Information Literacy Standards Science & Engineering/Technology Point Park University Library
What is Information Literacy A persons ability to find, evaluate and use information effectively from a variety of formats.
Importance of Information Literacy As academics we believe in education and the research process. As academics we believe in education and the research process. We want our students to succeed now and in their future careers [life long learning]. We want our students to succeed now and in their future careers [life long learning]. Accreditation agencies ask for proof that students meet the standards. Accreditation agencies ask for proof that students meet the standards.
The Standards Standard One: determines the nature & extent of the information needed. [4 performance indicators, 26 outcomes.] Standard Two: accesses needed information effectively & efficiently. [5 performance indicators, 23 outcomes.] Standard Three: evaluates critically information and its sources, decides whether to modify initial query, seek additional sources or develop new research process [7 performance indicators, 29 outcomes.] Standard Four: understands information & its technologies economic, ethical, legal and social issues, uses information effectively, individually or collectively, to accomplish a specific purpose. [6 performance indicators, 18 outcomes.] Standard Five: understands information literacy is an ongoing process & lifelong learning important component; recognizes need to keep current with new developments in field. [2 performance indicators, 9 outcomes.]
Standard One The student determines the nature & extent of the information needed.
Standard 1.1 Performance indicator : Defines and articulates the need for information. Outcomes: 1.a. Identifies/paraphrases research topic/information need resulting from assigned lab exercise/project. Instructor & course driven. 1.b. Consults instructor for appropriateness of topic/project/lab exercise. Instructor & course driven. 1.c. Develops hypothesis/thesis statement & formulates questions. Instructor/library input. 1.d. Explores general information sources to increase familiarity with topic. Instructor/ library input. 1.e. Zeroes in on key concepts/terms. Instructor/library input. 1.f. Identifies key concepts & terms describing information need. Instructor/library input.
Standard 1.2 Performance Indicator: Identifies a variety of information types, formats and sources. Outcomes: 1.2.a. Recognizes purpose & audience of resources [popular/ scholarly, current/historical, primary/secondary/tertiary] [[print & electronic formats]. 1.2.b Considers experts/other researchers as information resources [networking, scholarly journals, databases with a subject focus]. 1.2.c. Identifies value & differences of multi-formats for information [media/ print/electronic/patent/GIS/graph/map/3-D technology]. 1.2.d. Realizes information may have to be constructed from primary source data or by experimentation. 1.2.e. Recognizes variety of information/data be proprietary, limited access or free online. 1.2.e. Recognizes variety of information/data be proprietary, limited access or free online. 1.2.f. Recognizes information may require specific data management expertise & understanding of producing organizations aids information identification. Instructor/library input.
Standard 1.3 Performance Indicator: Has a working knowledge of the field literature. Outcomes: 1.3.a. Knows how scientific/technical/related information is formally & informally produced, organized & disseminated. 1.3.b. Recognizes primary, secondary & tertiary sources vary in importance & use with each discipline. 1.3.c. Aware of fields professional associations & literature. 1.3.d. Knows of field specific sources [manuals, handbooks, patents, standards, material/equipment specs, current rules & regs, etc.] 1.3.e. Recognizes relevance of disciplinary & multidisciplinary information. 1.3.f. Recognizes value of archival information, how use & importance vary with each discipline & importance of information preservation. Instructor/library input.
Standard 1.4 Performance Indicator: Considers the costs & benefits of acquiring needed information. Outcomes: 1.4.a. Determines information available locally & makes decisions about using ILL, uses other locations, consults colleagues, independent information brokers, experts & consultants. Instructor/library input. 1.4.b. Recognizes possible tradeoff between information value & time & cost to obtain information. 1.4.c. Formulates realistic plan & timeline for getting information. Library input. Instructors ask for progress reports. 1.4.d. Recognizes importance of variety of information research areas to gain competitive advantage, track new products, improve processes, monitor competitors & marketing strategiesconsult experts/consultants, research licensing opportunities, patent & intellectual property research. Instructor/library input. 1.4.e. Recognizes information may be in foreign language & require translation.
Standard TWO The student accesses needed information effectively and efficiently.
