Learning and Living A of Appreciative ?· Learning and Living A Culture of Appreciative Inquiry ...…

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  • LearningandLivingACultureofAppreciativeInquiry

    OneStoryataTime

    January910,2014

    with

    MicheleBrielmaier,BradSchloesser,andDenaColemerofSCCCheriTorresandBobLaliberteofInnovationPartnersInternational

    Your Name 2013 Innovation Partners International, all rights

    reserved. Permission granted for internal use.

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    2Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    GeneralAgenda

    Tomaximizeourtimetogether,pleaseselfmanagebreaksasneededDay1ThisdayfocusesonlearningaboutAIandunderstandingthepracticeofAI.Intheprocess,participantswillexperienceinterviewsandsmallgroupdiscussionsaimedatsurfacingwhatitmeanstoworkinaculturedefinedbytheAIPrinciplesandpractices.AIwillbeseeninthelightoftheneedfornewwaysofworkingthatenableagility,collaboration,innovationandadaptabilityallimportantinourpresentenvironment.Salientfeatures:theimportanceofstory,framing,inquiry,optimizinghumanperformanceandcreativity.WhatsetsanAIapproachtoactionapartistakingthetimetostepback,inquire,research,disruptbeforedrivingtoaction.Welcome,OpeningandOverviewIntroducingAIPairedInterviewsCreatingConditionsforanAICultureSmallGroupProcessDiscoveringOurStrengthsandPositiveCoreforanAICultureIntentionalCultureTransformation:HumanNature,CreativityandHighPerformanceLunchSmallGroupProcessImaginingOurDesiredCultureKeyAIPracticesPuttingThosePracticesintoActionClose:Sharing,Questions,Review,PrepfortomorrowselectyourstrategyonthewayoutDayTwoThisdayfocusesonusingAIasamethodtogenerateinitialactionplansforthestrategicplan.ParticipantswilllearnaboutCoreTeamresponsibilities,stakeholderengagement,andchoosethestrategytheyaremostinterestedintodevelopaninitialresearchplanand/orsetofprojectstoprototype.Outcomesfromtodaywillbecompletedelectronicactionplansforinitialactiononallstrategiesthatinspireparticipants.Welcomeback,Checkin,OverviewoftheDay,PreparingtoPlanPuttingAItoWorkontheStrategicPlanLunchRapidStressTestingCoreTeam,StakeholderIdentification,andStrategiesforEngagingStakeholdersCreatingtheTimelineandInitialActionPlanReview,Questions,AVerySpecialClosing

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    3Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    EasyReference

    Pages

    StrategicPlan 56

    AppreciativeInquiry(AI) 710

    Interview 1114

    OurStoryisFateful&TheNewScience 1617,4245

    IncreasingYourReturnonCollaboration 19

    FramingforOutcomes 2021,46

    CraftingInquiry 2326

    ApplyingAItoCollegeGoalsandStrategies 28

    CoreTeamandStakeholderEngagement 29

    ResourcesandReferences

    Definitions:ReturnonCollaboration 32EvidenceforAppreciativeInquiry 3334PositiveImagePositiveAction 3536AIPrinciplesinAction 37PositivePsychology&NewScience 3839

    FromSWOTtoSOAR 4041 MakingStuffUp,ItsWhatWeDo 4243

    LadderofInference 4445 Framing&Reframing 46 IdentifyingStakeholders 47 DesigningforEngagement 4854 TheExcellenceParadigm 5556

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    4Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    OverviewandAgenda

    WhatwewilldoEngagewiththeoryandpracticeforAppreciativeInquiry,collaborationandstrategicplanningPlay,work,buildrelationships

    WhereitwillgetyouBecomeastrongerteamEnhanceyourabilitytopracticeAppreciativeInquiryandworktogethertoinventyourfutureIncreaseyouragilityandcreativity

    WhatwillyoubeabletodoasaresultParticipateincreatingandimplementingthestrategicplanBuilddurableandresilientrelationshipsamongdiversegroupsFostercollaborationandinnovationinyourdepartmentsandatSCC

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    5Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    StrategicPlanningGoals201420

    Fiveprimarygoalsand5subgoalsemergedfromtheStrategicPlanningRetreat.Thefivesubgoalsdirectlysupportthesuccessoftheprimarygoalsandwillbeintegratedinwaysthataligntosupporttherapidachievementoftheprimarygoals.

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    6Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    StrategiesforAchievingGoals

    A. AICULTUREGOAL:SCCpracticesappreciativeanddisruptiveinquirygrowingapositivecultureofcollaborationandinnovation.

    STRATEGIES:1. AIisembeddedinourphilosophyinprincipleandpractice[policy,procedures,andstructuressuchasHRevaluation,

    hiring,etc.].2. AIispracticedandwearefosteringandenhancingrelationshipsthatinspireequalityandinclusivityforall

    stakeholders.3. AIispracticedandisinspiringaninclusiveclimateofscholarshipandservice.4. AIandDisruptiveInquiryarepracticedforcontinuousqualityimprovementandexcellenceindeliveringourmission

    [AI,DI,prototyping,agileactionandperpetualevolution].B.HOLISTICLEARNERSUPPORTSERVICESGOAL:SCCprovidesacomprehensiveeducationapproachthatdevelopsthewholelearnerbody,mindandspiritsupportinglifelongsuccess,enhancingacademicandskillscompetencywithpersonalandprofessionalleadershipandteamworkcompetency.STRATEGIES:5. Innovativesolutionsaddressthediverseneedsoflearnersandsupportgenuineinclusion.6. Ouradvisingmodelinvolvesfaculty,staffandstudentsinthedesignandimplementationofanindividualized

    successplanforlearnersthatensureacademic,technology,personalandprofessionalsuccess.7. Weoffercollaborativeandinnovativeprogramsandstrategiesthatmeetthenonacademic/technicalskillsneedsof

    learners,withspecialemphasisonpersonalandcareercounselingandprofessionaldevelopment.C.QUALITYEDUCATIONGOAL:SCCdeliversexcellenceinacademicprogrammingthatisrelevant,accessible,andresponsiveandeffectivelyprepareslearnersforlivingandlearninginaglobalmarketplace.STRATEGIES:8. Facultyexcelsintheassessmentofstudentlearninganddevelopment.9. Weprovideeducationaloptionsthatpreparelearnersforentryintotheworkforce,careeradvancement,and

    academictransferopportunities.10. Expeditecurriculumdevelopment11. SCCleadsthestateinnew,innovativeandqualityonlineandblendedlearningD.PARTNERSHIPSANDCOLLABORATIONGOAL:SCCcollaborateswithbusinessandcommunitymembers,buildingpartnershipstomeetdiverselearnerandindustryneedsthroughouttheregion.STRATEGIES(Thereweremany,thesearethetoptwo):12. CollaborativepartnershipswithK12arefosteringlearnerpreparedness,enrollmentinSCCprogramsandlifelong

    success.13. Partnershipsandcollaborationwithbusinessandindustrysupportqualityeducation,facilities,learnersuccessand

    employersatisfaction.E.MARKETINGANDBRANDINGGOAL:Consistent,coherentandwellplannedmarketingandbrandingresultsinbroadrecognitionatthelocalandstatelevel,reinforcingpartnershipsandgeneratingincreasedenrollment,completionandplacement.STRATEGIES:14. Acomprehensivemarketingandcommunicationplan,drivenbykeydistinctives,resultsinastrong,positivebrand.F.SUBGOALSTHATCROSSALLPRIMARYGOALS:15. Facultyandstaffdevelopacomprehensiveemployeepersonal/professionalplanthatsupportsindividualsuccess

    whilebuildingcollaborativecapacitytoachieveoursharedgoals.16. TechnologyisembeddedinthefabricofSCCinordertosupportthestrategicgoals.17. Educationandprofessionaldevelopmentleadstoculturalcompetenceforallemployeesandlearners.18. Facilitiesareoptimized,supportingthestrategicgoals19. Existingexpertiseandinfrastructurecreatesinnovativeopportunitiesthatgeneraterevenuewhilesupportingthe

    strategicgoals.

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    7Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    WhatisAppreciativeInquiry?

    WhatisAppreciativeInquiry(AI)?AppreciativeInquiryisatheoryandpracticeforapproachingchangefromaholisticframework.Basedonthebeliefthathumansystemsaremadeandimaginedbythosewholiveandworkwithinthem,AIleadssystemstomovetowardthegenerativeandcreativeimagesthatresideintheirmostpositivecoretheirvalues,visions,achievements,andbestpractices.AIisbothaworldviewandapracticalprocess.Intheory,AIisaperspective,asetofprinciplesandbeliefsabouthowhumansystemsfunction,adeparturefromthepastmetaphorofhumansystemsasmachines.AppreciativeInquiryhasanattendantsetofcoreprocesses,practices,andevenmodelsthathaveemerged.Inpractice,AIcanbeusedtococreatethetransformativeprocessesandpracticesappropriatetothecultureofaparticularorganization.Groundedinthetheoryofsocialconstructionism,AIrecognizesthathumansystemsareconstructionsoftheimaginationandare,therefore,capableofchangeatthespeedofimagination.Onceorganizationmembersshifttheirperspective,theycanbegintoinventtheirmostdesiredfuture.

    Watkins,J.M.&BernardJ.Mohr.AppreciativeInquiry:ChangeattheSpeedofImagination,

    JosseyBass,2001,pagesxxxixxxii

    AppreciativeInquirydeliberatelyseekstodiscoverpeoplesexceptionalitytheiruniquegifts,strengths,andqualities.Itactivelysearchesandrecognizespeoplefortheirspecialtiestheiressentialcontributionsandachievements.Anditisbasedonprinciplesofequalityofvoiceeveryoneisaskedtospeakabouttheirvisionofthetrue,thegood,andthepossible.AppreciativeInquirybuildsmomentumandsuccessbecauseitbelievesinpeople.Itreallyisaninvitationtoapositiverevolution.Itsgoalistodiscoverinallhumanbeingstheexceptionalandtheessential.Itsgoalistocreateorganizationsthatareinfullvoice!

    Cooperrider,D.L.et.al.(Eds),LessonsfromtheField:ApplyingAppreciativeInquiry,ThinBookPublishing,2001,page12.

    AIinvolves,inacentralway,theartandpracticeofaskingquestionsthatstrengthenasystemscapacitytoapprehend,anticipate,andheightenpositivepotential.Itcentrallyinvolvesthemobilizationofinquirythroughthecraftingoftheunconditionalpositivequestion,ofteninvolvinghundredsorsometimesthousandsofpeople.AIdeliberately,ineverythingitdoes,seekstoworkfromaccountsofthepositivechangecoreanditassumesthateverylivingsystemhasmanyuntappedandrichandinspiringaccountsofthepositive.Linktheenergyofthiscoredirectlytoanychangeagendaandchangesneverthoughtpossiblearesuddenlyanddemocraticallymobilized.

    Cooperrider,DavidL,et.Al,AppreciativeInquiry:RethinkingHumanOrganizationTowardaPositiveTheoryofChange,StipesPublishing,2000.

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    8Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    ImageisCompelling

    PositiveImagePositiveAction ThePlaceboEffectIfyoubelievesomething,yourwholebeingstrivestocomeinto

    alignmentwiththatbelief.

    ThePygmalionEffectIfsomeoneelsebelievessomethingaboutyou,yourwholebeingstrivestocomeintoalignmentwiththatbelief.

