Important Geographical Features of Africa Sahara Desert Kalahari Desert African rainforest Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Mediterranean Sea Red Sea Nile River.

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  • Important Geographical Features of AfricaSahara DesertKalahari DesertAfrican rainforestAtlantic OceanIndian OceanMediterranean SeaRed SeaNile RiverGreat RiftValley

  • Human Migration from the Great Rift Valley

  • MigrationMigration is the permanent movement of people from one place to another. Push Pull FactorsPull Factors attract people to another locationPush Factors cause people to leave a region

    What are some factors that have pushed people from their native regions?What are some factors that have pulled people to the United States?

  • Read, Write, RotateEarly African Migrations & CivilizationsBantu Migrationspages 222 224

    Empire of Malipages 415 417

    Empire of Songhaipage 417

    Empire of Ghanapages 413 415

  • What should I write? Bantu MigrationTime period & location? Who are the Bantu? Describe their lifestyle. Where did they live? Where did they migrate? Why did they migrate?How did the migration impact Africa? (then & now)

    EmpiresTime period & location? Type of governmentKey people & why they are important Role of trade & products tradedReligion (What was it? How did religion impact them?)Why did the empire collapse?Anything else you find interesting, familiar, or noteworthy

    Rules:EACH group member should write 4 things for EACH topic (16 total pieces of information per person)

    NO duplicates allowed!

    NO talking during the reading!

  • ReviewAs a group, discuss the key ideas your group wrote down for each topic You may want to take notes on your own during the group discussions.What is the connection between the Bantu migrations & the African empires that develop later? What characteristics did each empire have in common?What characteristics were different in each empire?Who were the key people in each empire?What do you think are the top five most important facts for each topic?

  • RememberAs a group, complete the Early African Kingdoms notes web. Include in your web everything you remember about each topic.

  • African Trade RoutesGOLDSALT

  • Bantu

    Bantu-speaking people migrated south from modern day Nigeria throughout the southern half of AfricaToday, nearly 1/3 of Africans speak a Bantu-based language.Bantu means the peopleMap showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. other Niger-Congo languages.

  • Bantu MigrationSlash-and-Burn Agriculture

  • Kingdom of Ghana700-1076 ADPower from gold and salt tradeMoved away from Ghana because of invasionsMoved east looking for goldGhanas rulers convert to Islam by the end of 11th century. Islams growth encouraged literacy. In 1076 Ghana is conquered by the Almoravids, & loses its power.

    Ghana Empire at its greatest extent.

  • Mali means where the king lives

    1235-1400 AD

    Moved east looking for goldKingdom of MaliMali empire at its greatest extent

  • Kingdom of MaliAfter fall of Ghana, Mali rises to power b/c of wealth in gold. Sundiata becomes mansa (emperor) & conquers Ghanas territory & other local trade cities - conquers in war but kingdom flourishes in peace.Mansa Musa, a Muslim leader, came to power & expanded empire to twice its size. Made hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca & built mosques.Mansa divided Mali into provinces and assigned a governor to each, making rule more efficient & fair.Timbuktu became Malis most important trading city. Ibn Battuta, famous Muslim scholar, visited Mali.

    Mansa Musa holding a golden nugget.

  • Terracotta Archer figure and horseman figure from Mali (13th-15th century). Sankore mosqueTuaregs were and still are an integral part of the salt trade across the Sahara

  • Mosque of Djenne

  • Gold discovered farther east, causing people to migrate.Songhai Empire established between 1400 & 1500 AD.Two important rulers (both Muslim)Sunni Ali built empire through military conquest, ruled for 30 years.Askia Muhammad overthrew son of Sunni Ali who was not a faithful Muslim; ruled 37 years & set up a bureaucracy to govern the empire. Under him the empire thrived. The Songhai fell to the Morrocans who had modern weapons Ended 1,000 year period where African kingdoms ruled West Africa.

    The Songhai Empire at its greatest extent.Kingdom of SonghaiThe tomb of Askia

  • After Christianity spread through Roman empire it came to Africa & won many converts; eventually becomes the official religion of Aksum. (The reason there are millions of Christians in Ethiopia today.)Between 632 - 750 AD Islamic invaders conquer much of north Africa. Islam spreads through the rest of Africa by trade.

    Islam and Christianity in Africa

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