. 2. These quantifiers are usually used before plural or uncountable nouns: all (the), any, both, enough, more, most, no, plenty of, some, a lot of, several, thousands of. 3. Any can be used with a singular noun with positive sentences to suggest it doesnt matter which. e.g. Any guidebook will give you the information you need. 4. Much/many are usually used in negatives/questions. e.g. I havent got much time. Were there many research psychologists? 5. A few or few can only be used with plural nouns. A little or little can be used before uncountable nouns. Few and little are for a negative idea. A few and a little are positive. e.g. Fortunately I have a few very good friends. Few psychologists come to such a remote place. We still have a little coffee left from the party. There is (very) little hope of finding any more survivors. 6. Some quantifiers can be combined. e.g. a little more/less salt every few hours 89THE VERB English tenses have two elements of meaning: time and aspect. Time refers to when, and aspect refers to how the speaker sees the event. Time : Present / Past / Future Aspect : Simple / Continuous / Perfect The simple aspect describes an event which is permanent, complete, habitual, or a simple fact. The continuous aspect describes an event which is temporary, incomplete, or in progress. The perfect aspect describes an event which relates to two different times. The event is completed at an indefinite time before another time. English has two voices: an active voice and a passive one. THE AUXILIARY VERBS TO BE, TO DO, TO HAVE are called auxiliary verbs because they help to form tenses, being combined with the infinitive, the present participle or the past participle. TO BE helps to form the continuous aspect and the passive voice. TO DO helps to form the interrogative form, the negative form and the interrogative - negative form of the present tense simple and past tense simple. TO HAVE helps to form the perfect aspect. THE ACTIVE VOICE PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE Basic form: affirmative: S + V ; S (IIIrd person singular) + V-s e.g. I eat (grapes in fall). He eats plums in the morning. S = subject (remember that a sentence should have a subject) V = verb, the infinitive form of the verb 90 Spelling rules: 1. if the verb ends in "-ss, - s, -ch, -sh, -x, -z" we add "-es" /izl to that form at the third person singular: e.g. to wash he washes to watch he watches 2. verbs ending in a consonant followed by "-y" change "-y" into "-i" and add"-es" at the third person singular: e.g. to try she tries to spy he spies interrogative: Do + S + V? Does + S (IIIrd person singular) + V? e.g. Do you understand? Does your mother work in a hospital? negative: S + do + not + V S (IIIrd person singular) + does + not + V e.g. I do not know what to say. She does not like reading. PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS Basic form: affirmative: S + to be + V-ing e.g. I am writing now. You are dreaming now. He is watching TV now. Spelling rules: 1. final mute e is normally dropped before the ing inflection. e.g. to behave behaving to shave shaving 2. final base consonants are doubled before ing when the preceding vowel is stressed and spelled with a single letter. e.g. to admit admitting to prefer preferring 3. in bases ending in ie, the ending turns into y before -ing. e.g. to die dying to lie lying 91 to tie tying interrogative: To be + S + V-ing? e.g. Are you drinking water? Is your daughter teaching English this year? negative: S + to be + V-ing e.g. He is not sleeping now. PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE / CONTINUOUS BASIC CONTRASTS Present Tense Simple generally refers to: Facts that are always true: e.g. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. Habits: e.g. British people drink a lot of tea. States: e.g. I dont like gangster films. Other uses of present simple: Making declarations (we usually use state verbs): e.g. I hope youll come to my party. I bet you dont know the answer! Headlines. These are written in a telegram style, and references to the past are usually simplified to present simple: e.g. Ship sinks in midnight collision. Instructions and itineraries: e.g. First you mix the ingredients. On day three we visit Bucharest. Summaries of events (plots of stories, films etc, and summaries of historical events): e.g. May 1945: The war in Europe comes to an end. Historic present in narrative and funny stories. In informal speech, it is possible to use the historic present to describe past events, especially to make the narration seem more immediate and dramatic. e.g. She goes up to this man and looks straight into his eyes. Present Tense Continuous generally refers to 92 actions which are actually in progress at the moment of speaking. e.g. The teacher is talking to us. actions which can be generally in progress but not actually happening at the moment of speaking. e.g. Im learning to drive. temporary actions e.g. Im staying in a hotel until I find a flat. Complaints about bad habits e.g. Theyre constantly having parties until the early hours of the morning. Other possible adverbs are: always, continually, and forever. With verbs describing change and development e.g. More and more people are giving up smoking. There are a number of verbs which cannot be used in the continuous aspect. These verbs usually refer to: Mental states: believe, doubt, expect, forget, hope, imagine, know, realise, recognise, regret, remember, suppose, think (that), understand Likes and dislikes: admire, dislike, hate, like, love, want, wish Possession: belong to, contain, have, include, own, possess Appearance: appear, look like, resemble, seem Being: be, consist of, depend, exist Perception: hear, see, smell, taste Some verbs have a stative meaning and a different active meaning. Verbs describing opinions and feelings tend to be state verbs. e.g. Jack is noisy. Jill is being noisy. Tom has a Porsche. We are having an interesting conversation! This fish tastes awful! I am just tasting the soup. This bag weighs a ton! We are weighing the baby. It depends what you mean. I am depending on you. I think youre right. Be quiet! Im thinking. PAST TENSE SIMPLE 93 Basic form: affirmative: S + V-ed/V2 e.g. Our departments worked with the government to formulate policies. Spelling rules: 1. verbs ending in a consonant followed by "-y" change "-y" into "-i" and then add"-ed": e.g. to try I tried to spy he spied 2. final mute e is dropped before the ed inflection. e.g. to behave behaved to shave shaved 3. final base consonants are doubled before ed when the preceding vowel is stressed and spelled with a single letter. e.g. to admit admitted to prefer preferred interrogative: Did + S + V ? e.g. Did your lawyer communicate clearly and persuasively both orally and in writing? negative: S + did + not + V e.g. Unfortunately, lawyers did not show integrity in relationships. The short form of did not is didnt. Past simple generally refers to: Completed actions e.g. She arrived at Kennedy Airport at 2 oclock yesterday morning. Habits e.g. Every morning Tom went to the park. States e.g. In those days, Daria didnt like reading. PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS Basic form: affirmative: S + was/were + V-ing 94e.g. I was writing at this time yesterday. You were dreaming at 6.30 a.m. yesterday. He was watching TV when his friend called him. see the Spelling rules under the affirmative form from Present Tense Continuous. interrogative: Was/were + S + V-ing? e.g. Were you drinking water when I phoned you? Was your daughter teaching English in September? negative: S + was/were + V-ing e.g. He was not sleeping while the teacher was explaining. Mary wasnt working in a restaurant when I was living in London. Past continuous generally refers to: Actions in progress (often interrupted by events) e.g. She was drinking her tea at this time yesterday. While I was learning, the phone rang. Background description in narrative Changing states e.g. The engine was making more and more funny noises. Repeated actions criticism e.g. When David was at kindergarten, he was always crying after his mother. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE Basic form: affirmative: S + to have + V-ed/V3 e.g. The aim has been to make the new Code more relevant and accessible to all civil servants. interrogative: to have + S + V-ed/V3? e.g. Have you failed the test? negative: S + to have + not + V-ed/V3 e.g. I havent done my homework yet. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS 95 Basic form: affirmative: S + to have + been + V-ing e.g. Shes been living in the US for over a year now. interrogative: to have + S + been + V-ing? e.g. How long have you been waiting for me? negative: S + to have + not + been + V-ing e.g. I havent been doing my homework since 3.20 am. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE / CONTINUOUS BASIC CONTRASTS We use both the present perfect continuous and the present perfect simple to talk about something that started in the past and which affects the situation that exists now. The difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the activity or event which may or may not be finished. The present perfect simple, however, focuses on the effect of the activity or event, or the fact that something has been achieved. e.g. Shes been driving for 3 years now. We have driven all the way here without a break. Sometimes the difference between them is simply one of emphasis. e.g. Ive been following their discussions with great interest. (emphasizes the activity; that is, my following their discussions) Ive followed their discussions with great interest. (emphasizes the result; I may now react to what was said or decided) PRESENT PERFECT / PAST SIMPLE BASIC CONTRASTS We use it to talk about something that happened in the past, but we dont specify precisely when it happened. e.g. A French sportsman has broken the record for running We use it when we want to indicate that something happened at a specific time in the past. e.g. She arrived at Otopeni Airport at 2 oclock this morning. 96backwards. It suggests some kind of connection between what happened in the past, and the present time. Often we are interested in the way that something that happened in the past affects the situation that exists now. e.g. Ive washed my hands so I can eat. We use it for situations that existed for a period of time in the past, but not now. e.g. When I was younger I learnt English. The Pharaohs ruled Egypt for thousands of years. If we are interested in when a present situation began rather than how long it has been going on for, we use the past simple. Compare: e.g. I started to get the pains three weeks ago. Ive had the pains for three weeks now. However, we also use the past simple to talk about how long something went on for if the action or event is no longer going on. e.g. I stayed with my grandparents for six