    PositiveAffect/EffectOurwholebeingalignsaroundthewordsandquestionsspokentous.

    RiseandFallofCulturesCommunitiesofpeoplealignaroundimagesofwhatspossible.Whentherearenopositiveimagesofthefutureorconversationsofhope,theculturedecays.

    AffirmativeCapabilityOurwholebeingalignsaroundtheimageswecarry;wearecompelledtomovetowardsthem.

    [Note:Researchcitationsareinthereferencesectionpages3536.]BasicAIConcepts Whatyouseek,youfindmoreofThemorepositiveandinspiringyourquestions,the

    morelikelyyouaretogeneratepositivepossibilitiesforaction.

    PeoplecommittowhattheyhelptocreateThemoreparticipativeyourconversations,planninganddecisionmaking,themorecommittedpeoplearetocollaboratingonsuccess.Engagingthewholegeneratesorganizationalflourishing.

    Bold,evocativestoriescompelustoactionWearecompelledtomoveinthedirectionoftheimageswehold.Storyhastheuniquecapacitytoelicitimagesandinformactionwiththefullnessofcontextandcharacter.

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    9Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    KeyAILeadershipConcepts IntentionallyCreateanEnvironmentforCollaborationWhenpeoplefeelsafe,included,

    valuedandrespectedtheyarefreetoengagefullyandcontributetheirstrengths. OutcomesFocusedWherearewegoing,whatarewestrivingtoachievingtogether,what

    dowewanttococreate?Insteadofgettingitright,focusonlearningandexcellence,whichfostergrowthandperpetualevolutioninresponsetoachangingenvironment.

    InquiryBasedAdoptanattitudeofinquiry;recalltheaweandcuriosityofchildhood.Intentionallyseekopportunitythroughappreciativeanddisruptiveinquiry.

    WholenessInviteeveryoneandengagepeopleinmeaningfulways.Strengthenrelationshipsandconnectionbydeliberatelybuildingtrust.

    [Note:Inthereferencesection,seeEngagementinformation,pages4854andtheLeadershipExcellenceModel,pages5556.]

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    10Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    AIPrinciplesConstructionistPrinciple Wejointlyconstructoursocialrealitiesthroughoursharedconversations(verbalandbody)

    andrelationships. Whenwechangethewaywetalktogether,thequestionsweask,etc.,wechangethe

    presentreality. Wordscreateworlds.PrincipleofSimultaneity Changehappensthemomentweaskthequestion,themomentweact. Inquiryisintervention.

    PoeticPrinciple Therearemanyperspectives,multiplewaysofknowingandunderstanding. Howweunderstandasituationorapersonandwhatstorywetellaboutitimpacts

    everything.AnticipatoryPrinciple Wemoveinthedirectionofourthoughtsandtheimagesthatwehold. Weseewhatweexpecttosee;whatwelookfor,wefind. Whatwefocusonexpands. Whetheryouthinkyoucanoryoucant,youreright!ThePositivePrinciple(orPrincipleofGenerativity) Thequestionsweaskandwhatweinquireintoaregenerative. Themorepotentandpositivethequestions,themorepositiveandgenerativetheoutcome.[Note:IntheReferenceSection,seewaystoputPrinciplesintoaction,page37.]

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    11Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    InterviewProtocol

    Asaninterviewer,yourroleistoguidethepersonyouinterviewthroughaseriesofquestionsthatwillgeneratetheirbestthinkingonourthemeandtopics.Astheinterviewer,activelylisten,engagewiththestoryandthestoryteller,drawoutspecificdetailsandexamples,andbegenuinelycuriousabouttheexperiencesthataresharedwithyou.Enjoytheinterviewprocess.Itisanopportunitytohonortheotherbyofferingyourbestlisteningskillsandaskingclarifyingquestions.Appreciatetheverybestofwhothepersoniswithwhomyouarespeakingandthefactthateachpersonsanswersformpartofthefabricofourfuture.Thismaybeamemorableandimpactfultimeforbothofyou.ListenandClarifyAsaninterviewer,yourgoalistoencourageavividandcompletedescriptionofeventsandideas.Encouragethepersonyouareinterviewing,yourpartner,totellaverydescriptiveanddetailedstory/vision/idea.Encourageexpansionofthestorysrichnessbyaskingclarifyingquestionssuchas:

    Tellmealittlemoreaboutthepartwhen... Whowasinvolved? Whatwasimportanttoyou? Howdidthataffectyou? Whatwasyourcontribution? Whatdoyouthinkwasreallymakingitwork? Whatdidyoucontribute? Whatwereyouthinkingorfeeling?

    Itisbestifyouactuallyreadthequestionsaloud.Itisimportanttostayontopicandresisttheurgetodialogue.Offeryourverybestlisteningskills.Keepthespotlightonyourinterviewpartner.Allowforsilenceandfortheflowtomoveasyourpartnerwantsit.Ifsomebodydoesnotwantto,orcant,answeraninterviewquestion,thatsOK.Letitgoorcomebacklatertothatquestion.Seekpersonalexperiencesanddetailsinsteadofgeneralities.Letyourpartnertellhisorherstory.Avoidgivingyouropinionabouttheexperiencesthisisaninterviewandinformationgathering,notadiscussion.Listenforgreatquotesandtakegoodnotesofthethemesandquotesthatemerge.Starorhighlightthosequotesordetailsthatstandout.

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    12Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    InterviewInstructions

    Purpose:Todiscoverstoriesthatreflectyouandyourcolleaguesworkingtogetheratyourbestwithaneyetowardsyourdesiredculture.INTERVIEWINSTRUCTIONS:Chooseapartner.Lookforsomeoneyoudonotknoworwouldliketogettoknowbetter.Intervieweachother.Usingthequestionsonthefollowingpage,youhaveatotalof45minutestointervieweachother(20minuteseach).Manageyourtimesothateachofyouhasanequalamountoftimetocompleteyourinterview.Itsgenerallybesttocoverallquestionswithonepartnerthenswitchroles.Takenotesinthespacesprovided.Youareresponsibleforyourpartnersanswers.Pleasetakecarefulnotes,anduseyourskillsasaninterviewerasyoulistenandgodeeperintoyourpartnersexperiences,visions,andstories,capturinganykeythemesandquotablequotesthatemerge.Ifyouhearastorythatshouldbesharedbroadly,markitwithanasterisk.Listenandclarify.Offeryourbestlisteningskillssothatyoucanhearsubtlebutimportantdetails.Listenwithfriendlycuriosity.Askclarifyingquestionsifyouwantmoreinformationfromyourpartnertobringback.Helpthemsupplymoredetail,ifnecessary,withthesekindsofquestions:Tellmemore.Whywasthatimportanttoyou?Howdidthataffectyou?Howdidthatcomeabout?Rememberthatthisisaninterview,notaconversation.Resisttheurgetodialogue.Bringoutthebestinyourpartner.Manageyourtime.Itwilltakeabout20minutesforeachinterview.Sitwithyourpartnerinacirclewiththreeotherpairs(circlesofeight).

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    13Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    InterviewGuide

    1. WhendidyoufirstbeginworkingatSCCandwhatwasitaboutthecollegethatinspiredyoutojointheSCCcommunity?

    2. ReflectonyourexperiencesworkingwithyourcolleaguesatSCC.Theremaybehighsandlows;fornow,chooseahighpointstory.Atimewhenyouandyourcolleagueswereatyourbestworkingonasharedgoalorprojectthathadasignificantlypositiveimpactonstudentsandotherfacultyand/orstaff.Sharethatstory.

    3. Whatkeycharacteristicsdescribethewayyouworkedtogethermakingthisahighpointstory?

    a. Whatstrengthsandbestpracticeswereyouabletocontribute?

    b. Whatdidyouvalueaboutothers?

    c. InwhatwaysdidSCChelptomakethisexperiencepossible?

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    14Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    4. Imaginethatyougohometonight,fallintoadeepsleepandwhenyouwakeuponeyearlateryourworkenvironmenthasbecometheworkplaceofyourdreams.Allaroundyou,youseepeoplewhoareappreciatedfortheworkthattheydo,whoareencouragedtobeinnovativeandgiventhetoolstodoso,andwhereeffective,rapidcollaborationonopportunitiesbigandsmallisthenorm.Tellmewhatyoureseeing,hearing,andfeeling.

    a. Whatissimilartoyourcurrentworkexperiences?

    b. Whatsdifferent?

    c. WhatwastheonesmalleststepthatwastakeninJanuary2014thathadthegreatestimpactonculturetransformation?

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    15Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    SmallGroupDiscussion

    Eachgroupwillmanageitsowndialogueandtime,usingtheguidelinesbelowforselfmanagingthiswork.

    DISCUSSIONLEADERManagesthecircletask. Assuresthateachpersonwhowantstospeakisheardwithintimeavailable.

    TIMEKEEPER Keeps group awareof time left. Monitors reportouts and signals timeremainingtopersontalking.

    RECORDER/REPORTER (2)Writesgroupsoutputonflipcharts/postitsusingspeakerswordsandcontactinfoonpostcards.Helpspostandreportsoutwhenappropriate.

    Purpose:TodiscoverourstrengthsandcurrentbestpracticesthatwillsupportourdevelopinganAIculture.Goals:1. AtOurBest.Goaroundthecircle.Introduceyourpartnerandbriefly(1minute)sharethe

    highlightsoftheirstory fromquestion#2;besuretosharethecore imagesoftheirstoryandwhatstoodoutforyouaboutthishighpointstory.Capturewhatstandsoutthatmakesthisahighpointstory.10minutes

    2. Identify Your Positive Core. Go around the circle a second time, this time share your

    partners responses to Question #3. Capture the workplace practices, characteristics,strengthsandvaluesonflipchartpaper.10minutes

    3. IdentifyKeyElementsofYourPositiveCore.Reviewallthedataandinformationyouhave

    shared.Asagroup,reflectonthethemesthatemergedaswellasanyindividualideasthatreallystandoutasrelevant.Choose23keyworkplacepractices,characteristics,strengthsorvaluesthatyouwouldliketoseedefiningourfutureculture.10minutes

    a. Writekeyconceptson6x8postits,oneconceptperpage.Usemarkerandwrite

    boldlysopeoplecanseeitfromadistanceof510feet.b. On a postcard,write down the name, email and phone number of peoplewho

    sharedstoriesthatshouldbecapturedandsharedwiththebroadercommunity.c. Chooseoneofyourhighpointstoriesthatreflectsyourkeyconcepts.

    4. PostandShare.Turn toagroupnext toyouandsharedyourchosenstory. Thenyoure

    yourkeyconceptstotheappropriatespaceonthewall.Affinitize(grouptogetherwithlikeconcepts)asyoupost.10minutes

    ~ReturntotheConferenceCenterifyouarenotalreadythere~

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    16Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    OurStoryIsFateful

    [SeeMakingStuffUp,pages4243andtheLadderofInference,pages4445.]

    Amygdala

    SeeingHearingFeeling

    HigherOrder

    Thinking

    FightorFlight

    Firstwe experience, and thenwemakemeaning. The story wemake up aboutour experience becomes our truth, andthen it becomes The Truth, which weteach to our children. Subsequently, allexperiences are filtered through thesestories.Changing our story often requires asignificant emotional experience thatcreates dissonance, disrupting our storyenoughthatweseekanotherstory.

