Keywords Adenosine Triphosphate, Adenosine Diphosphate, Mitochondria, Electrochemical Gradient, ATP Synthase, Energy 3.4.2: What is ATP? Unit 3.4 Populations.

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Slide 1KeywordsAdenosine Triphosphate, Adenosine Diphosphate, Mitochondria, Electrochemical Gradient, ATP Synthase, Energy3.4.2: What is ATP?Unit 3.4 Populations and environmentFind Someone Who?RecapWrite the word and symbol equations for photosynthesis and aerobic respiration.Draw and label a diagram of a mitochondrion.carbondioxide+ wateroxygen + glucose+ energy6CO2 + 6H2O6O2 + C6H12O6light energycarbondioxide+ wateroxygen + glucoselight energy6CO2 + 6H2O6O2 + C6H12O6MitochondriaThe mitochondrion is an energy-generating organelle.The inner membrane is coated in enzymes, which catalyze the reactions of aerobic respiration to produce ATP.It is surrounded by two membranes. The inner layer folds inwards to form the cristae. The cristae project into a liquid called the matrix.outer membranematrixinner membranecristae# of 37 Boardworks Ltd 20085Boardworks AS Biology Cell StructureTeacher notesThe folds in the inner membrane (the cristae) provide a large surface area for ATP synthesis. The inner membrane is studded with stalked particles on which the enzyme ATPase (which catalyzes the creation of ATP) is located.What we know so farY13Y13: What we know so far The structure of mitochondriaAll living cells respireRespiration is the release of energy in a series of controlled reactions.One of the products of respiration is adenosine triphosphate (ATP)Y13: Learning objective All Pupils will :Recall the structure and function of a mitochondriaLearn the structure and synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Learn the role of ATP as the immediate source of energy for biological processes.Y13: Learning outcomeAll Pupils will be able to:Draw and label a diagram of ATPWrite a word equation for the conversion of ADP to ATPList four biological processes where ATP synthesis is required as an immediate source of energyMost Pupils will be able to:Predict the word equation for the conversion of ATP to ADP Some Pupils will be able to:Hypothesize the consequences of an ATP deficiencyWhat is ATP?Y13 ATP STRUCTUREDoes the word Adenine sound familiar? Where have we heard that word before?What are the other bases?What is another word for base?Why do you think ATP is also called a phosphorylated nucleotide?8What is ATP?Y13ATP stands for:Adenosine TriphosphateATP STRUCTUREDoes the word Adenine sound familiar? Where have we heard that word before?What are the other bases?What is another word for base?Why do you think ATP is also called a phosphorylated nucleotide?9What is ATP?Y13ATP stands for:Adenosine TriphosphateIt is made up of:Adenine (Base)Ribose (Sugar)Three inorganic phosphates (3Pi)ATP STRUCTUREDoes the word Adenine sound familiar? Where have we heard that word before?What are the other bases?What is another word for base?Why do you think ATP is also called a phosphorylated nucleotide?10What is ATP?Y13ATP stands for:Adenosine TriphosphateIt is made up of:Adenine (Base)Ribose (Sugar)Three inorganic phosphates (3Pi)ATP STRUCTUREDoes the word Adenine sound familiar? Where have we heard that word before?What are the other bases?What is another word for base?Why do you think ATP is also called a phosphorylated nucleotide?11What is ATP?Y13ATP stands for:Adenosine TriphosphateIt is made up of:Adenine (Base)Ribose (Sugar)Three inorganic phosphates (3Pi)ATP STRUCTUREATP is therefore a phosphorylated nucleotideDoes the word Adenine sound familiar? Where have we heard that word before?What are the other bases?What is another word for base?Why do you think ATP is also called a phosphorylated nucleotide?12ATP synthesisY13So ATP is a nucleotide, but it also has another function as an:ENERGY STORAGE MOLECULE. ATP is built up from the molecules adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ______________. ATPADPSo we have ADP and ATP. Do you think these two molecules will differ stucturally? How?Lets break it down. We have Adeno TRI Phosphate. And, Adeno DI Phosphate.So to make ATP from ADP, what do you think needs to happen?13ATP synthesisY13So ATP is a nucleotide, but it also has another function as an:ENERGY STORAGE MOLECULE. ATP is built up from the molecule: adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). ATPADPSo if we add an extra phosphate to ADP we make ATP.If we take away a phosphate from ATP we make ADP.14What is ATP?Y13To synthesise ATP from ADP, Pi and ______ is required.PiPiADPPiPiATPPiPiSo to convert ADP to ATP we need inorganic phosphate, and something else. What do you think this is? Write this down on your white board.Hold them up for me. 15WhiteboardsY13So, to convert ADP to ATP we need inorganic phosphate, and something else. What do you think this is? Think