Lesson: Exploring Weather Patterns - The Ruth Patrick ...rpsec.usca.edu/Workshops/SISSI/LessonPlans/Weather/Weather_LessLesson: Exploring Weather Patterns Grade Level: K, 2 Content Area: Earth Science Core Areas: Exploring Weather Patterns, Weather Lesson Overview: Students ...
Copyright 2014 by the Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina Page 1 of 8 Lesson: Exploring Weather Patterns Grade Leve l : K, 2 Content Area: Earth Science Core Areas: Exploring Weather Patterns, Weather Lesson Overview: Students will learn about the weather. They will collect and analyze data to observe weather patterns through the seasons. They will learn about the wind and the effects of wind on objects. They will study severe weather and discuss solutions to problems severe weather causes. They will also research and present information about safety precautions necessary during severe weather. 2005 Standards Corre lat ion: Grade K Seasonal Changes Standard K-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of seasonal weather changes. (Earth Science) Indicators: K-4.1 Identify weather changes that occur from day to day. K-4.2 Compare the weather patterns that occur from season to season. K-4.3 Summarize ways that the seasons affect plants and animals. Grade 2 Weather Standard 2-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of daily and seasonal weather conditions. (Earth Science) Indicators: 2-3.1 Explain the effects of moving air as it interacts with objects. 2-3.2 Recall weather terminology (including temperature, wind direction, wind speed, and precipitation as rain, snow, sleet, and hail). 2-3.3 Illustrate the weather conditions of different seasons. 2-3.4 Carry out procedures to measure and record daily weather conditions (including temperature, precipitation amounts, wind speed as measured on the Beaufort scale, and wind direction as measured with a windsock or wind vane). 2-3.5 Use pictorial weather symbols to record observable sky conditions. 2-3.6 Identify safety precautions that one should take during severe weather conditions. Copyright 2014 by the Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina Page 2 of 8 2014 Standards Corre lat ion: Grade K Earth Science: Exploring Weather Patterns K.E.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Weather is a combination of sunlight, wind, snow or rain, and temperature in a particular region at a particular time. Scientists measure weather conditions to describe and record the weather and to notice patters over time. Plants and animals (including humans) respond to different weather conditions in different ways. Performance indicators: Students who demonstrate this understanding can: Standard K.E.3.A.1: Analyze and interpret local weather condition data (including precipitation, wind, temperature, and cloud cover) to describe weather patterns that occur from day to day, using simple graphs and pictorial weather symbols. Standard K.E.3.A.2: Develop and use models to predict seasonal weather patterns and changes. Standard K.E.3.A.3: Obtain and communicate information to support claims about how changes in seasons affect plants and animals. Standard K.E.3.A.4: Define problems caused by the effects of weather on human activities and design solutions or devices to solve the problem. Grade 2 Earth Science: Weather K.E.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Weather is a combination of sunlight, wind, precipitation (rain, sleet, snow, and hail), and temperature in a particular region at a particular time. Scientists measure and record these conditions to describe the weather and to identify patterns over time. Weather scientists (meteorologists) forecast severe weather so that communities can prepare for and respond to these events. Performance indicators: Students who demonstrate this understanding can: Standard 2.E.2.A.1: Analyze and interpret data from observations and measurements to describe local weather conditions (including temperature, wind, and forms of precipitation). Standard 2.E.2.A.2: Analyze local weather data to predict daily and seasonal patterns over time. Standard 2.E.2.A.3: Develop and use models to describe and compare the effects of wind (moving air) on objects. Standard 2.E.2.A.4: Obtain and communicate information about severe weather conditions to explain why certain safety precautions are necessary. Materials : Weather data collection tools (for class use) Outdoor thermometer (color coded) Self-adhesive white dots (one for each day of the school year) 1 strips of black construction paper (about 20) Wind Investigation Worksheet (One per student) Wind Investigation Materials (One set per pair of students) Packing peanut, tissue, pencil, die, paper clip, feather, button Rulers (One per pair of students) Poster board or chart paper, Markers Computers Paint Pans (one per group of 4-6 students) Soil Models of houses, cars, etc. Watering can Fabric, Stones, Sand, Popsicle Sticks, Cardboard scraps, Pipe cleaners, etc. Desktop fan Ping pong ball, feather, cotton ball, and block (or similar items) attached to string Copyright 2014 by the Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina Page 3 of 8 Procedures : 1. Introduction- What is weather? Ask students the question, What is weather? Allow for several minutes of responses. Why is it important to know and predict the weather? 