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    17Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    TheNewScience

    Technologyisimpactingeverythingwedointheworld,includinghowweunderstandwhoweareashumanbeings.Medicaltechnologyhasopenedthedoorsforresearchintoneurophysiologyandhumanpotential,sheddingnewlightontheournature.Thedatasuggestswecanintentionallycreateenvironmentsthatfostercreativity,collaboration,engagementandexcellence.PositivePsychology,NeurophysiologyandHighPerformancePeopleareattheirbestandabletoperformwellunderspecificconditions:BarbaraFredricksonsPositivityRatio(ratioofpositivetonegativeemotions)

    3:1DavidRocksSCARF(whateachofusneedstomaximizeourhigherorderthinkingandwillingnesstocontribute)

    Status

    Certainty

    Autonomy

    Relatedness

    FairnessMirrorNeurons(importantforcommunity,connection,andrelationships)

    Wearewiredforempathy

    Wearewiredtoreflectwhatisaroundus[Note:Researchcitationsareinthereferencesection,pages3839.]

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    18Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    SmallGroupDiscussion

    Eachgroupwillmanageitsowndialogueandtime.

    DISCUSSIONLEADERManagesthecircletask. Assuresthateachpersonwhowantstospeakisheardwithintimeavailable.

    TIMEKEEPER Keeps group awareof time left. Monitors reportouts and signals timeremainingtopersontalking.

    RECORDER/REPORTER (2)Writesgroupsoutputonflipcharts/postitsusingspeakerswordsandcontactinfoonpostcards.Helpspostandreportsoutwhenappropriate.

    Purpose: To create imagesofourdesired culture and a roadmap for guidingus into thatfuture.Goals:1. ImagesofOurDesiredCulture.Eachpersonshouldhaveapieceofpapertoworkwith.Go

    aroundthecircleandbrieflyshareyourvisionsfromInterviewQuestion#4[page14]forthewaywework and teach one year from now.As you hear peoples vision, allow images,symbolsormetaphorstocometomind.Sketchimagesandconceptsthatstandoutonyourpieceofpaper.10minutes

    2. OneSmallStep.GoaroundthecircleandsharetheonesmallstepthatwecouldtakeNOWthatwouldhavethegreatestimpactonourfuture.Captureonflipchartpaper.5minutes

    3. CreateaShared Imageof theFuture.Shareanddiscussyourcollective imagesand ideas

    anddevelopasharedvisionforthefuture.Drawasketch,metaphororsymbolonflipchartpaperrepresentingyoursharedimageforthewayweworkaroundhere.10minutes

    4. IdentifyKeyRoadways,SignpostsandMileMarkers.Reflectonyoursmallstepsandany

    conceptsthathaveemerged.5minutesa. Select andwrite the top 23 small steps that your group believeswill create the

    greatest impact inmovingyou towardyourdesired cultureon6 x8postits,onestepperpostitinboldlettering.

    5. ShareandPost.Shareyour imageand23smallstepswithadifferentgroup that isnearyou.Postyour ImageoftheFutureontheRoadmapWallattheendofthe journey. Postyoursmallstepsalong theRoadmap. If thereareother ideas thataresimilar,post themtogether(affinitizeasyougo).5minutes

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    19Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    IncreasingYourReturnonCollaboration

    Thefollowingguidingprincipleshelpgenerateaculturewherecollaborationandinnovationarenaturaloutcomesofthewayyouwork.CreateanEnvironmentforCollaborationandInnovation

    Createasafeandgenerativespacethatenablesideation,experimentationandeventuallythecreationofsomethingtheworldhasneverseenbefore.

    Supportselforganizingaroundsharedoutcomesinordertosparkindividualcreativityandstrategiccollaboration.

    Livebyvaluesthatgeneratemutualrespectandcommunitybecausethejourneyintothefuture,theunknown,requireshighlevelsofsocialbondingandgoodwill.

    Integratedeliberatepractices,processesandsystemsthatgeneratesafetyandtrust,whicharethefoundationforcollaborationandinnovation.

    IntentionallySeekOpportunity

    Lookintowhatalreadyworkswellandlookforwhatisemerging. Dontstopattryingtofixwhatyoudontwant.Reframequestionsandgoalsintermsof

    whatyoutrulywant. Gatherawiderangeofperspectivestogenerateviablepossibilities. Invitedisruptiveinquirytochallengeassumptionsandordinarywaysofthinkingtomake

    wayforunseenpossibilities.StrengthenRelationshipsandConnection

    Bedeliberateaboutbuildingpositive,trustfilledrelationships. Communicateinwaysthatenhanceengagementandbuildthecapacityforcocreation. Usesocialtechnologythatmakesiteasytocollaborateandconnect.

    InviteEveryonetoEngage

    Engagepeopleinmeaningfulwaysinworkthataffectsthem. Usehighengagementstrategiestogatherpeopleandtapcollectivewisdom. Supportpeopletotakeresponsibilityfortheirpassionandselforganizewithothersto

    takeactiononbehalfofthewhole.ExperimentandLearn

    Usesimple,rapidtestingprocessestosupportlearningandinnovation. Rewardrisktakingencourageideationandexperimentation. Integratepracticesthatmakelearningfromfailureandcelebratingsuccessthenorm.

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    20Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    FramingforOutcomes

    Framing/Reframingisallaboutsteppingbackbeforesteppingforward:1. Pause!2. WhatsthecontextandthegreatersystemgoodI/wewanttoimpact?3. Whatsthedesiredoutcomeof(thisconversation)(thischangeeffort)(thisplan)?FromNeedtoChange/ActtoDesiredOutcome(forthoseinvolved)NeedtoChange

    orActRealIssue(s) Desired

    OutcomeAffirmativeor

    GenerativeTopicInquiry

    QuestionsProblemorissueObstacleChallengeExternalpressuresDontWantNotworking

    Identifytheresultantissue;whatsatstakeinthecontextofthebigpictureWhyisitaproblem?(Thebusinesscaseforchange)Howisthisimpactingtheperson,organization,stakeholders,success?

    DowantsBigpictureoutcomethatwouldhavegreatestvalueforallconcernedWhatthestudent,faculty,customerultimatelywantsWhatthesystemneedstoflourish

    Thebestpossibleoutcome:bold,provocative,positive

    DiscoveryQuestionsto:IdentifyrelatedcorestrengthsDiscoverpositivedevianceEvokehighpointstories/examplesofthistopic/outcomeChallengeassumptionsandordinarypatternsofthinkingStimulatecreativityandinnovationDiscoverbestpracticesandinnovationintheexternalfield(relatedandunrelated)

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    21Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    FramingandReframingTopicsandQuestions

    Ifyouarenotusetothinkingfromanunconditionallypositiveorgenerativeframe,itcanbeachallengetofigureoutappreciativequestions.Followthestepsforframing/reframingandaddoneadditionalstep:1. Pause!2. WhatsthecontextandthegreatersystemgoodI/wewanttoimpact?3. Whatsthedesiredoutcomeof(thisconversation)(thischangeeffort)(thisplan)the

    affirmative/generativetopic4. ThinkDiscovery(Research):WhatquestionscanIaskthatwillsurfacedata,information,

    storiesandknowledgerelevantforourdesiredoutcome?Masterytakes10,000hoursofPractice:thisisanewskill,requiringnewneuralpathways! Followsteps14andstresstestyourquestions. Writedownoneofthequestionsyouthinkyoudliketoasksocanstresstestit. Answerthequestionyourself;reflectonthekindofansweryouwillgetwhenyouask

    others.Willitprovideyouwithpositiveinformationaboutthetopicorhelpyoumovetowardyourdesiredoutcome?

    Ifyes,great!Ifnot,reframethequestionsoyoucanansweryesto#3.Theoddsareyouaregoingafterimportantinformation;continuetoquestionhowcanyouaskitinawaythatsurfacesconstructiveinformation.

    Averysimpleexample:Issue:Onepersononmystaffisalwayslateformeetings.HesapositivecontributorsoIwanthisinputbutitsnotfairtoeveryoneelsetoalwaysstartlatewhentheyareontime.1. STOP2. Contextandgreatergood:Wewanteveryonetofeelrespected,wewanttobuildtrustin

    oneanotherandwewanteveryonetobeabletofullycontributeatmeetings.3. Desiredoutcome:Thestaffmemberunderstandstheimpactofhisactionsandfreely

    decidestobetomeetingsontime.4. Firstattempt:Doyourealizetheimpactyouhaveonotherswhenyouarelatetomeetings?5. Reflect:Iwillputhimonthedefensiveandheslikelytojustgivemeexcusesratherthan

    reallyreflectontheimpact.6. Reframe:ImgoingtodoanAppreciativeInquiryinournextmeetingandinviteeveryoneto

    participateandattheendcommit.Frame:Iwanttomakesurethatwearereinforcingourcommitmenttomutualrespectandtrustinourmeetings.Todothat,Idlikeeveryonetohelpdefinehowwecandothat.Letsbeginbyinterviewingoneanother.Question:Imsureyouveparticipatedinmeetingswhereyoufeltthateveryonetrustedandrespectedoneanother.Meetingswherethatrespectshowsupinavarietyofways,fromstarttofinishofthemeetings.Pleasethinkbackovermeetingsyouveattendedandtellmeaboutahighpointmeeting.Whatbehaviorsandactionsaffirmedmutualrespectandtrust?

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    22Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    PracticeReframing

    Eachgroupwillmanageitsowndialogueandtime,usingtheguidelinesbelowforselfmanagingthiswork.

    DISCUSSIONLEADERManagesthecircletask. Assuresthateachpersonwhowantstospeakisheardwithintimeavailable.

    TIMEKEEPER Keeps group awareof time left. Monitors reportouts and signals timeremainingtopersontalking.

    RECORDER/REPORTER Writes groups output on flip charts/postits, using speakerswords.Deliversreporttolargergroupinallottedtime.

    Purpose:Topracticereframingproblemsorconcernsintoopportunitiesorgenerativetopics.Goals:1. IdentifyObstacles.Takeafewminutestoidentifyanumberofchallengesorobstaclesthat

    mightgetinthewayoflivingyourdesiredculture.Thesecanbepersonal,relational,ororganizational.5minutes

    2. SelectandReframe.Chooseoneoftheseandreframeit.Writetheobstacleatthetopofaflipchartpaperandreframeasanopportunityorgenerativetopic.Hint,think:

    a. Whatisitwewouldliketohavehappeninsteadoftheobstacle?b. Whatwouldneedtobeinplaceforthisobstacletonotshowup?c. Howmightthisobstacleactuallyhelpustointentionallyworkinnewways?

    15minutes

    3. RapidStressTest.Stresstestyourreframeswiththecirclenexttoyou.Askforquickcomments:Whatdoyoulikeaboutourreframes?Whatsuggestionsdoyouhave?10minutes

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    23Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    CraftinganAppreciativeInquiry

    Craftingbold,provocative,positivequestionsisattheheartofAppreciativeInquiry.Craftingintriguingdisruptivequestionsisattheheartofinnovation.Thepowerofengagingothersliesintheunconditionalpositiveorgenerativequestion,whichinvitespeopletodiscoverstrengthsandbestpractices,tochallengeassumptionsandhabitsandengageincollaborativethinking.Therearenoneutralquestions;everyquestionmovespeople.Yourquestionswillbeusedtointerviewpeople,searchforliterature,videosandgames,reviewandengageinonlinedialogueandtoinspireconversationanddiscussion.Thishelpsexpandwhatspossiblebeforeyoubegintomovetowardssolutionsandoutcomes.Carefullycraftquestionssothatyou:

    Gatherstoriesandnotjustbulletpoints.Storiesconveysomuchmorethanalistofwords.Theyinform,engageourimaginations,tapouremotionsandpassions,anddeepenourunderstandingofwhatspossible.