about what will happen if we reverse this equation, and convert ATP to ADP.Now answers the question on your worksheet. If youre having problems, let me know and Ill bring you a copy of the slides we have done so far. 16What is ATP?Y13To synthesise ATP from ADP, Pi and energy is required.PiPiADPEnergyPiPiATPPiPiNow thinking about this, flip your white board over and write down a word equation for the conversion of ADP to ATP. 17What is ATP?Y13ADP + Pi + Energy ATP (+ Water)The addition of phosphate to ADP is termed phosphorylation. There are different types of phosphorylation: photo, oxidative and substrate-level. We will learn more about these through the topic.Think about what will happen if we reverse this equation, and convert ATP to ADP.Now answers the question on your worksheet. If youre having problems, let me know and Ill bring you a copy of the slides we have done so far. 18WhiteboardsY13Write down a word equation for the conversion of ATP to ADP. Think about what will happen if we reverse this equation, and convert ATP to ADP.Now answers the question on your worksheet. If youre having problems, let me know and Ill bring you a copy of the slides we have done so far. 19Hydrolysis of ATPY13ATP (+ Water) ADP + Pi + Energy The hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is catalysed by the enzyme ATP synthase, releasing 30.7kJ mol-1 of energy. Think about what will happen if we reverse this equation, and convert ATP to ADP.Now answers the question on your worksheet. If youre having problems, let me know and Ill bring you a copy of the slides we have done so far. 20BrainstormY13Fill in Section 2 of Worksheet 1Answer Questions 1 and 2 on Worksheet 2.Extension: Give Question 3 a go(Finish for homework)You can discuss with the person next to you!ATPThink about what will happen if we reverse this equation, and convert ATP to ADP.Now answers the question on your worksheet. If youre having problems, let me know and Ill bring you a copy of the slides we have done so far. 21Role of ATPY13Metabolic processes:Active Transport: Activation of molecules:Muscle Contraction:ATPThink about what will happen if we reverse this equation, and convert ATP to ADP.Now answers the question on your worksheet. If youre having problems, let me know and Ill bring you a copy of the slides we have done so far. 22Role of ATPY13Metabolic processes:ATP provides energy needed to build up macromolecules from basic units.Active Transport: provides energyto change shape of carrierproteins in plasmaMembranes.Activation of molecules:when a phosphate is transferred from ATP to another molecule it makes it more reactive, lowering its activationenergy.Muscle Contraction provides energy to allow muscle filaments to slide past each other.ATPThink about what will happen if we reverse this equation, and convert ATP to ADP.Now answers the question on your worksheet. If youre having problems, let me know and Ill bring you a copy of the slides we have done so far. 23To Do:Complete Worksheet (both sides)Peer MarkFinal question to be completed for homework due next lesson.Fin.Y13THE ENDThink about what will happen if we reverse this equation, and convert ATP to ADP.Now answers the question on your worksheet. If youre having problems, let me know and Ill bring you a copy of the slides we have done so far. 27To FinishY13To reach the top of the cliff, describe 6 keywords youve learnt today about ATP and energy.........http://www.teachers-direct.co.uk/resources/quiz-busters/quiz-busters-game.aspx?game_id=63908Youve worked fantastically well today! Quick finishing activity, shout out to me something youve learned about ATP and energy today. When we get to the top of the cliff, Ill let you go.Thanks!28ATP synthesisY13ATP synthesis takes place on the mitochondrial inner membrane.ATP synthesis requires energy.But where does this energy come from?ATP SYNTHASE29Electrochemical Gradient: a gradient that involves both CHARGE and CONCENTRATIONATP synthaseY13ATP synthase is a large complex of membrane bound protein.There is a difference in charge between the mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space.There is a difference in the concentration of Hydrogen ions (H+) between the mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space. Hydrogen ions (or protons) flow from the intermembrane space, down this electrochemical gradient, and through the ATP synthase complex, into the matrix 30ATP synthesisY131. H+ enters the ATP synthase complex from the inter membrane space2. This prompts the release of a H+ from ATP synthase in to the matrix3. This transfer of H+ down a gradient generates enough energy at ATP synthase to produce ATP from ADP and inorganic Phosphate (Pi). Inter- membrane SpaceH+H+H+ MatrixADPEnergyATPH+H+H+Inner MembraneATP synthase Outer Membrane31

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