months. (= I am no longer staying there) We can use either present perfect or the past simple to talk about repeated actions or events. If we use the present perfect, we often suggest that the action or event might happen again. Sometimes we emphasize this with phrases such as so far and up to now. If we use the past simple, it suggests that it is finished and wont happen again. Compare: e.g. Patrick has written 9 films and I think her latest is the best. Patrick wrote 9 films before she was tragically killed in a car accident. In news reports, you will often read or hear events introduced with the present perfect, and then the past simple is used to give the details. e.g. The film star Jim Cooper has died of cancer. He was 68 and lived in Texas We can use both the present perfect and the past simple to talk 97about states. We use the present perfect to talk about a state that existed in the past and still exists now, and we use the past simple if the state no longer exists. e.g. I have known him most of my working life.(Im still working) I knew him when we were both working in Rome. PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE Basic form: affirmative: S + had + V-ed/V3 e.g. Jill discovered that Tom had lied to her. interrogative: had + S + V-ed/V3? e.g. Had you wanted to visit the gallery before you left Florence? negative: S + had + not + V-ed/V3 e.g. Bill hadnt wanted to retire at 60, but they persuaded him to leave. PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS Basic form: affirmative: S + had + been + V-ing e.g. She had been wearing high-heeled shoes, and her feet hurt. interrogative: had + S + been + V-ing? e.g. Had they been riding when you met? negative: S + had + not + been +V-ing e.g. Bill was arrested, even though he hadnt been doing anything illegal. PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE / CONTINUOUS BASIC CONTRASTS Past perfect tenses in general refer to an event in the past which happens before another event in the past, where there is no time expression to make this clear. e.g. By the time I got to the station, the train had left. 98The contrasts between past simple and past continuous can be made in past perfect tenses for events further back in the past. e.g. While I had been talking on the phone, Jill had entered the room. The whole place was deserted, but it was obvious that someone had been living there. Theyd been cooking in the kitchen for a start, and they hadnt bothered to wash the dishes. USED TO This often contrasts with the present. The contrast may be stated or understood. e.g. I used to go swimming a lot (but I dont now). affirmative: e.g. She used to write to relatives in China, but she doesnt anymore. interrogative: e.g. Did girls use to go to school? negative: e.g. I didnt use to play football when I was 10. WOULD This is used to describe repeated actions, not states. It describes a habitual activity which was typical of a person. e.g. Every week hed buy his mother a bunch of flowers. Used to would also be possible here. Compare: I used to like cowboy films. / I would like cowboy films. Would is not possible here. Other situations: - past situations e.g. Life in China used to be hard, particularly for women. Not would be Also: live - past states e.g. Mary used to be very beautiful. Also: have, know, like, see, think etc. 99UNFULFILLED PAST EVENTS These describe events intended to take place, but which did not happen. S + TO BE + GOING TO + V e.g. I was going to phone you, but I forgot. S + TO BE ABOUT TO + V e.g. I was about to do it, but I started doing something else. The contrasting past event is often understood. e.g. How are you? I was going to phone you (but I didnt) FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE Basic form: affirmative: S + will + V e.g. The children will enjoy seeing you again. interrogative: Will + S + V? e.g. Will you come back this evening? negative: S + will + not + V e.g. The meeting wont start at 10.00 am. FUTURE TENSE CONTINUOUS Basic form: affirmative: S + will + be + V-ing e.g. Next Friday, the President will be celebrating five years in power. Tom will be taking up his place at university in July. interrogative: Will + S + be + V-ing? e.g. Will you be coming to the concert? negative: S + will + not + be + V-ing e.g. After the operation you wont be doing any sport for a while. It describes an event which will be happening at a future point. e.g. Come round in the morning. Ill be painting the kitchen. FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE / CONTINUOUS 100 When we use the future continuous, we are often referring simply to some future event or action that has been previously arranged. However, we use the future simple, not the future continuous, to talk about such things as decisions that people have made, willingness to do things, inviting, promising, etc. e.g. Ann will help us organise the party. (= she is willing to help) Ann will be helping us to organise the party. (= a previous arrangement) Will you come to the concert? (= an invitation) Will you be coming to the concert? (= asking about a previous arrangement) In some contexts the future continuous also sounds more polite than the future simple. e. g. Will you be going to the shops later? If you go, could you get me some potatoes? The future simple is also used to express an immediate decision. e.g. Ill take this one. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE Basic form: affirmative: S + will + have + V-ed/V3 e.g. By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. interrogative: Will + S + have + V-ed/V3? e.g. Will you have finished reading by 10.00 pm? negative: S + will + not + have + V-ed/V3 e.g. The meeting wont have started by 10.00 am. We use the future perfect to say that something will be ended, completed, or achieved by a particular point in the future. It can also be used to express an assumption on the part of the speaker. e.g. You wont have heard the news, of course. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS Basic form: 101 affirmative: S + will + have + been + V-ing e.g. On Saturday, we will have been living in this house for a year. interrogative: Will + S + have + been + V-ing? e.g. Will you have been working in this company for 20 years next week? negative: S + will + not + have + been + V-ing e.g. Next year I wont have been working here for 10 years, but for 11. We can use the future perfect continuous to emphasise how long something has been going on by a particular point in the future. OTHER WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURITY 1. Present Tense Continuous We use the present continuous: to talk about future activities and events that are intended or have already been arranged. e.g. Shes making a speech at the conference next week. To emphasise that we are talking about a definite arrangement, we prefer the present continuous. e.g. Were having a party on Sunday, 12th November. Can you come? to talk about personal plans or predictions. e.g. Im really exhausted. Im just staying in to watch TV tonight. 2. Going to We use S + to be + going to + V: to talk about future activities and events that are intended or have already been arranged. e.g. Were going to do some climbing in the Pyrenees. When we talk about an intention to do something in the future, although no definite arrangement has been made, we prefer going to rather than the present continuous. e.g. Before I go to China next year, Im going to learn some Cantonese. to talk about permanent future situations. e.g. People are going to live longer in the future. to make or report predictions about activities or events over which we have no control, whose cause is present or evident. e.g. I think its going to rain soon. 102e.g. Look at that tree! Its going to fall 3. Present Tense Simple We use the present simple to talk about future events that are part of some official arrangement such as a timetable or programme. e.g. Their plane arrives at 5.00 am. The next meeting of the committee is on November 5th. 4. Be to S + to be to + V is used to talk about formal or official arrangements, formal instructions, and to give orders. It is particularly common in news reports to talk about future events. We only use S + to be to + V to talk about things that can be controlled by people. e.g. Children are not to be left unsupervised in the museum. The European Parliament is to introduce a new law on safety at work. If humans are to survive as a species, we must address environmental issues now. 5. Be about to, be on the point of S + to be about to + V and S + to be on the point of + V-ing refer to the next moment. e.g. I think the play is about to start now. Mary is on the point of resigning. 6. Be due to S + to be due to + V refers to scheduled times. e.g. The play is due to start in five minutes. 103INDIRECT/REPORTED SPEECH Indirect/reported speech is the exact meaning of what someone said, but not the exact words. We do not use quotation marks. The word that can either be used or omitted after the introductory verb (say, tell, suggest, etc.). When direct speech is converted into indirect speech, various changes take place in the form of the clause. Theses changes concern the tenses used, the pronouns, and the adverbial modifiers of place and time, because a persons words are often reported in a different time context, from the point of view of a different person, and in a different place. The verb tenses remain the same in reported speech when the introductory verb is in the present, future or present perfect. e.g. Tom says, Im handsome. Tom says (that) he is handsome. Compare: say/tell Say + no personal object e.g. Tom said he would read The Civil Code for the exam. Say + to + personal object e.g. Tom said to us he would read The Civil Code for the exam. Tell + personal object e.g. Tom told us he would read The Civil Code for the exam. When the reported utterance is introduced by a verb in the past tense, the rules are the following: Direct speech Indirect speech Present tense simple Past tense simple Present tense continuous Past tense continuous Present perfect tense simple Past perfect tense simple Present perfect tense continuous Past perfect tense continuous Past tense simple Past perfect tense simple Past tense continuous Past perfect tense continuous Future tense simple Future-in-the-past simple Future tense continuous Future-in-the-past continuous Future perfect tense simple Future perfect-in-the-past 104Future perfect tense continuous Future perfect-in-the-past continuous Imperative Long Infinitive (To - infinitive) Modals: May Can Must Shall Will Might Could Must/had to Should Would Yes/no questions S + V-ed + if + S + V Wh-questions S + V-ed + wh-word + V Reported questions are usually introduced with the verbs ask, inquire, wonder or the expression want to know. In reported questions, the verb is in the affirmative. The question mark and words/expressions such