2. Make a circle map. Ask students to name as many weather words as they can think of. Record them all in the circle map. Save for later. 3. Daily Weather Data Procedures: a. Weather At the beginning of the year, teach children the procedures you will use to observe and record weather conditions. Collect this data at about the same time every day. There are many methods you can use to record the data. A simple one is to use laminated weather cards to make a tally graph every day for a month. At the end of the month, count the tallies and convert the information to a bar graph to save. Refer to these bar graphs at the end of every month and look for patterns in weather conditions. You can compile the monthly bar graphs into a book, or display them all on a wall if you have the room. Just be sure to revisit them each month to analyze the information you have been collecting. b. Temperature To collect information on the temperature (especially for younger students), use a color-coded thermometer. Modify an outdoor thermometer with a set of permanent markers. Color the thermometer as follows: Red 100+ degrees Orange 80 100 degrees Yellow 60 80 degrees Green 40 60 degrees Blue 20- 40 degrees Purple 0 20 degrees White Below 0 degrees At about the same time every day, the class meteorologist will hang the thermometer in a designated place outside (you can leave it outside, but the colors will fade and you will have to recolor it often). After about 20-30 minutes, the student will read the thermometer to tell you what range (color) the temperature is in. The student will then get a self-adhesive white dot and write the date on it. Then the dot will be colored (with a crayon) the color that represents the temperature of the day. The dot will be placed at the top of the black strip of construction paper that is hanging in your calendar area. Allow lots of room for this item, as it will grow very long as the year goes by. Once a month, at the end of each month, have the class count the number of dots of each color and create a graph. Over time, students will notice that at the beginning of the school year there were many red, orange, and yellow dots; but as the year went by, the dots were more often green, blue, or even purple or white. Then toward the end of the year, there were more orange and red again. Point these changes out several times during the school year. Have the children look for changes in the pattern. 4. Weather activities 5K Standards The Wind - Ask the following questions to start a discussion: What is wind? (moving air) What is air? Where is air? How can the wind be a good thing? What can wind move? What would happen if there was no wind? Turn on a fan at the front of the room. Hold various objects in front of the fan (either attached to string, or objects that can be let go without damage) and have children make observations. (Heavier objects dont move as much, lighter objects blow far away, the moving air makes the objects move, etc.) Copyright 2014 by the Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina Page 4 of 8 Say, Today we want to learn more about the wind. I am wondering what kinds of things the wind can move and how much wind it takes to move certain objects. I want to find out if some objects move more easily than others. Show children the objects you are going to test: packing peanut, tissue, pencil, die, paper clip, feather, and button. Ask the children to help you think of a way to test how much wind it would take to move each of these objects. Accept all reasonable suggestions, but guide children to discover that they can use their own wind (blowing air) to move the objects. The students will first make predictions, then test each object to see how many puffs of air it takes to move each of the objects 12 inches. They will work with a partner, but each student will get to test each object and record the findings on his or her own worksheet. Remind students to try to use a breath of the same force every time to keep the experiment constant. Give children the materials, have them conduct the experiment, and then let them report their findings back to the group. What did you learn from this experiment? Based on what you learned, would it take more wind to move a ________ or a _________. (Fill in the blank with different objects like leaf or stick, piece of paper or pencil, basketball or block, etc.) Why? Read: W is for Wind a weather alphabet by Pat Michaels to the class. You might want to read a few pages each day, as this book is full of information about all aspects of weather. Severe weather study Ask students: Can anyone think of any kind of weather that can be dangerous? Allow students to share as many as they can think of. Discuss what aspects of these weather conditions are dangerous (Example: Tornadoes High Wind, Hurricanes High Wind & Flooding, etc.). Ask the students to consider flooding for a moment. Discuss what it means to have a flood and show pictures of flooding conditions. Ask the students to think about homes that are near the ocean or a river and consider what might happen if the waves came up too high or the river rose too quickly. After the students have discussed it, tell them that they are going to become engineers to help solve problems associated with flooding. (This activity will work best with 5K if you can have an adult to help each group