    Gatherdataaboutthestrengthsofyourcurrentsystemrelatedtoyourtopic.Youwanttobesuretocarryforwardandbuildonthosestrengths.

    Gatherdataandinformationthatbroadensyourunderstandingofotherperspectives,missinginformation,andassumptionsthatnarrowyourfocus.Youdontknowwhatyoudontknow;becuriousaboutwhatyoumightbemakingupandwhatyouremissing.

    Gatherstoriesanddatafromthefieldexploretrends,discoverwhatothers(evenfromunrelatedsectors)aredoingrelatedtothetopic,whatopportunitiesthereare,andwhataspirationsandresultspeoplewantforthefuture.

    Disruptordinarywaysofthinking,challengeassumptionsandquestionthestatusquoinordertomakeroomforinnovativeideas.Lookfromdiverseperspectives:whatdoesnaturehavetooffer(Biomimicry),whatwouldachildsay,arethereTEDtalksonrelatedtopics(TED.comhostsexceptional18minutepresentationsthattypicallydisruptordinarywaysofthinkinganddoing).

    Imaginepossibilitiesinlivingcolorandsurroundsound.StandardAppreciativeInquiry1. ElicitsaHighpointStory.Tellmeastoryaboutatimewhenyouwereatyourbestandfelt

    mostaliveincontributingto..2. Surfacesstrengths,valuesorkeysuccessfactors.Whatwasitaboutthesituationthat

    contributedtoyourbeingatyourbest?Whatdidyouvalueaboutyourself?Others?Theorganization?

    3. Elicitsimagesofthefuture.ImagineyouwakeupanditsayearfromnowIfyouhadthreewishesIfyoucouldwaveamagicwand

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    24Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    DisruptiveInquiry(DI)

    DisruptiveInquiryissimplyaskingquestionsthatchallengeyourordinarypatternsofthinkinganddoing.Adisruptivequestioninvitesyoutothinkagain,topauseandwonder,toaskifsomethingelsemightbepossible.Istheresomethingweremissing,notseeing,visibleifonlyweaskedtherightquestion?DIdoesnothaveanagenda;ithaspositiveintent.DIintentionallyseekstobroadenpossibilities.Adisruptivequestionchallengesthestatusquo;itsurfaceshiddenassumptionsinordertostimulateawarenessandcuriosity.Thiscanbeassimpleas,Howhaveothersachievedthis?orWhatarewemissing,whatareweassumingthatmaynotbetrue?Itcanbeasrandomas,Whatcanwelearnfromfrogsthatmighthelpusout?(LateralThinking)EmbraceAmbiguityandEntertheUnknown Challengeordinarythinkingthroughcuriosity,wonder,andsquirrelyattention Viewlimitedresourcesasacatalystforinnovation

    Lookwithneweyestoexposetheinvisible Connectthesamethingsinnewways:mixthingsup,turnthemupsidedownand

    backwards Changeyourpositiontochangeperspective Thinklaterally Questionassumptions,perspective,andlimits Clarifythedesiredoutcomesandthenstartoverfromscratch

    Disruptiveinquiry absolutelyhastobeacollaborativeprocess.Thetrulybreakthroughideasrequiresystemicchange,whereanorganizationhastochangethecoreofwhatitisandhowitoperatestoaccommodateacompletelynewwayofdoing.

    [Chen, N. (May 2011). 4 Steps to design-Inspired innovation: A primer on design values

    for business leaders. Innovation Management.]

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    25Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    ExamplesofDisruptiveQuestions

    Whatunderlyingassumptionsareweholding?Whatcanbechallenged?Whatifthoseassumptionsarenottrue?

    HowdoesMotherNaturehandlethischallenge?

    Whataretheunshakableindustrybeliefsaboutwhatstudentswant?Whatiftheoppositewastrue?

    Whatexpectationsareweholding,whatbeliefsaboutthepeopleinvolved?Whatifwerewrong?

    Ifourclients/customersweredescribingtheoutcomefromtheirownperspective(theimpactonthem),whatwouldtheysay?

    Whatifthisresultwasjustthenaturaloutcomeofthewayweliveincommunity

    together?Whatcouldwedothatwouldjustnaturallygeneratetheoutcomeswewantasabyproductofouractivity?

    Ifyoucouldonlyworkononeprojectforayeartotransformourefforts,whatwoulditbeandwhy?

    Whatistheshortestpathtothecustomer?Howcouldwegettherein6months? Whatsuffersmorebreakdowns:ourproducts,ourprocesses,orourpeople?Howcouldwe

    fixthis? Its2025andwerethebestcollegetoworkforintheworld:Whattwothingsdidwedoto

    earnthisaward? Whichpartsofyourjobwouldyouliketoeliminate? Whatwouldourdreamtestimonialfromacustomersay? Whatcanweofferforfreethatnooneelsedoes? Howcanourservicesbeturnedintophysicalproducts?Howcanourproductsbeturned

    intoaservice?

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    26Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    Ifwehadunlimitedresources(ornone),howmightweachievethis?

    Howwouldagroupof5yearoldssuggestweachievethisorhowwouldwedesignsolutionsifwewereworkingwith5yearolds?

    Whatcouldwelearnfromunrelatedindustriesorbusinesseswhoareachievingtheresultswewant?

    Openabookornewspapertoarandompageandpointtoarandomword.Usethiswordtostimulatecreativityandnewideas.Whatideasdoesthiswordbringtomindandhowarethoseideasrelatedtothetopic?Freeassociate,brainstorm.

    Whatstrangebedfellowscouldwepartnerwithtoinnovatesolutionsorachieveourgoals?

    Whatsourultimatepurpose?Ifweweredesigninganewanduniquesystemtoachievethat,whatwoulditbe?

    Whatifplaywastheanswer?

    Whatareallcommunitycollegesassumingthatneedstobechallenged?Whatpoliciesareinourway?

    Whatcouldwedoifwewerecompletelyfreetodoit?

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    27Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    PracticingCraftingQuestions

    Eachgroupwillmanageitsowndialogueandtime,usingtheguidelinesbelowforselfmanagingthiswork.

    DISCUSSIONLEADERManagesthecircletask. Assuresthateachpersonwhowantstospeakisheardwithintimeavailable.

    TIMEKEEPER Keeps group awareof time left. Monitors reportouts and signals timeremainingtopersontalking.

    RECORDER/REPORTER Writes groups output on flip charts/postits, using speakerswords.Deliversreporttolargergroupinallottedtime.

    Purpose:Topracticereframingproblemsorconcernsintoopportunitiesorgenerativetopics.Goals:1. IdentifyStructures,ProceduresorPolicies.Createalistoforganizationalpolicies,

    proceduresorstructuresthatimpactcultureandthereforeshouldbereviewedandrevisedforyoutoachieveyourdesiredculture.5minutes

    2. ChooseOneandCraftQuestions.15minutesa. Craftthreeappreciatequestionsthatwillhelpyoudiscoverthebestaspectsofthe

    currentpolicy,procedureorstructurethatyouidentified,whatyouwanttobringforwardandimaginewhatcouldbe(usethestandardquestionsasaguide,page23).

    b. Crafttwodisruptivequestionsthatcouldhelpyouthinkdifferentlyaboutyouridentifiedpolicy,procedureorstructure,thatchallengeyourcurrentthinkingorassumptions.

    3. StressTest.Turntoadifferentcirclesandstresstest.Shareyourtopicandfivequestions.Askforquickcomments:whatdoyoulike?Whatelsewouldyousuggest?10minutes

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    28Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    PracticalApplicationonStrategicGoals

    Eachgroupwillmanageitsowndialogueandtime.

    DISCUSSIONLEADERManagesthegrouptask.Assuresthateachpersonwhowantstospeakisheardwithintimeavailable.

    TIMEKEEPER Keeps group awareof time left. Monitors reportouts and signals timeremainingtopersontalking.

    RECORDER/REPORTER Writes groups output on flip charts/postits, using speakerswords.Deliversreporttolargergroupinallottedtime.

    Purpose:Toinquireintoyourstrategyinwaysthatwillexpandpossibilities,opportunitiesforhowtobestimplementyourstrategyinwaysthatmovetowardthegoal.Thinkleveragesmallactionswithbigimpact,lowhangingfruitandquickwins.Goals:1. DiscussionsandOnlineResearch.Breakintogroupsof46andbrieflydiscussthefollowing

    questions.Reviewthequestionsgeneratedyesterdayafternoontoseeifanyofthemarerelevantforyourstrategy(handout).Asyoudiscuss,captureconceptsthatyouthinkmightbeimportantonflipchartpaper.a. Whatarethecurrentstrengthsandbestpracticesthatwecanbuildupongoing

    forward?Whoatthecollegehasexpertise,knowledgeoforpracticesamodelwecanlearnfrom?

    b. Howhaveotheresteemedcollegesororganizationsachievedtheoutcomewewant?c. Whatifourstudentstookaleadershiprole?d. Whatassumptionsarewemaking?Aretheyaccurate?e. Imagineits2020andwehaveachievedtheoutcomeandifwasntaburdentogethere;

    infactitwasenlivening.Whatistheresultforourstudents?Faculty?Staff?Howdidwegethere?Whatmadeiteasyandnaturalforus?

    2. GeneratePossibilities.Postyourflipchartpaperstothewall.Inyoursmallgroupsa. Doagallerywalktoseewhatothershavebeendiscussingandthentake5minutes

    individuallytoreflectandsketchoutpossibilitiesforimplementingthisstrategy.b. Goaroundyourcircleandshareyoursketches,lookingforhowtheymerge,integrate,

    andblend.c. Togetheridentifythemostpotentpossibilitiestheonesyoubelievewillmakethis

    strategyasuccess.d. Puteachpossibilityona6x8postit.

    3. ShareandMerge.Everyoneworkingonthestrategycometogether.Eachsmallgroup

    reportsout,postingtheirpossibilitiestothewall.Affinitize,merge,andmeshpossibilities.Shinethelightofalignmentthroughyourtimelineandselectthemostpotentprojectsandactionsandlowhangingfruit.Sequenceasatimeline.

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    29Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    CoreTeamsandStakeholderEngagement

    WhatisaCoreTeam?SometimesreferredtoasChampions,acoreteamisasubsetofthelargersetofstakeholdersforanygiventopic.TheCoreTeamisresponsiblefordevelopingtheaffirmativetopic,craftingtheresearchquestionsanddesigningtheengagementprocessthatinvitesallstakeholderstoengage.WhyIsItaSubsetofAllStakeholders?Itsimportantthatallstakeholdersarerepresentedfromtheoutsetbecauseitisthestartingpointandwillinfluenceeverythingthatfollows.Thisnotonlyreflectsaninclusiveandcollaborativeculture,italsosavestimeandmoneydowntheroad.WhataretheResponsibilitiesoftheCoreTeam? Frameorreframethetopicifitisnotalreadyagenerativetopic Developappreciativeanddisruptivequestionstoguideresearchanddiscovery Identifystakeholders Determineanengagementprocessandincluderelevantstakeholdersinplanning Analyzeanydatafromresearchandengagement Developplans Implement,championandcelebrate

    IdentifyingStakeholders:TheFiveIs Impact(thinkimplementation) Information(necessaryforsuccess) Influence(resources,network,connections) Investment(financialoremotional) Interestinthetopic,taskandoutcomes

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    30Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    CreatingaPlantoMoveForward

    Eachgroupwillmanageitsowndialogueandtime.