as please, well, oh, etc. are omitted. The verb tenses change as in statements. No change of the present tense occurs in the reported clause when the statement contains a natural law, a universal assertion, an eternal truth. e.g. Water freezes at 0Celsius. The teacher told them that water freezes at 0Celsius. Adverbs or adverbial phrases of time and place also change to suggest remoteness from here and now. Direct speech Indirect speech Here There In this place In that place Now Then Today (on) that day This That Yesterday (on) the previous day /(on) the day before Last the previous / the before ago before Tomorrow The following day/The next day Next The following /The next /The after 105ADJECTIVES Adjectives describe nouns, go before nouns and have the same form in the singular and plural. e.g. a huge tree/ huge trees Adjectives can also be used alone after the verbs be, look, smell, sound, feel, taste, seem, appear, become, get, stay, etc. e.g. He is handsome. It smells good. There are two kinds of adjectives: o opinion adjectives (interesting, fantastic)which show what a person thinks of somebody or something, and o fact adjectives (old, fat, short) which give us factual information about size, age, colour, origin, material, etc. There are simple and compound adjectives. Compound adjectives may be formed with: present participles: long-lasting journey past participles: broken-down car cardinal numbers + nouns: a three-day trip NOT: a three days trip well, badly + past participle: well-informed people ORDER OF ADJECTIVES Opinion adjectives go before fact adjectives. e.g. a beautiful Italian girl When there are two or more fact adjectives in a sentence, they usually go in the following order: (determiner) opinion size age shape colour origin material used for/be about (noun) e.g. (a) small, old, square, Chinese wooden (table) We do not usually have a long list of adjectives before a single noun. A noun is usually described by one, two or three adjectives at the most. 106ADVERBS Adverbs usually describe verbs, adjectives, other adverbs or sentences. An adverb can be one word (quickly) or a phrase (in the afternoon). Adverbs can describe manner (how), place (where), time (when), frequency (how often), degree (to what extent), etc. FORMATION OF ADVERBS We usually form an adverb by adding -ly to the adjective. e.g. extreme-extremely BUT: elderly, cowardly, friendly, likely, deadly, lively, silly, ugly, lovely, etc are adjectives. We use the words way/manner to form their adverbs. e.g. Bob had been very friendly to me. He greeted us in a friendly way/manner. Spelling rules: 1. Adjectives ending in -le drop the e and take -y. e.g. simple-simply 2. Adjectives ending in consonant + y change the y into i and add ly. e.g. lucky-luckily 3. Adjectives ending in -l take -ly. e.g. actual-actually The adverbs loud(ly), cheap(ly), quick(ly), tight(ly), fair(ly), and slow(ly) are often used without -ly. e.g. She speaks loud. Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives such as: hard, fast, free, high, low, deep, early, late, long, near, straight, right, wrong. Also hourly, daily, weekly, monthly and yearly. e.g. He runs fast, (adverb)/He is a fast runner.(adjective) The adverbs below have two forms, each with a different meaning: The dog buried the bones deep underground. (= a long way down) vs. He is deeply depressed. (= very) 107The club members can use the sauna free. (= without payment) vs. He was strolling in the corridors of the embassy freely. (= without limit or restriction) She put the flowers too high for the dog to reach. (= at/to a high level) vs. The film is highly recommended. (= very much) She returned home late in the evening. (= not early) vs. Jill has made great progress lately. (= recently) Which of these three shirts do you like most? (= superlative of much) vs. She was trying to explain to him that she's mostly interested in psychology. (= mainly) My house is near work. (= close) vs. The accused nearly collapsed when he heard the verdict (= almost) She speaks Italian pretty well. (= rather) vs. Mum was prettily dressed for that party. (= in a pretty way) He has been studying hard for the exams. (= with a lot of effort) vs. Hardly anyone did well in the exams. (= almost no one) Note: hardly has a negative meaning and is often used with: any, anything, anyone anywhere and ever. ORDER OF ADVERBS Adverbs usually go after verbs but before adjectives, other adverbs and participles. e.g. He walks slowly. (manner) The film was absolutely amusing. (degree) Sometimes adverbs go before the main verb. The adverbs of frequency (often, always, etc.) When there are two or more adverbs in the same sentence, they usually come in the following order: manner - place - time e.g. The little child was playing happily in the garden all day yesterday. If there is a verb of movement (go, come, leave, etc) in the sentence, then the adverbs come in the following order: place - manner - time e.g. John went to school on foot this morning. Adverbs of place and time can go at the end of the sentence. e.g. Ill go shopping tomorrow. (time) COMPARISONS 108AS / LIKE We use like: with nouns/pronouns/-ing form to express similarity. She treats him like a servant. (He isn't a servant.) with feel, look, smell, taste. She looks like her sister. We use as to say what somebody or something really is. e.g. He works as a waiter. DEGREES OF COMPARISON Adjectives have the following degrees of comparison: 1. Positive