through the process. However, remind adults to let the children do the thinking and the work.) Show them a model of a home (optional - also include models of trees, plants, and animals). Start by sprinkling water from a watering can on the model. Have the students observe what happens. (Some soil should wash away, which can lead to a discussion about erosion.) Then, add a larger amount of water from the watering can over the area and have the students observe what happens. (The house should be moved or water should rise up such that the house is flooded. Trees, plants and animals should be washed away.) Explain that students are going to be engineers and will decide where they should build a house on their model of a parcel of land to minimize flood damage to their home in case of excessive rain. Tell them that they need to work in their small groups to come up with a way to prevent damage to the homes and the people. Divide students into small groups and have them discuss different ways they can prevent damage. Tell them they have two minutes to brainstorm ideas with their group. After two minutes, tell students you have some supplies that they can use. Tell the students that they can walk over to the table to see what supplies you have available. After they see the supplies, give them one more minute to brainstorm what they will do. Students should sketch the idea that they will try. Send students to gather supplies they would like to use. Also give students a paint pan, soil, and a model of a house to use for their project. Allow students to work together to build their solution. Allow them to present their ideas to the class and explain what they did and why. After the presentations, test the designs to see if they help keep flooding away from the homes. Allow children a chance to revise their designs and test them again, if necessary. Students should be encouraged to express to the adult or to the group of students what worked, what did not work, what could be changed to make it work, and what they learned. Copyright 2014 by the Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina Page 5 of 8 5. Weather activities 2nd grade Standards Severe weather study Ask students to share what they already know about severe weather. Ask them to name different kinds of severe weather and what kinds of problems result. Tell students that they are going to work in groups to become experts on one kind of severe weather and then teach the rest of the class what they learned. If possible, have all of the children visit the following website during a visit to your schools computer lab (or have them work one or two groups at a time on your classroom computers): http://www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-safety.htm There are 13 different severe events (although earthquakes, wildfires, and volcanoes are not true weather events). You can visit the site ahead of time and choose the ones you think are most important. (In SC, Tsunamis, Volcanoes, and Avalanches are not of concern, so you can leave those out if youd like, or you can include them.) Divide the children equally between the number of severe events you chose for your class and assign one to each group. Tell the students to read the information that was provided on this website (and other sites if you so choose) and take notes. Have them create a poster to teach the class about the type of severe weather and what kinds of safety precautions are necessary for each. Have the students present their information to the class. Read: What Will the Weather Be? By Lynda DeWitt to students. Discuss weather forecasting and why it is important. 6. Conclusion Revisit Circle Map made at the beginning of the lesson. Ask students to suggest any new weather words or concepts they learned through the lesson. Add them to the chart and display for children to refer to. Copyright 2014 by the Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina Page 6 of 8 7E Procedures for Weather Lesson: 7E Procedures SEPs CCCs Engage Questions about Weather Elicit Make a circle map. Ask students to think of all the weather words they know. Save map for later. Explore 1. Set up and explain daily weather data collection procedures. 2. The Wind - Have students complete the wind experiment. Discuss their findings as a class. Explain Read the book, What Will the Weather Be? to the students. This book has lots of good information about weather and predicting the weather. Elaborate 3. Severe Weather Study 5K Students will discuss severe weather and plan the building of a home to prevent flood damage. They will work in small groups and presents their findings to the class. 4. Severe Weather Study 2nd Grade Students will work with partners to become experts on a certain type of severe weather and create a poster to tell about the type of weather and safety precautions to be taken during this type of severe weather. They will present their findings to the class. Evaluate Revisit the Circle Map made earlier. Remove any non-weather words (if there are any). Have students add new words or phrases that they have learned from the activities. Extend 1. Kites have students explore the wind with kites. Have parents come in to help with this activity. 