    DISCUSSIONLEADERManagesthegrouptask.Assuresthateachpersonwhowantstospeakisheardwithintimeavailable.

    TIMEKEEPER Keeps group awareof time left. Monitors reportouts and signals timeremainingtopersontalking.

    RECORDER/REPORTER Writes groups output on flip charts/postits, using speakerswords.Deliversreporttolargergroupinallottedtime.

    Purpose:Todevelopyourinitialactionplanforyourstrategy.Goals:UsingtheePlanningTemplate:1. IdentifyStakeholders.Identifystakeholderswhoshouldbeinvitedtoparticipatein

    expandingtheactionplan.Theremaybedifferentstakeholderfordifferentactions.Usethe5Is(page47)toguideyourthinking.

    2. IdentifytheIdealCoreTeam.WhichstakeholderswouldbeidealfortheCoreTeamthegroupthatwillcoordinatethiseffort,leadfurtherresearchorengagementefforts,andbecomeChampionsforthisstrategycreatingcelebrationsformilemarkers,ensuringalignmentbetweenprojectsandactionplans.

    3. ChooseaCoordinator.Chooseacoordinator,someonewillingtofollowupafterthis

    workshoptocoordinateactionuntiltheStrategyTeamisinplace.SelectadateforyourfirstofficialCoreTeamMeetingtoshareinformationwiththem.

    4. DevelopanInitialActionPlan.Createadraftaction:

    a. FirstCoreTeamMeetingb. AdditionalInquirythroughinternalengagementorexternalresearch,ifrelevantc. PossibleActionsorProjectsd. Stakeholdersforeachactionitem

    5. Completetheeplanningtemplate.Savethetemplateasawordfileandgiveitafilename

    thatmakesiteasytorecognizewhichgoalandstrategythisfileisfor.Forexample:A4AICultureContinuousImprovement.doc.Emailthefiletodena.colemer@southcentral.eduandsavethefiletooneofthethumbdrivesandturnitintooneofthefacilitators.

    ~ReturntotheConferenceCenterifyouarenotalreadythere.~

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    ResourcesandReferences

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    32Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    DefinitionsforMiscellaneousTerms

    AnumberofthetermsweusearefromtheInnovationPartnersInternationalmodelforIncreasingyourReturnonCollaboration(ROC).Listedhereareallofthetermsalongwiththeirdefinitions.RadicalAppreciationAmindsetthatcontinuouslyseeksopportunityandpossibility.Regardlessofthecircumstancespositiveornegative,problemorsuccessitembraceswhat isand looks forwhat gives life. It invites diversity and inclusion. It celebrates conflict by bridging polarities:invitingcuriosityandsparkingexploration.Itlooksforthebestofwhatis,whereveritcanfindit.Itreplicatesandenhancessuccess.

    Disruptive InquiryAmindsetthatdelights inuncertaintyandallowsambiguity inordertomakeroom for creativity and innovation. It fosters andexpands the ability to ask greatquestions. Itcelebratesthequestionsthatchallengeassumptionsandordinarypatternsofthinkinganddoing.Itrewardscuriosity,differenceofopinionandwonder. Itholdssystemstructures lightly,makingroomforthemtoevolve.

    ProvocativePossibilitiesAmindsetthatfostersopenmind,openheartandopenwill

    and invites generativity, emergence, paradoxical thinking, constructive controversy andplayfulness. Itunderstands that thesepractices increaseengagementandprovide fertilesoil forinnovativethinkingandcollaboration.ElegantDesignAmindset thatseessimplicityas theultimatesophistication. Itseeks tosimplifyrules andmaximize flexibility while clarifying concepts and outcomes. It delights in beautifuldesignthatachievesoutcomeswithsimpleefficiency.

    AgileActionAmindsetthatseesprototypingasawayofworkinggoodenoughisgoodtogo.Aprototypeisaformoraninstanceofaproduct,serviceorprocessservesasabasisorastandardforlaterstages.Thisevolvesintoanoriginal,fullscaleworkingmodelforaproductorservice.Thismindset fosters an iterative approach to anywork. It identifies and aligns strengths to propelaction, clarifies roles and responsibilities and pairs accountability with agency to inspirecontribution,experimentation,learningandexcellence.

    Perpetual Evolution Amindset that understands growth and learning as integral to success. Itarticulates measurable results, makes time for reflection and learning, creates room foremergence and intentional delays and celebrates both success and failure. This mindsetunderstandsallproducts,servicesandprocessesasprototypesofoneformoranotherthatmayalwaysbeimprovedupon.TheROC Six Pack offers an underlying framework or paradigm for theway things are donearoundhere. These sixmindsets can alsobeused to create amethodological approach forinnovationaroundaparticularfocus.

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    33Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    AppreciativeInquiry:EvidenceBasedResearch

    The21stcenturymedicalandhumansciencestechnologythatemergedinthe1990shasenabledresearchintothehumanbeingthatshedslightonhumancapacityandhighperformance.Itprovidesevidencethatcreatingconditionsforindividualstrengthstoalignaroundpossibilityelevateshumanflourishingandthatlearning,performance,creativity,andresilienceareenhancedinanatmosphereofopenness,inquiry,andpositiveconnection.TheNewScience(e.g.,currentneurophysiology,neuropsychology),positivepsychology,positiveorganizationalscholarship,andsystemsresearchunderlietheeffectivenessofsuchattention.Theresultsaregreateraccesstohumanpotential,greaterengagementandcollaborationacrossanorganizationandgreatercommitmenttotheorganizationslongrangegoals.

    Whatfollowsisaverybriefrecapofthesalientfeaturesincurrentresearchcoupledwithlinksandreferencesforfurtherinformation.

    AppreciativeInquiryAppreciativeInquiry(AI),developedinthe1980sbyDavidCooperrider,isgroundedintwodeceptivelysimpleconcepts:

    1. Whatyouseek,youfindmoreofThemorepositiveandinspiringthestrategydevelopmentprocess,themoreinnovativeideasthatwillbecreatedandpossibilitiesthatcanbeexplored.

    2. PeoplecommittowhattheyhelptocreateThemoreparticipativetheplancreation,themorecommittedpeoplewillbetoimplementationsuccess.

    ThefoundationofAIisthenotionthatwecreateourfuturestogetherthroughourconversationsandinsharedmeaningmaking.Yearsofresearchdocumentsthatwhatwepayattentiontogrows,andthatwemoveinthedirectionofthequestionsthatweaskandtheimageswehold.Therefore,itmakessensetoaskquestionsaboutstrengths,whatisofvalue,whatwilladdvalue,andwhatwewantmoreof.Whenweaskquestionsaboutproblems,wedeepenourunderstandingoftheproblem;thisdoesnotnecessarilygiveusanyaccessintosolutions.Italsonarrowsourfocustoseekingsolutionsthatsolvethespecificproblemwhenwhatisneededisashiftinframeorperspective.

    Inaddition,weknowthatcollectiveintelligenceholdssecretsasmallgroupmayneveraccessandthatpeoplegetexcitedaboutactingonplanstheyhavecreatedtogether.Thereissomethingmagicalabouthavingthewholeintheroomdevelopingasharedunderstanding,sharedmeaningabouttheirfuture,anddesigningwaystobringittolife.TheAIprocessenableslargenumberstocometogethertodojustthat.ThereisawealthofinformationontheAICommonshttp://appreciativeinquiry.cwru.edu.

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    34Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    AkeyelementofAppreciativeInquiryisstoryornarrative.Thisstemsfromtheideathatwecreateourcultureandsocialrealityinourconversationsandthestoriesthathelptoframeourwaysofseeing,thinkingandunderstandingtheworld.Asweshareourstories,weuncoveroursharedbeliefsandperceptionsaswellasourdifferences.Subsequentconversationsandcollectiveexplorationshelpustococreateorganizationalstoriesandnarrativesthathelpusmovetogethertowardsourdesiredfuture.ThisisthegoalofEngagement!

    Notes:

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    35Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    PositiveImagePositiveAction

    Goodrelationshipsarecoretoachievingexcellenceinanyhumancommunityendeavor.Overthelast3040yearstherehasbeenawealthofresearchintheareaofhumanpotential.Understandinghowthewordsweuse,thethoughtswehave,thequestionsweask,andtheimagesweholdimpactouremotionsandourcapacitytoactindividuallyandcollaborativelyisvitalforleadershipandeducators.Belowisabriefoverviewofkeyelementsofsomeoftheresearchthattellsusthatimageiscompellingwemoveinthedirectionofthethoughtsandimageswehold.Asaleaderand/oreducator,usingyourwordsintentionallytocreatebold,positiveimagessupportspositiveoutcomesinthefuture.PositiveImagePositiveActionResearchCooperriderarticle:http://www.stipes.com/aichap2.htmPlaceboEffect Ifyoubelievethemedicinewillcureyou,itislikelytotriggeryourownhealing. Between3060%ofpatientswithillnessesrangingfromarthritistodepressionreporta

    substantialimprovementintheirsymptomsafterreceivingaplacebo. Whentreatmentwithplaceboreducessymptoms,italsochangesthefunctionofthebrain

    (Leuchter,etal,UCLA,January2002). InsightfromResearch:Ourbeliefsinfluenceourthinking,feeling,perceptionand

    neurophysiology.PygmalionEffect Whattheteacher(ormanager)believes,sothestudent(employee)becomes. Rosenthal&Jacobson,1968,1992 TimOShea(teacherhasgreatereffectthantreatmentinallcases) JaneElliotsblueeyed,browneyed(April5,1968)

    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/divided WhenthePlaceboeffect(patient)andPygmalioneffect(doctor)areinharmony,placebos

    areevenmorelikelytobringaboutacure. InsightfromResearch:Yourbeliefsaboutotherpeoplearecommunicatedthroughsubtle

    butpowerfulmessages(bodylanguage,tone,wordchoice),influencingtheirbeliefinthemselves.

    PositiveAffect/EffectandImbalancedInnerDialogue Languagestimulatesboththinkingandfeeling.Deficitbasedquestionsandconversations

    generatenegativethinkingandfeeling,whichdiminishhumanpotentialOpen,outcomesbasedquestionsandgenerativeconversationsstimulatepositivethinkingandfeeling,whichbroadenandbuildhumanpotential.

    Broaden&BuildTheory,prosocialaction,increasedrecall,increasedcreativity,improvedproblemsolvinganddecisionmaking,improvedlearning.

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    36Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    Ratioof1:2.911.6generatesbestoutcomes Fredrickson,19982013:http://www.unc.edu/peplab/barb_fredrickson_page.html InsightfromResearch:Frameyourconversationssothat,onbalance,youareaskingand

    talkingaboutwhatsworkingandwhatspossibleatleastthreetimesmoreoftenthanyouaretalkingaboutwhatsnotworkingandwhatappearstobeimpossible.Byallmeans,nameproblemsorchallengeandthenturntheconversationtowardssolutions,disruptions(whichinspirecuriosity),andinnovation.