e.g. tall, interesting, good 2. Comparative - of superiority e.g. taller (see A.), more interesting (see B.), better (see C.) - of equality e.g. as tall as, as interesting as, as good as - of inferiority e.g. not so tall as, not so good as, not so interesting as/less interesting than 3. Superlative -absolute e.g. very / extremely etc. tall, very / extremely etc. good, very / extremely etc. interesting - relative e.g. the tallest (see A.), the most interesting (see B.), the best (see C.) A. The synthetical comparison is used for mono/disyllabic adjectives comparative of superiority: short adj. + -er relative superlative: the + short adj. + -est e.g. close - closer closest fine - finer - the finest dry - drier - the driest big - bigger - the biggest with two-syllable adjectives ending in -ly, -y, -w, we also add -er / -est. e.g. narrow-narrower-narrowest 109 with adverbs that have the same form as their adjectives, we add -er/-est. e.g. hard - harder hardest B. The analytical comparison is used for plurisyllabic adjectives comparative of superiority; more + long adj. relative superlative: the most + long adj. e. g. rapid - more rapid - the most rapid intelligent - more intelligent - most intelligent two-syllable or compound adverbs take more/most. e.g. slowly - more slowly - most slowly clever, common, cruel, friendly, gentle, pleasant, polite, shallow, simple, stupid, quiet can form their comparatives and superlatives either with -er/-est or with more/most Spelling rules: 1. for one syllable adjectives ending in a short stressed vowel + a consonant, we double the consonant. e.g. big-bigger-biggest 2. for adjectives ending in a consonant + y, we change the -y into an -i. e.g. tiny-tinier-tiniest 3. final mute e is dropped before er, -est. e.g. nice nicer nicest We use the comparative to compare one person or thing with another. We use the superlative to compare one person or thing with more than one person or thing of the same group. We often use than after a comparative and the before a superlative. e.g. He is older than me. He's the oldest person in the room. C. The irregular comparison Positive Comparative of superiority Superlative Relative Good better the best 110Bad/ill worse the worst Old Older - Elder* - the oldest - the eldest* Far farther - further* - the farthest - the furthest Little less - lesser* - the least the last Much /Many More the most Fore Former* - the foremost* - the first* Late - later - latter* - the latest* - the last* Near Nearer - the nearest* - the next* * elder and the eldest are used only attributively, in family relationships e.g. my elder sister * further = additional, more e.g. further information *lesser = smaller, not so important e.g. the writer's lesser works *former = of an earlier period, the first of two e.g. in former times *the foremost = chief e.g. the foremost poet of his period *the first = initial e.g. the first woman to come *latter = the second of two e.g. He has met Tom and Bob: the former is a teacher, and the latter is a lawyer. *the latest = the most recent e.g. the latest fashion *the last = final e.g. Eminescu's last poem *the nearest is used for distance e.g. Could you tell me the way to the nearest hotel? 111*the next refers to order e.g. the next bus is at six. Types of comparisons: as + adjective + as (to show that two people or things are similar in some way. In negative sentences we use not as/so ... as. e.g. This book is as expensive as that one. less + adjective + than (expresses the difference between two people or things) The opposite is more ... than. e.g. Ann is less rich than her sister. the least + adjective + of/in (compares one person or thing to two or more people or things in the same group) The opposite is the most... of/in. e.g. She is the least hard working person in the company. much/a lot/far/a little/a bit/slightly + comparative (expresses the degree of difference between two people or things) e.g. Tony is slightly younger than Bob. comparative and comparative (to show that something is increasing or decreasing) e.g. Its getting colder and colder. the + comparative ..., the + comparative (shows that two things change together, or that one thing depends on another thing). e.g. The more you talk, the less they listen. by far + the + superlative (emphasises the difference between one person or thing and two or more people or things in the same group). e.g. Last summer was by far the best summer I ever had. the + comparative when two things or persons are compared; in Romanian we use the superlative. e.g. Lola is the prettier of the two sisters. = Lola este cea mai drgu dintre cele dou surori. 112MODAL VERBS Modal verbs express the attitude of the speaker in what concerns the process of communication in progress, in development, the action being considered possible, probable, obligatory, desirable, etc. They are defective, that is they lack certain verbal forms. Accordingly, they cannot be used at all the moods and tenses, most of them having only indicative, present and/or past tense. That is why they have equivalents to express the other moods and tenses (can = to be able to; may = to be allowed to/permitted to; must = to have to). They do not receive the -s termination at the third person singular. They form the interrogative and negative without the aid of auxiliary verbs, in the style of auxiliary verbs. They are followed by the short infinitive of the notional verbs to form the present and by have + V3/ V-ed to talk about the past. Modal verbs Meanings Examples CAN Ability Tom can speak Japanese. Possibility The temperature can sometimes reach 35C in July. Permission (infl. & confident) Can I take another biscuit? Offers Can I help you with your bags? Request (infl. & confident) Can you turn your radio down, please? COULD Abilities in the past I could ski when I was a kid. Possibility ( the past = "sometimes; the future) 1. The electricity supply is very good now. Years ago there could be cuts that lasted for hours. 