2. Graph weather data on a computer using a program such as Graph Club. 3. Invite a meteorologist to come in and talk to your class, or take them to a news station for a field trip. 4. Make a Four-Seasons collage. Have a blank tree for each of the seasons and have students add leaves and/or flowers appropriately for each season. 5. Have students design and create rain gauges. Have them collect data from their gauges and compare it to an official gauge, and/or data from the local weather bureau. 6. Invent things to help solve problems associated with the effects of weather on human activities. Copyright 2014 by the Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina Page 7 of 8 Post Act iv i t i es and Interdisc ip l inary Connect ion Science 1. Have students explore wind using kites. It is best to have many kites (at least one for each pair of students). Enlist parents help to obtain, assemble, and help fly the kites. Discuss problems and successes students have with the activity and what they could possibly change to have a better outcome. Repeat if possible with any changes students have suggested. You could even have students design and build their own kites! 2. Invite a Weather Scientist (Meteorologist) to visit your class. He or she will share information about the job and the weather. Students will also have a chance to ask questions. You could also take your class on a tour of a local television studio and meet the meteorologist there. 3. Have students design and create rain gauges. They can use various materials such as cups, bottles, aluminum pans, etc. Have them make markings on the side to measure the rainfall. After a rainfall, have each group collect data from their gauge. Compare it to an official gauge that you provide, or from local weather data. Discuss differences in measurements, if any. Allow students to modify their designs, if necessary. Continue to collect data after every rain. 4. Ask children to think of times that the weather has interrupted their plans for something special. (Examples rain during an outdoor birthday party or picnic, storms at the beach, windy day at a picnic, etc.) If children have a hard time thinking of anything, offer them a suggestion from your experience. (I was at a picnic and it started to rain. We had to cancel the picnic.) After children have shared their stories ask them to think of their example and see if they can think of a way they could have continued their event despite the weather. (Remind children that all outdoor events MUST stop in case of a thunderstorm, tornado, etc. and children should go inside where it is safe.) Tell children they are going to become engineers to solve problems of weather interfering with human activities. Group children together who shared similar stories and have them work on their problem together. Start by having them draw their ideas on paper. Have them choose one device from their drawings to create. Ask them to present to you a list of supplies they will need to create their invention. Provide supplies if they are reasonable. (Examples include plastic wrap or cheap plastic tablecloths, Popsicle sticks, wax paper, foil, pipe cleaners, paper bags, cardboard, etc. Blocks and other toys can be used to simulate the event.) Have children make a model of their invention. Have them present their inventions to the class and describe how they will help solve the problem. Test the devices using a watering can to simulate rain, or a fan to simulate wind. Students can then modify their inventions and test them again. Students should be encouraged to express to the adult or to the group of students what worked, what did not work, what could be changed to make it work, and what they learned. Copyright 2014 by the Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina Page 8 of 8 Mathematics 1. Graph weather data on a computer using a program such as Graph Club. Language Arts 1. Write weather stories. 2. Read weather poetry. 3. Read weather books to children: Abbie Against the Storm by Marcia Vaughan ISBN # 0439390850 The Magic School Bus Weathers the Storm by Kristin Earhart ISBN# 0545086035 Storm is Coming by Heather Tekavec ISBN# 9780142400708 The Cloud Book by Tomie DePaola ISBN# 0823405311 Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs by Judi Barrett ISBN# 0590303848 Pickles to Pittsburgh by Judi Barrett ISBN# 0439202248 W is for Wind A Weather Alphabet by Pat Michaels ISBN#1585363308 Art 1. Have students create Four-Seasons collages. Provide a sketch of a bare tree for each of the seasons and have children add leaves, flowers, fruit, etc. to the pictures as appropriate. They can also add snow in the Winter, and green grass in the Spring and Summer. 2. Make weather posters, depicting different types of weather. 3. Make a map of the school to show severe weather report stations. 4. Create weather pictures for the various kinds of weather. Showcase the pictures on days when that type of weather is occurring. Temperature graph for ___________________________________ (month) White Purple Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Weather Graph for _________________________ (Month) Sunny Cloudy Rainy Snowy Partly cloudy Foggy Name________________________________________ Wind Investigation How many puffs of air will it take to move each object 12 inches? Object Air Puffs Prediction Air Puffs Result Observations Packing Peanut Tissue Pencil Die Paper clip Feather Button Sunny Cloudy Rainy Snowy Partly Cloudy Foggy