    RiseandFallofCultures Culturesthatmakeitpossibleforpeopletoengageingenerativeconversations,collaborate

    oncreatingdesiredfuturesandwhointegratetheartsintotheirlivesareontherise.Culturesthateliminatethoseopportunitiesandqualitiesfall.Wherethereisnohope,thepeopleperish.

    Underlyingculturalimagesimpactthefateofanation FredPolak,1973:positiveimageofthefutureculturalevolution Positivefuture,whichcanbeinfluenced:valuingcreativeimagination,openquestions,rich

    emotionallife,freedomofspeech Whenhopeandpositiveimagesoffuturedie,theculturedies(Becker,1971) InsightfromResearch:Createopportunitiesforpeopletoengageinmeaningful

    conversationsaboutthefutureandempowerthemtocollaborateinbringingthosefuturesintoreality.Findwaystointegratethearts,creativity,andbeautyintotheculture.

    AffirmativeCompetence Imagesareprocessedbytherightbrain.Abstractlanguageconceptsareprocessedbythe

    leftbrain.Whenweusethewholebrain,wecanunderstandcomplexsentencesthatincludeboth;however,rightbrainimageswhetherrealorimagineddominateaction,especiallyifitisareaction.Forexample:DontSmoke.Rightbrain:seesasmoker;leftbrainunderstandsdontdothatthingyouareseeing.

    Ourowncapacitytogeneratepositiveimagesthatcancompelourfutures;thewholebodyrespondsjustlikethewholeculturerespondstoapositiveimage

    Healingandimagery;virtualworlds Israel,T,2011http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/designmymind/201104/healing

    imagerythebrainsownnaturalbagvisualtricks Athleticsandimagery,psychotherapyandimagery,imageryandhealing,hypnosisand

    imagery,andothersrelatedtooverallmetacognitivecapacity Bowlingresearch,Kirschenbaum,1984 Sheikh,1983;Malouff,etal,2008;Plessinger2013

    (http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/psychology/health_psychology/mentalimagery.html) InsightfromResearch:Carefullycraftrequestsandquestionstogeneratepowerful

    positiveimagesofwhatyouwanttohappen,whereyouwanttogo.

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    37Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    PuttingthePrinciplesintoAction

    GiventheConstructionistPrincipleHowcanwebeintentionalabout Generatingourculture Bringingoutthebestinoneanother Runningourmeetingssoweareallpleased Creatingsharedmeaning CreatingaworldthatworksforallofusGiventhePrincipleofSimultaneityHowcanwebeintentionalabout Askingquestionsthatmoveustowardsaninclusivefutureweallwant Askingquestionsthathelpususechallengesandproblemsasopportunitiestothrive Askingquestionsthathelpturnconversationstowarddesiredandsharedoutcomes Usinglanguagethatbringsaboutengagementand/oragenerativeresponseGiventhePoeticPrincipleHowcanwebeintentionalabout Reflectingonourexperiencesinwaysthatbuildcapacity,identifystrengths,andfind

    momentsofachievementthatwillinformthefuturewecollectivelydesire Payingattentiontowhatsupportsallofus Reframingourrelationshipsandsituationssothatweareempoweredtomoveforwardand

    achieveourdreamstogether Whatwepayattentionto(AmIfocusingonwhatisworkingoronwhatiswrong?)GiventheAnticipatoryPrincipleHowcanwebeintentionalabout Envisioningtheboldestandmostpositivefuturewecanimaginetogether Lookingforstrengthsandplanningforcollaborationandcooperation Expectingthebestfromoneanother Lookingforthegood,thetrueandthebeautiful LearningandpossibilitiesGiventhePositivePrincipleHowcanwebeintentionalabout Askingboldandpositivequestions Generatingpowerfulconversations,lookingfornewknowledge,possibility,andinnovation Askingquestionsthatgeneratepositiveimagesforourcollaborativeactionsandoutcomes

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    ThePositivePsychologyMovement&NewScience

    DavidRock,2009Present Thesocialnatureofthehighperformanceworkplaceandclassroom ThehumanneedforSCARF(status,certainty,autonomy,relatedness,fairness)andits

    relationshiptohighperformance ManagingwiththeBraininMind,2009YourBrainatWork,2009 NewScienceofLeadership(NeuroLeadership)MartinSeligman,1998Present Thescientificstudyofthestrengthsandvirtuesthatenableindividualsandcommunitiesto

    thrive;thescientificpursuitofoptimalhumanfunctioningandthebuildingofafieldfocusingonhumanstrengthandvirtue.

    TheCenterforPositivePsychologyattheUniversityofPennsylvania:http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu

    TheAPAwebsiteforPositivePsychology:http://www.apa.org/apags/profdev/pospsyc.html BenShahar,HarvardsmostpopularclassinhistoryBarbaraFredrickson,1998Present PositivityRatio:atleast3:1ratioofpositivetonegativeemotionshelpsoptimizeour

    capacity.http://www.positivityratio.com/ PositiveEmotionshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z7dFDHzV36g PositiveEmotionshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKggZhYwoys Researcharea:functionofpositiveemotions Broaden&buildtheoryofpositiveemotions TakethePositivityTest:http://www.positivityratio.com/single.php Positiveemotionsliterallyundotheeffectsofnegativeemotions FredricksonswebsiteattheUniversityofNCChapelHill:

    http://www.unc.edu/peplab/barb_fredrickson_page.html

    InstituteofHeartMath,1994Present Researchingheartintelligenceandstressandemotionalmanagement Findings:coherenceinheartrateimpactscoherenceinneurologyofthebrainandhence

    brainfunctioning Positiveemotionsincreasecoherence,especiallytheemotionsofappreciation,love,and

    gratitude. Coherencecorrelateswithimprovedcriticalthinkinganddecisionmaking,increased

    creativity,improvedsocialinteraction HeartMathwebsite:http://www.heartmath.org

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    PositiveOrganizationalScholarship Researchonoptimalorganizationalstates:thedynamicsinorganizationsthatleadtothe

    developmentofhumanstrength,fosterresiliencyinemployees,makehealing,restoration,andreconciliationpossible,andcultivateextraordinaryindividualandorganizationalperformance(Cameron,Dutton,andQuinn,2003).

    TheCenterforPOSWebsiteattheUniversityofMichigan:http://www.bus.umich.edu/Positive

    Notes:

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

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    StrategicPlanningSOARAnalysis

    FromSWOT

    ToSOAR

    StrengthsWherecanweoutperformothers?

    WeaknessesWherecanothers

    outperformus?

    OpportunitiesHowmightweexploitthemarket?

    ThreatsWhat/Who

    mighttakethemarketfromus?

    StrengthsWhatareourgreatestassets?

    OpportunitiesWhatarethetrendsandmarket

    opportunities?

    AspirationsWhatisour

    preferredfuture?

    ResultsWhatarethemeasurableresultswewant?

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    Forstrategicplanning,anorganizationalassessmentisadvisable.ASWOTAnalysishasbeenusedsuccessfullyforyears.WhattheprinciplesofAIsuggestisthatlargescalefocusonweaknessesandthreatshasthepotentialtonarrowavailablethoughtrepertoireamongmembersofanorganizationandtherebylimitcreativityandmotivation.AstrengthsbasedapproachtosuchanassessmentiscalledaSOARAnalysis,aprocessdevelopedbyJackieStavrosofLawrenceTechnicalUniversity.Inthispracticeyouassessstrengths,opportunities,aspirations,andresults.Areasofweaknessmaysurfaceintheassessment,butthefocusisonactionstotakeorresourcesneededtoachievedesiredresults.Thesearedeterminedwithinthecontextofidentifiedstrengthsalreadypresent.

    Thismaysoundlikesemantics.Theimportantpointtorememberishowlanguageimpactsourphysiology(especiallyourbrainsandnervoussystem),whichinturnimpactsourcapacityforcriticalthinking,innovation,creativity,andmotivation.Anyactionthatincreasesourthoughtrepertoireandopennesstocollaborateisanautomaticwinforanorganization.

    WeblinktotheStavrosarticle:http://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu/practice/executiveDetail.cfm?coid=5331

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    MakingStuffUp:ItsWhatWeDo

    ThereishiddenStuffwithineachofusthatenhancessuccess(...ornot).Byinvitingtransparency,focusingonshared,positiveoutcomesandusingtheartofreflectivepracticetogetherwecansurfacethatStuff(ourownandothers)inwaysthatsupportconnectionandcollaborativeimpact.TelltaleSignsthatStuffisMissingintheConversation Unexpressedemotions(nonverballanguage):fear,

    anger,hurt,defensiveness,confusion Edgycomments:judgment,(self)criticism,sarcasm,

    arguing Action:exclusion,withdrawal,avoidance Silence:whenitstimeforquestionsWhereDoesStuffComeFrom? WereallgraduatesofMSU:anticipationandexpectation,habitsofstorymaking Personalperspectiveandperception Fears Assumptionssneakinunlesswepractice

    o Specificityandclarityo Givingandreceivingfeedbacko Inquiry

    TakeAction!STOPandTakeaDeepBreathofAIR AffirmReality:

    o Whatarethefacts?o WhatmightIbemakingup?

    Inquire:o Areyousayingo Couldsaythatagain,please;ImnotsureIunderstandwhatyoumean.o Howwillthatimpact.o Youlookupset.HowdidyouunderstandwhatIsaid?

    Reflect:o WhatframeamIbringingtothisandhowisitinfluencingmyperception?o WhathasntbeensaidthatIneedtoaskabout?o WhatinformationdotheyhavethatIneed?o Whatdidtheyactuallymeantosayordo?

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    ReflectivePractice

    First:GetinthehabitofchallengingyourselfGrowcuriousaboutyourreactionsandyourownframe;wonderaboutyourassumptions/storyMakeitsafetoask~feedbackandfeedforwardaretrulyvaluable MakeMutualRespectandTrust(MRT)coreprinciplesandacorepractice Invitequestionsandaskthemyourself Encourageandrewardthosewhoinquire:Thanksforaskingthat;thereareotherswhoare

    nodoubtgratefulforyourcourage! Askwhattheotherunderstoodyoutosayorwhatitmeansforthem Beopen;bewareofdefensiveness Model:asksomeonetosaymorewhenwhattheysayleavesalotofroomforMSUFocusontheOutcome Identifytheoutcome:whatareweaimingfor;wherearewetryingtogotogether? Linkyourconversationtotheoutcome Focusontheoutcome,notthepersonal Engageinreflectivepractice

    o Askback,clarify,surfaceassumptionso Includeeveryoneo Linkperspectivestotheoutcomeo Inquire

    CommonquestionsthatsupportthepracticeofAIR Saymoreaboutthat. Whydosaythat? Whydoyouask? ImnotsureIunderstandyou;couldyousaymore? Areyousaying? Howwillthatwork? Howdoesthatconnectwith? Iwouldliketoclarifysomething Usethispracticewheneverandwhereverappropriate: Meetings,especiallywhenfocusedonlearning,innovating,exploring Planning Conflict,Tension Generalconversationwheretheresthepossibilityformiscommunication

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    TheLadderofInference

    QuickSummary:LadderofInference(developedbyChrisArgyris,Ph.D.)Thismodeloffersaviewofhowourperceptionsinfluenceouractionsandhelpsexplainhowwefilterallthedataintheworldandinthatprocess,cometoaction.Hereswhatitlookslike:

    Actions

    Beliefs

    Conclusions

    Assumptions

    MeaningMaking

    SelectedData

    Allthedataintheworld

    Reflexive Loop: Our beliefs influence the data we select, the meaning we make of that data, our assumptions and conclusions. Without care, it is easy to experience what we believe we are going to experience because of the data we select, and how we make meaning of it.