2.It could rain later. Permission (more Could I take another 113formal and often more polite) piece of cake? Requests (more formal and often more polite) Could you tell me the time of the next train, please? Offers Could I help you with your bags? MAY (to ask, give or refuse) permission (very formal, or ironic! ) May I use the phone? You may come in. No, you may not. Possibility The news may come as a shock to many of the people present. Speculations Those men can't be cleaning windows, can they? Its night! They may be robbers, I suppose. Warnings You'd better leave for the airport early - there may be a lot of traffic. MIGHT (to ask) permission (formal, very polite) Might I ask you a question? I was wondering if I might have the afternoon off work. Possibility She might think the meeting is on another day. Speculations Look at that girl. I thought she was laughing, but she can't be, can she? She might be crying because she's afraid of those men. Warnings Don't drink water from 114the taps - you might get ill. MUST Necessity I must stay in bed, I've got flu. Obligation You must stop at a red light. Drawing conclusions You must be our new neighbour! SHOULD Obligation: 1. giving advice or making a recommendation; 2. talking about a responsibility or duty 1. I should leave early tomorrow, if I were you. 2.You should visit your parents more often. Probability Have we got any string? There should be some in the kitchen drawer. Offers Should I phone for a taxi for you? OUGHT TO Obligation: 1. giving advice or making a recommendation; 2. talking about a responsibility or duty 1. This soup is too salty! You ought to send it back. 2. You ought to visit your parents more often. Probability Have we got any string? There ought to be some in the kitchen drawer. WILL Request (very direct) Will you help me carry this now - I'm dropping it! Willingness to do something I'll give you another opportunity to get the correct answer. 115 Assumption The phone's ringing. That'll be for me. SHALL Intentionality (the strong will of another person than the subject imposed on the subject) (I say) you shall finish your studies! Offers Shall I phone for a taxi for you? Regulations The Court of Justice shall have jurisdiction in any dispute between Member States. WOULD Request (more polite) Would you help me carry this, please? Annoying habit, typical of a person Ben would get lost, wouldn't he! It's typical! 116III. EXERCISES I. Choose the correct choice: 1. Charles Stevens ...... for Best Motors in the Sales Department. a. Work b. Works c. is working d. is worked 2. How long your car? a. are you having b. have you had c. you are having d. have you have 3. How to your office? a. do I get b. did I got c. I get d. I do get 4. I him for years. a. have known b. know c. have been knowing d. have knew 5. I in California when I met my friend Joe a. worked b. was working c. working d. have worked 6. It is one of cities in England. a. most polluted b. the most polluted c. polluted 7. She alone for ten years, since her parents death . a. has been living b. has been leaving c. had been leaving 117 8. I you now. a. am believing b. believe c. believing d. am believe 9. My name Yvonne Brioche and I from Montreal. a. are/come b. is/comes c. is/come d. are/comes 10. the five-day week? a. Who did invent b. Did who invent c. Did who invented d. Who invented 11. They a 20% discount for the duration of the trade fair. a. are offering b. offer c. offers d. is offering 12. I havent seen Tom my last birthday. a. for b. science c. since d. ago 13. John Logie Baird the first public demonstration of television in 1926. a. give b. gave c. has given d. given 14. I his hotel accommodation by tomorrow. a. will have arranged b. will arranged c. have arranged d. will arrange 15. Next year, the company five years old. a. will be b. will have c. will d. be 16. Judge Thomson today as judge Beanies has been taken ill. a. presides b. will preside 118c. is presiding d. presided 17. Tom ................... a teacher for more than a year now. a. was b. had been c. has been d. is 18. you a conclusion? a. Have ... reached b. Has ... reached c. Did .... reached 19. I havent seen Tom my last birthday. a. for b. science c. since d. ago 20. English? a. Have you ever learnt b. Did you learnt c. You learnt d. You have been learning 21. He in the countryside for seven years. He still lives there. a. has lived b. lived c. have lived d. left 22. Female Hollywood actors are now doing than men. a. good b. best c. better d. gooder 23. This is chair in the room. a. the most comfortable b. the most comfortablest c. the comfortablest d. the comfortable 24. It was thing I have ever done. 119a. the more difficult b. the difficultest c. the most difficultest d. the most difficult 25. Britt swims than Leila. a. more faster b. faster c. more fast d. fastest 26. Could I have more coffee? a. any b. some c. not d. a few 27. Id like bread. Is there left? a. any; some