Standard 2.1 Performance indicator: Selects most appropriate investigative methods/ information retrieval systems for accessing needed information. Outcomes: 2.1.a. Identifies how research should be carried out [lab work, simulation, fieldwork, literature search]. Instructor/group input. 2.1.c. Investigates scope, content & organization of information retrieval systems. Instructor/Library input. 2.1.d. Selects efficient & effective approaches for accessing needed information from research method or information retrieval systems. Instructor/Library input.
Standard 2.2 Performance Indicator: Constructs & implements effectively-designed search strategies. Outcomes: 2.2.a. Develops research plan appropriate to research method. 2.2.b. Identifies keywords, synonyms, controlled vocabulary specific to discipline/information source. 2.2.c. Uses other search term input methods, e.g. structure & image searching, discipline or information retrieval system specific. 2..2.d. Constructs search strategy appropriate for information source [using and/or/not, truncation, proximity, book indices, etc.] 2.2.e. Implements search strategy in various systems with different interfaces/search engines/search protocol & recognizes similar cross-system features, e.g. e-mail alerts, save search options, etc. 2.2.f. Follows citations & cited references to identify additional pertinent resources. Instructor/library input.
Standard 2.3 Performance Indicator: Retrieves information using variety of methods. Outcomes: 2.3.a. Uses various relevant search systems to retrieve information in variety of formats. 2.3.b. Uses various classification schemes & other systems [call numbers/ indices] to find library resources or other sites for physical exploration [is it a book, article, etc.?]. 2.3.c. Uses specialized online/in person services to retrieve information [ILL, document delivery, community resources, experts, etc.] 2.3.d. Uses surveys, letters, interviews, experiments, other inquiry methods to retrieve information or data. Instructor/library input.
Standard 2.4 Performance Indicator: Refines the search strategy if necessary. Outcomes: 2.4.a. Assesses quantity, quality & relevance of search results to see if further research needs to be carried out. 2.4.b. Identifies gaps in retrieved information to see if research strategy should be revised. 2.4.c. Repeats search with revised strategy if necessary. Instructor & library input.
Standard 2.5 Performance Indicator: Extracts, records, transfers and manages information & its sources. Outcomes: 2.5.a. Selects most appropriate technology for collecting information, e.g. copy/paste, photocopier, scanner, media equipment, exploratory instruments, note taking, information export [bibliographic management, text conversion & spreadsheet software]. 2.5.b. Creates information organization system, including lab experiments results, fieldwork, etc. 2.5.c. Differentiates between source type [journal/book/website, etc.] & understands citation requirements. 2.5.d. Records all citation information for future reference. Instructor/library input.
Standard Three The student evaluates critically information and its sources, decides whether to modify initial query, seek additional sources or develop new research process.
Standard 3.1 Performance Indicator: Summarizes main ideas to be extracted from information. Outcomes: 3.1.a. Applies understanding of science paper structure, uses sections [abstract/conclusion] to summarize main ideas. 3.1.b. Selects main ideas from text. 3.1.c. Quotes verbatim material appropriately. Instructor/library input on plagiarism issues.
Standard 3.2 Performance Indicator: Articulates & applies initial criteria for evaluating both the information & its sources. Outcomes: 3.2.a. Distinguishes between primary, secondary & tertiary sources & recognizes how scientific information cycle relates to credibility. 3.2.b. Distinguishes among facts, points of view & opinion. 3.2.c. Examines & compares information from various sources to evaluate reliability, validity, accuracy, authority, timeliness, point of view or bias. 3.2.d. Analyzes structure & logic of supporting arguments/methods. 3.2.e. Understands & uses statistical data treatment as evaluative criteria. 3.2.f. Recognizes prejudice/deception/manipulation in information or its use. 3.2.g. Recognizes cultural, physical, other contexts within which information created & understands context impact on information. Instructor input. Instructor input.
Standard 3.3 Performance Indicator: Synthesizes main ideas to construct new concepts. Outcomes: 3.1.a. Recognizes interrelationships between concepts & combines them into primary statements/summary findings with supporting evidence. 3.1.b. Extends initial synthesis at higher abstraction level to construct new hypotheses that may require additional information. 3.1.c. Utilizes computer & other technologies [spreadsheets, databases, multimedia, a/v equipment] for studying interaction of ideas and other phenomena. Instructor input.