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    Tounderstandthismodel,startatthebottom:Allthedataintheworld.Wehaveanoverwhelmingamountofdataavailabletousatanygiventime,muchmorethanweareactuallyawareof.Argyrissuggeststhatthereissomepersonalprocessbywhichweselectonlycertaindataandmakemeaningfromit.Thatmeaningmakingprocessleadsustomakeassumptions,developconclusions,createbeliefs,andultimatelytakeactionbasedonthosebeliefs.OurpersonalprocessisreinforcedbytheReflexiveLoop,whichsuggeststhatourbeliefsinfluencewhatsubsequentdataweselect.TheLadderofInferenceshowshowquicklywecangofromAllthedataintheworldtoaction...sometimesinatenthofasecond.Thereisevidenceintheresearchthatalsosuggeststhatwetendtoselectdatathatreinforcesourbeliefs,therebymakingouractionsefficient.However,thoseactionsarenotalwaysthemosteffective,especiallyinthesetimesofexponentialchangeandmassiveknowledgegeneration.InquiryandReflectivePracticehelpusslowdownourascentoftheladder.Firsthelpingusaccessmoreofthedataandthenallowingustointentionallyandcarefullymakemeaningofthedatainrelationshiptotheoutcomesweareaimingtoachieve.Thisoftenrequiresunpackingourbeliefs,conclusions,andassumptions.Reflectivepracticeisdesignedtodojustthis.

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    FramingandReframing

    Whetheryouarelookingtosolveaproblem,respondtoenvironmentalchangeorbetheinitiatorofchangeitisimportanttoframethefocusofyoureffortinawaythatgeneratesthehighestpossiblevalueforallconcerned.Thebenefitoftakingthetimetodothisistwofold:(1)youdontwastetimesolvingproblemsormakingchangesthatdontsupportyourhighervisionormissionand(2)peoplearemorelikelytogetengagedineffortsthatareincreasingvalueforeveryone,includingthemselves.Framingthefocusortopicforyoureffortsonvaluedoutcomesisthestartingplaceforengagingothersin:

    Discoveringnewinformation,diverseperspectives,andassumptionsthatinfluenceunderstandingandpossibility

    Discoveringcurrentexistingstrengthsandtrends Disruptingoldpatternsofthinkinginordertodevelopinnovativeopportunities Cocreatingpossibilitiesforaction

    Framingthetopicorfocuscanbeoneofthemostchallengingtasksandyetitisoneofthemostimportantthingsyoucandorelatedtoeffectiveness,efficiency,andengagingpeople.Atfirstblush,theoutcomemayseemobviousyouhaveaproblem,fixit;thebusinesscaseforchangepointstowhatneedstochange,sosimplyfigureouthowtomakethatchange.Thatistheobviousandhabitualstep.Anappreciativeapproachencouragesyoufirsttostepbackandmakesureyouarefocusingonanoutcomethatisalignedwiththebiggerpicture(organizationalorstrategicgoals)andthatyoumakeroomforinnovationbychallengingassumptions,questioningthestatusquo,andengagingindivergentthinking.Iftheinitialframingoftheissuesfocusesprimarilyonproblemsthatneedtobefixed,pausebeforeyoujumpintoproblemsolving.Itmaybevaluabletoreframeaproblem(Whatwedontwant)toanaffirmativetopic(Whatwedowant),whichshouldincludetheperspectiveoftheultimateenduser(Whattheywant,wheretheymightbestudents,customers,acommunity,anindustry,oranygroup).

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    IdentifyingStakeholders

    Forrealandmeaningfulengagement,youwanttomakesuretoincludeallrelevantstakeholdersatappropriatetimesinyourprojectorchangemanagementprocess.ThegreatestnumberofstakeholdersshouldbeincludedinStep1.Itisherethatyouhavetheopportunitytoengageamultiplicityofperspectives,invitecreativityandinnovation,andgatherimportantinformationaboutwhatisimportantforeachstakeholdergroup,essentialforthemtobeonboardwithmovingforwardwiththeprojectorchange.Theywillhelpdesignforsuccess.

    Whenyouareconsideringstakeholders,thinkofFiveIs.Itsasimple,comprehensive,andeasytouseframeworkthatcanbeusedinidentifyingrelevantstakeholders.

    1. Interestinthetopic,taskandpotentialoutcomes.Forexample,communitymembersorstudentsmaybeveryinterestedinhavingasayaboutcourseofferingsthatareincludedinyourcurriculum.

    2. Influence,formalandinformal,toprovideresourcestoachievethetaskoroutcome.Forexample,policymakerswhoinfluencethingsatthestatelevelorcommunitybusinessesthatmaybeinpositiontoprovideinstructors,internships,financialresources,orsupportforpolicychanges.

    3. Informationoraccesstoinformationneededforsuccess.Forexample,studentshaveessentialinformationabouttheirpreferencesforclasses,productsorservices,employeeswhohavefrontlineinformationorfacultywhomayhaveexternalfieldknowledgethatisrelevant.

    4. Impactorwillbeimpactedbywhathappensinrelationshiptothetasksoroutcome.

    Forexample,employeeswhohavetoimplementaplanofactionorstudentswhowillbeserved.

    5. Investment,financialoremotional,relatedtothetaskandoutcomes.Forexample,

    facultyorvendorswhoareinstrumentaltotheimplementationoftheoutcome.

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    DesigningforEngagement

    Engagementmeansthinkingtogetherandactingtogether,collaboratingtoenvisionthefuture,developingstrategiestoachievethatfutureandthenworkingtogethertoachievestrategicorganizationalgoals.Thereareavarietyofmethodologies,processesandpracticesthatcanbeusedtomaximizeaswellasoptimizeengagement.Belowyouwillfindalistofthem,includingabriefdescription.Thereisalsoacharttohelpyouassessselection.Someofthesemethodsrequireskillfulfacilitation,whichrequiresspecifictraininginordertoeffectivelyfacilitatetheprocessormethod.Basicallyallmethodologies,processesandpracticesthatsupportengagementwillrequireyoutodevelopyourabilitytocreatesafeandopenenvironments,focusonoutcomes,expandyourinquiryskills,practiceandfacilitatedialogue,andmodelleadership/groupbehaviorsthatinviteengagement.Engagementmethods,processesandpracticesfallundersixcategories.

    1. Gatheringdataandinformation:engagingstakeholdersbyaskingthemtosharedataandinformationthatisrelevanttochangeoraproject.

    2. Processingdataandinformation:engagingstakeholdersintheanalysis,synthesisorsensemakingprocessneededafterthedataandinformationhavebeengatheredinvitingthemtovalidatethesynthesis.

    3. Innovation:engagingstakeholdersbydisruptingtheirpatternsofthinkingabouthowtoachievedesiredoutcomesinordertomakeroomforinnovationandcreativity.

    4. Visioning:engagingstakeholdersincreatingimagesandscenariosaboutthefuturestate.

    5. Designingandplanningforthefuturestate:engagingstakeholdersinthedesignofstrategiestoachievethefuturestateandinplanningforimplementation.

    6. Implementationandevolution:engagingstakeholdersintheimplementationandongoingevolutionoftheprojectorchange.

    Themethodsandprocessesaredescribedbelow.Followingthedescriptionisachart,whichwillhelpyouselectthemethodorprocessthatcanbestsupportyourengagementefforts.Pleasenotethefollowingiconsandwhattheyrepresent:

    OneonOne SmallGroup LargeGroup Technology

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    OneonOneInterviewsFormalinterviewsthatcanbeonewayortwoway,dependinguponwhethersomeoneisdoingalotofinterviewstogatherdataortheinterviewsarecompletedduringalargergroupsessionwherepartnersinterviewoneanother.AppreciativeInquiryinterviewsareastandardpracticeforgatheringdataandstories.

    SelfManagingGroupsSmallgroupsthatcometogethertoworkonasetoftasks,inthiscaseassociatedwithchangeorprojectmanagement.Thegroupmanagesitselfanditsowndiscussionandprocess.Itisimportanttomakesurethepurposeisclear,thediscussionsarestructured,thegoalsarearticulatedandthetimelinepreestablishedinordertosupportaccountabilityandsuccess.

    FocusGroupAsmallgroupselectedfromawiderstakeholderpopulationthatengagesinadiscussiontoshareideas,opinionsaboutorresponsestoaparticularsubjectorsetofquestions.

    AIorROCSummitAwholesystemsorlargegroupchangeprocessthatengagesstakeholdersinpromotingpositivechangeinanorganization.Thisstrengthbasedapproachengagesstakeholders,strengthensrelationshipsandgeneratesremarkableresults.Atasummit,peopleengagein1on1interviews,selfmanagingsmallgroupdiscussions,andwholesystemexplorationastheymovethroughaseriesofprocessesdesignedtodeliveractionableresults.ForaSummittobesuccessful,besuretouseaskilledAI/ROCfacilitator.

    OpenSpaceTechnologyAnapproachforhostingmeetings,conferences,corporatestyleretreats,symposiums,andcommunitysummitevents,focusedonaspecificandimportantpurposeortaskbutbeginningwithoutanyformalagenda,beyondtheoverallpurposeortheme.ThegoalofanOpenSpaceTechnologymeetingistocreatetimeandspaceforpeopletoengagedeeplyandcreativelyaroundissuesofconcerntothem.ForOpenSpacetobesuccessful,besuretouseaskilledOSTfacilitator.OSTisoftenusedduringasummit.

    WorldCafTheWorldCafisacreativeprocessforfacilitatingcollaborativedialogueandthesharingofknowledgeandideastocreatealivingnetworkofconversationandaction.Inthisprocessacafambianceiscreated,inwhichparticipantsdiscussaquestionorissueinsmallgroupsaroundcaftables.Atregularintervalstheparticipantsmovetoanewtable.Onetablehostremainsandsummarizesthepreviousconversationtothenewtableguests.Thustheproceedingconversationsarecrossfertilizedwiththeideasgeneratedinformerconversationswithotherparticipants.Attheendoftheprocessthemainideasaresummarizedinaplenarysessionandfollowuppossibilitiesarediscussed.WorldCafissometimesusedduringasummit.

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    Note:Lessengaging,butsometimesappropriatewaystoengagepeopleinthefutureoftheorganization:

    TheSurveyAsurveyisusedtoaskstakeholdersquestionsinordertocollectdatafortheanalysisofsomeaspectofagrouporarea.Surveysaretypicallydoneonline.Thoughitinvitespeopletoshareandprovideinput,itisnotahighlyengagingmethodologyanddoeslittletobuildrelationship.Ifyoudosurveystakeholders,besuretofollowupandtogroundyourfutureactionsintheinformationthatyougathered.Iftheinputisnotvalued,peoplewillstopcompletingsurveys.