b. some; any c. any; any d. dome; something 28. Granny has been knitting since you a. have left b. had left c. were leaving d. left 29. people know the truth. a. this b. these c. one d. that 30. The stranger asked me whether I where the post-office was. a. know b. have known c. am knowing d. knew 31. A young porter helped me to carry my a. luggages b. luggage c. pieces of luggages d. piece of luggages 32. How often to the theatre? a. you go b. you are going c. are you going d. do you go 12033. You are my friend and thats why I can rely on you. a. oldest b. elder c. eldest d. elderly 34. Jimmy will be surprised when he you here. a. will see b. sees c. see d. shall see 35. She came because her car is being serviced. a. walking b. by foot c. on feet d. on foot II. Complete the sentences with the Present Perfect Simple or the Past Tense Simple form of the verbs in brackets: 1. I to get the pains three weeks ago. (start) 2. I the pains for three weeks now. (have) 3. My children a two months holiday last summer. (have) 4. I him when we were both working in Rome. (know) 5. David to go to London two years ago. (want) 6. Last week Tom work at 4.00 p.m. (leave) 7. Yesterday he . (come) into my office and (ask) for my help. I (tell) him that I would help him but he . (not seem) to trust my words. 8. When I .. (graduate) I was very determined to pursue a career in economics. But since then I .. (reconsider) my options and I (decide) to turn politician. 9. Bruce in San Francesco, where he attended the High School of Performing Arts. (grow up) 10. Louie My Restaurant since 1995. (own) 12111. Jamie four cookbooks so far. (wrote) 12. I two articles about this trend and I can now understand her decision. (read) III. Correct the errors in the following sentences. 1. Mary Thompson has an advice for you. 2. We need informations from you. 3. The news are bad, Im afraid. 4. Diana makes many moneys. 5. She bought beautiful furnitures. 6. What mean of transport do you prefer? 7. The three childs built three small snowmans. 8. The travel broadens the mind. 9. How much sandwiches did you make? 10. Tom always puts many salts on his food. 11. They use many chocolate and spicy sauces in Mexican cooking. 12. Help us with our researches by filling in two questionnaires. 13. His baggages were lost. IV. Choose the correct reported speech version of each statement. 1. Susan reassured me, I can come tonight. a. Susan told me I could come that night. b. Susan told me she could come that night. c. Susan told me she could come tomorrow evening. 2. She said, I really wish I had bought that new car. a. She told me she really wished she bought that new car. b. She told me she really had wished she had bought that new car. c. She told me she really wished she had bought that new car. 3. Cheryl asked her, How long have you lived here? a. Cheryl asked her how long she has lived there. 122b. Cheryl asked her how long she lived there. c. Cheryl asked her how long she had lived there. 4. She said, Ive worked here since I left my last job. a. She told me that she worked there since she had left her last job. b. She told me that she had worked there since she had left her last job. c. She told me that she had worked there since she left her last job. 5. She asked me, When are we going to leave? a. She asked me when she was going to leave. b. She asked me when we were going to leave. c. She asked me when we are going to leave. 6. My friend said, I will have finished my homework by the time you arrive. a. My friend told me he would have finished his homework by the time I arrived. b. My friend told me he would have finished his homework by the time he arrived. c. My friend told me he would had finished his homework by the time I arrived. 123IV. Information about the exam = colocviu Colocviul la Limba engleza 1 este oral si se sustine in presesiune, adica in ultimele doua saptamani de cursuri/seminarii. Fiecare student extrage un bilet. Pe fiecare bilet se afla doua subiecte: - primul subiect verifica cunostintele de gramatica elementara, cerand sa se treaca la interogativ si apoi la negativ patru propozitii la timpuri diferite, diateza activa; - al doilea subiect verifica capacitatea de exprimare corecta si fluenta in limba engleza pe un subiect dat. 124 Exemplu: 1. Turn the following sentences into interrogative and then into negative. 4 points (0.5p x correct sentence) a. They are telling a story to us. b. They have called for the doctor c. Yesterday the manager called Tom in his office. d. Ill read a newspaper tomorrow. 2. Talk about your family. 5 points 125Exemple de intrebari pentru subiectul 2 de pe biletul de examen: Introduce yourself Describe your best friend What did you appreciate at your teachers? Why? What useful things do you expect to learn in the next three years? Why is it important for you to learn English? Qualities developed by school The best job / profession Talk about positive aspects and shortcomings of teleworking Donts of a Cv Dos of a Cv Would you like to live in a palace? Why (not)? Describe your house Talk about environmental problems Talk about your favourite means of transport Travel in the future All public transport should be free Talk about the best / the worst holiday accommodation Money doesnt bring happiness Money can buy everything, even happiness Shopping therapy an effective cure or just a joke? Shopping online or going shopping? Talk about mass media Talk about the modern means of communication