Standard 3.4 Performance Indicator: Compares new knowledge with prior knowledge to determine value added, contradictions or other unique characteristics of information. Outcomes: 3.4.a. Determines whether information satisfies research/information need. 3.4.b. Uses consciously selected criteria to determine whether information contradicts or verifies information from other sources. 3.4.c. Draws conclusions based on information. 3.4.d. Tests theories with discipline-appropriate techniques [e.g., simulators, experiments]. 3.4.e. Determines probable accuracy by questioning data source, limitations of research tools/strategies & reasonableness of conclusions. 3.4.f. Integrates new information with previous information/knowledge. 3.4.g. Determines whether information provides evidence relevant to information need/ research question. 3.4.h. Includes unaltered information pertinent even when it contradicts individuals value system.
Standard 3.5 Performance Indicator: Validates information understanding & interpretation through discourse with others [individuals/groups/subject experts/practitioners]. Outcomes: 3.5.a. Participates in classroom & virtual/electronic discussions [e-mail/bulletin boards/chat rooms] & uses discussions to validate information understanding & interpretation. 3.5.b. Works effectively in small groups or teams. 3.5.c. Seeks expert opinions through variety of mechanisms [interviews/e- mail/discussion lists].
Standard 3.6 Performance Indicator: Determines whether to revise initial inquiry. Outcomes: 3.7.a. Determines if original information need has been satisfied or if more information is needed. Instructor input. 3.7.b. Reviews search strategy & incorporates additional concepts if needed. Instructor/library input. 3.7.c. Reviews information retrieval sources and expands if needed. Instructor/library input.
Standard 3.7 Performance Indicator: Evaluates the procured information & the entire process. Outcomes: 3.7.a. Reviews & assesses procured information & determines improvements in information-seeking process. Instructor & Library input. 3.7.b. Applies improvements to subsequent projects.
Standard Four The student understands information & its technologies economic, ethical, legal and social issues, uses information effectively, individually or collectively, to accomplish a specific purpose.
Standard 4.1 Performance Indicator: Understands many of the ethical, legal and socio- economic issues surrounding information and information technology. Outcomes: 4.1.a. Identifies& discusses privacy & security issues in both print & electronic environments. Instructor & library input. 4.1.b. Identifies & discusses free vs. fee-based information access [web vs. databases]. Instructor & library input. 4.1.c. Identifies & discusses issues related to censorship & freedom of speech. Instructor input. 4.1.d. Demonstrates understanding of intellectual property, copyright & fair use of copyrighted material. Instructor & library input.
Standard 4.2 Performance Indicator: Follows laws, regulations, institutional policies & etiquette related to access and use of information resources. Outcomes: 4.2.a. Participates in electronic discussions using accepted practices [Netiquette]. 4.2.b. Uses approved passwords, etc. for information access. 4.2.c. Complies with institutional policies on information access & distribution. 4.2.d. Preserves integrity of information resources, equipment, systems & facilities. 4.2.e. Legally obtains, stores & disseminates text/data/images/sound. 4.2.f. Demonstrates understanding of plagiarism & does not plagiarize, including work of other research teams members. 4.2.g. Demonstrates understanding of institutional policies related to human & animals subjects in research. Instructor input. Library input for plagiarism issues.
Standard 4.3 Performance Indicator: Acknowledges the use of information sources in communicating the product or performance. Outcomes: 4.3.a. Selects an appropriate citation style and uses it consistently. 4.3.b. Posts permission granted notices, as needed, for copyright material. 4.3.c. Acknowledges all contributors, funding sources, grants, etc. Complies with reporting & other requirements related to grants. Instructor input.
Standard 4.4 Applies creativity in information use for a particular product or performance. Outcomes: 4.4.a. Selects, analyzes, organizes, summarizes and/or synthesizes information from variety of resources. 4.4.b. Explores use of advanced information technologies [data mining & visualization] to move beyond retrieval & identify trends & patterns in complex research data large sets.
Standard 4.5 Performance Indicator: Evaluates final product/performance & revises development process used as necessary. Outcomes: 4.5.a. Maintains log/journal related to information seeking, evaluating and communicating process. 4.5.b. Reflects on past successes, failures & alternative strategies. 4.5.c. Applies improvements to subsequent projects. Instructor input but share so librarys teaching strategies can be revised.