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    MethodsandProcessesChartGatheringDataandInformationMethod/Process WhentoUse Benefits Challenges SuccessFactorsSurvey

    Rapidfeedback Notimeorwaytobringallstakeholderstogether

    Fast Easy Virtual

    Lowengagement Nonrichinfo Norelationship Needtocycleback

    Craftingthequestions

    Sharingoutcomes

    Interviews

    Identifyingstrengths,trends,opportunities

    Gatheringstories,futurestateimages&ideas

    Realengagement Richinfo Storygathering Relationship Fullvoice

    Time Synthesizingthedata

    Needtocycleback

    Craftingthefocusandinterviewquestions

    Usingthedata Sharingoutcomes

    FocusGroups

    Identifyingstrengths,trends,opportunities

    Identifyingfuturestateimages&ideas

    Richinfo RealEngagement Relationship FullVoice Fasterthan1on1

    Synthesizingdataifthereismorethanonegroup

    Needtocycleback

    Craftingthefocusandinterviewquestions

    Strategytocaptureconversation

    Usingthedata Sharingoutcomes

    WorldCaf

    Identifyingstrengths,trends,opportunities

    Identifyingfuturestateimages&ideas

    Crosspollination Engagement Relationship Voice

    Chaotic Synthesizingdata Sensemaking Needtocycleback

    Craftingthequestions

    Organizingthechaos

    Gatheringthedata Sharingoutcomes

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    ProcessingDataandInformationMethod/Process WhentoUse Benefits Challenges SuccessFactorsSelfManagingGroups

    Afterinterviews,groupsof68synthesizetheirowndata

    Fast Selfverifying Highengagement Relationship

    Availabletimeforgroupmembers

    Clearlystructureddialogue

    CoreTeam

    Cyclesofactionandreflectioncyclesofengagingstakeholders

    Highengagementofafew

    Relationship

    Time Possiblecomplexity

    Needtocycleback

    Sharingoutcomesforverification

    SoftwareTools

    Surveys Qualitativeanalysisifyouenterstories

    AtaSummit

    Fast

    Noengagement

    Norelationship

    Needtocycleback

    Shareoutcomesforverification

    InnovationSelfManagingGroups

    Anytimeyouwantagrouptobeinnovativearoundatopic

    Fast Highengagement Relationship Tapscollectiveintelligence

    Availabletimeforgroupmembers

    Clearlystructureddialogue

    Effectivedisruptiveinquiry

    FocusGroups

    Youwantinputbecauseyou(andyourcolleagues)wanttoinnovate

    Engagement Relationship Tapscollectiveintelligence

    Time Needtocycleback

    Effectivedisruptiveinquiry

    Goodfacilitators Strategytogatherconversation

    SharingoutcomesExternalinterviewsandresearch

    Disruptyouownthinkingbyscanningexternally

    Learnfrombestpractices

    Crosspollination Relationship

    Time Identifyingwhotointerview

    Needtocycleback

    Carefullycraftedquestions

    Sharingoutcomes

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    VisioningFutureStatesMethod/Process WhentoUse Benefits Challenges SuccessFactorsInterviews

    Identifyingstrengths,trends,opportunities

    Gatheringstories,futurestateimages&ideas

    Realengagement Richinfo Storygathering Relationship Fullvoice

    Time Synthesizingthedata

    Needtocycleback

    Craftingthefocusandinterviewquestions

    Usingthedata Sharingoutcomes

    SelfManagingGroups

    Followinginterviews,theycancocreatesharedimagesofthefutureaswellasscenarios

    Fast Peoplecommittowhattheyhelpcreate

    Highengagement Relationship

    Availabletimeforgroupmembers

    Clearlystructureddialogue

    FocusGroups

    Youwantinputbecauseyou(andyourcolleagues)wanttogenerateimagesofafuturestate

    Engagement Relationship Tapscollectiveintelligence

    Time Needtocycleback

    Clearlystructureddialogue

    Goodfacilitators Waytocaptureideas

    Sharingoutcomesforverification

    AISummit

    Youdliketoengageallstakeholdersinacompleteandfullprocessatthesametime

    Everyoneisengagedinallstepsatthesametime

    Ultimatelyfaster Peoplecommittowhattheyhelpcreate

    Highengagement Relationship FullVoice

    Gettingthetimeinoneblock

    Planning Cost,maybe Personalcontrol

    AIfacilitators CarefullycraftedAIprocess:interviews,structuredsmallgroupdialogueandactivity

    Strategytogathertheoutput

    Usingtheresults

    OpenSpaceTechnology

    Strategicdirectionsetting,envisioningthefuture,audiencescenarios

    Highengagement Relationship Voice Passionatecommitmentbythoseinthegroups

    Control Canfeelchaotic

    Planning

    OSTfacilitators Conveningtopicclearlyarticulated

    Awaytogathertheoutput

    Sharingtheoutcomes

    Usingresults

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    PlanningMethod/Process WhentoUse Benefits Challenges SuccessFactorsSelfManagingGroups

    Wheneverstakeholderswillbepartofimplementingtheplan

    Peoplecommittowhattheyhelpcreate

    Highengagement Relationship

    Timeforgroupmembers

    Personalcontrol

    Clearlystructureddialogue

    AISummit

    Youdliketoengageallstakeholdersintheplanningprocessatthesametime

    Everyoneisengagedinallstepsatthesametime

    Ultimatelyfaster Peoplecommittowhattheyhelpcreate

    Highengagement Relationship FullVoice

    Gettingthetimeinoneblock

    Planning Cost,maybe Personalcontrol

    AIfacilitators CarefullycraftedAIprocess:interviews,structuredsmallgroupdialogueandactivity

    Strategytogathertheoutput

    Usingtheresults

    OpenSpace

    Youwanttohelpplanastrategytoachievethevisionandyouarewillingtoletpeoplerunwithanidea

    Highengagement Relationship Voice Passionatecommitmentbythoseinthegroups

    Control Canfeelchaotic

    Planning

    OSTfacilitators Conveningtopicclearlyarticulated

    Awaytogathertheoutput

    Sharingtheoutcomes

    UsingtheresultsImplementation&EvolutionInterviews

    Awayofdoingvaluationandfeedback/feedforward

    Buildsrelationship

    Tieseffortintoongoingevolutionofaprojectorchange

    Engagement

    Iftheinterviewgoesbothways,itcanrequirecouragefromamanager

    Carefullycraftedquestions

    Sufficienttime

    SelfManagingGroups

    Wheneverstakeholdersareaccountableand/orimpactedbyaneffort

    Highengagement Relationship Continuedcocreation/evolution

    Time Metrics/measurablegoals

    Clearlystructureddialogue

    Measureablegoalsandmeasures

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    TheExcellenceParadigmEvolvingthroughUncertainty,Ambiguity,andChange Perfection Excellence

    Definitionofsuccess Nomistakes! Continuouspursuitofqualityandknowledge(includinginsightsfrommistakes).

    Dominantmotivator Fearofmakingmistakes,ofbeingwrong. Anticipationofacquiringnewskillsandinsights

    Underlyingassumption

    IshouldknowallIneedto(also,ImayfearIcantlearnwhatIdontknow).

    Thereisonlyoneperfectanswerand,byextension,therearelimitedpossibilitiesandresources.

    Knowledgeevolvesandlearningiscontinuous.Iwilllearninthewaymostusefultome.

    ThereareinfinitepossibilitiesandresourcesIhaveyettouncover.

    Basisforselfesteem

    Theinternal(pathological)critic.IfImright,Imbrilliant;ifImwrong,Imflawed.

    Explorersmindset.Asenseofwonder,awe,humilityatlifescomplexity.Iseektoincreasemycapacitytounderstandandlearn.

    Consequencesofmistakes

    Feelingoffailure,resultinginnegativeemotions/actions(e.g.,defensiveness,blameattribution,contrition,anger,resentment).

    Realizationthatwhateverhappensisaresultofpeoplesknowledgeandawarenessatthetime.Hence,adeepinterestinexploringwaystoincreaseknowledgeandawareness.

    Interpersonalmanifestations

    Advocateouropinions,seektopersuade.

    Aneedtojudgeothersrelativetoourselves.Eagernesstopointoutothersmistakes;pleasureinothersmisfortunes(shadenfreude)

    Inquireaboutothersopinions,seektounderstand.

    AnticipationthatIwilllearnsomethingfromeveryoneIinteractwith.Anappreciationforthevalueofdiverseperspectives

    Consequencetoourselvesandothers

    Ourselves:selfesteemdependsonwhetherwearerightorwrong.Wedontseekothersopinions/ideas.Little,ifany,learningoccurs.

    Others:Win/loseoutcomes.Ouractionsbreedresentment,ournegativityinfectsothers.

    Ourselves:Welearnandthereforemaintainahealthyselfesteem.Weseekoutandappreciatethegoodness,skills,andtalentsinothers.

    Others:Win/winoutcomesregardlessofsuccess.Ourappreciativeapproachinfectsothers.Wehelpothersachievethe3universalneeds:tobeheard,tofeelessential,tobeseenasuniqueandexceptional.

    Organizationalmanifestations

    Fearoffailureandunwillingnesstotakeonanyrisks.

    Fascinationwithlearning.Willingnesstotakeonreasonablerisksaslearningopportunities.

    Whichleadto... Controlstopreventundesirableoutcomes. Informedspontaneity,cocreationWhichcreatesaworkenvironmentthatis...

    Stressful,painful,hard Fun,exciting,dynamic

    Andwhich,inarapidlychangingworld,resultsin

    Untimelyresponses,isolation,irrelevance,andobsolescence(i.e.,extinction)

    Responsiveness,connectedness,andcontinuousevolution(i.e.,adaptation)

  • WorkbookforAppreciativeInquiry&StrategicPlanning

    56Cheri B. Torres, Ph.D. ctorres@innovationpartners.com

    ManifestationsofaFearDrivenvs.OpportunityDrivenMindset

    FearDrivenThinkingBehavior OpportunityDrivenThinkingBehaviorProblemfocusedWhatsnotworking?Seeksincrementaladvances.

    ImprovementfocusedWhatsworkingandhowcanwedoitbetter?Seeksevolutionaryadvances.

    PastFocusedWhatwentwrong?Whostoblame?

    FutureFocusedWhatdidwelearn?Howandwhencanweapplyit?

    SelfOrientedHowdoIbecomearecognizedexpert?HowdoIprotectmyreputation/advancemycareer?

    OtherOrientedHowdoIdevelopothersexpertise?HowdoIhelpothersexcel?(ServantLeader)

    FragileSelfImageThreatenedbydiverseviewsAdvocatesopinionsforcefullyCoercesotherstoadvanceathis/herpace

    StrongSelfImageValuesdiverseviewsInquirestounderstandothersMeetspeoplewheretheyareandstretchesthem

    AvoidsConflictfearspainanddisruption PursuesConflicttoClosureseesitasanopportunityforenhancingmutualunderstanding

    RiskAversefearsfailure TakesCalculatedRisksseeksempiricallearning

    Ignores/DeniesChangeEnvisionslossesFostersfearandresistance

    LeadsChangeEnvisionsgainsHelpsothersidentifyopportunities

    LeftColumnIronyFeardrivenbehaviorsoftenbringabouttheveryoutcomesthepersonistryingtoavoid.Note:UsedwithPermission,Elstein,K.(2008).EPAORD,Training&Development.

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