Standard 4.6 Performance Indicator: Communicates product or performance effectively to others. Outcomes: 4.6.a. Chooses communication format that best supports product/performance and audience. Instructor input. 4.6.b. Use range of information technology applications in creating product/ performance. Instructor & library input. 4.6.c. Incorporates principles of design & communication. Instructor input. 4.6.d. Communicates clearly and in a style that supports purposes of the intended audience. Instructor input.
Standard 5 The student understands information literacy is an ongoing process & lifelong learning important component; recognizes need to keep current with new developments in field. The student understands information literacy is an ongoing process & lifelong learning important component; recognizes need to keep current with new developments in field.
Standard 5.1 Performance Indicator: Recognizes value of ongoing assimilation & preservation of knowledge in field. Outcomes: 5.1.a. Recognizes professional obligation to keep up with literature in field. 5.1.b. Recognizes information gathering learning is an ongoing process. 5.1.c. Able to apply information access skills across disciplines. 5.1.d. Understands importance of archiving information to survive changing technologies, access routes, etc.
Slide 5.2 Performance Indicator: Uses variety of methods & emerging technologies to keep current in field. Outcomes: 5.2.a. Establishes current awareness services & follows citations & cited references for pertinent articles. 5.2.b. Uses online table of contents scanning, reviews journals & other forms of rapid communication literature. 5.2.c. Manages citations files [bibliographic management software]. 5.2.d. Uses bibliometric analysis tools to update knowledge of changing technology/product life cycles [analyzing companys literature and/or patent portfolio]. 5.2.e. Recognizes emerging forms & methods of scholarly publishing in field [blogs, RSS feeds, open access journals & free online research data]. Instructor input.
The Evidence of a More Thoughtful Approach Bibliographies Bibliographies Databases used Databases used Search statements Search statements Research journals Research journals Portfolios of drafts Portfolios of drafts
Progress Students will move from : broad, general reference sources to specialized, subject specific tools. broad, general reference sources to specialized, subject specific tools. using textbooks/overviews to specialized subject material. using textbooks/overviews to specialized subject material. simple Google searches to more sophisticated use of Google & other search engines. simple Google searches to more sophisticated use of Google & other search engines. using first three hits to carefully evaluated sources. using first three hits to carefully evaluated sources. broad, general topics to more specialized but researchable projects. broad, general topics to more specialized but researchable projects. simply stated search queries to well-formulated search statements. simply stated search queries to well-formulated search statements. copy & paste mentality to reading, analyzing, synthesizing & interpreting information. copy & paste mentality to reading, analyzing, synthesizing & interpreting information.
Suggestions for Successful Assignments Give students the assignments learning objectives. Clarify requirements & expectations in writing and verbally. Give specifics in writing citation style, scholarly resources only, no googling, anything goes, etc. Check to see if librarys resources are adequate, if not ensure students know about alternate sources and see if library can buy more. Dont assume they know the basics. Allow variety in topics. Foster critical thinking by developing assignments integrating information from variety of sources. Allow project to progress throughout course with instructor feedback. Get to know your reference/instruction librarians; share your syllabi.
Assignment Checklist Does assignment ask/encourage students to: articulate a research question, issue or problem? articulate a research question, issue or problem? make multiple and different determinations about the types of sources necessary to complete the research? make multiple and different determinations about the types of sources necessary to complete the research? conduct research through electronic and book-based data retrieval systems? conduct research through electronic and book-based data retrieval systems? make selections from, integrate, and synthesize information retrieved in their search? make selections from, integrate, and synthesize information retrieved in their search? analyze and evaluate the credibility of the information retrieved? analyze and evaluate the credibility of the information retrieved? utilize computer literacy skills to communicate their research discoveries? utilize computer literacy skills to communicate their research discoveries? demonstrate an understanding of fair use of copyrighted material and intellectual property? demonstrate an understanding of fair use of copyrighted material and intellectual property? develop long-term, adaptable, cross-disciplinary research skills? develop long-term, adaptable, cross-disciplinary research skills? [Sonntag &Curry, CSU San Marcos, 1998-1999] [Sonntag &Curry, CSU San Marcos, 1998-1999]