How Cells Release Stored EnergyCell respiration
When a molecule has hydrogen, it has more energy and removing them releases the energy. The energy produced from the "burning" of glucose is used to make ATP. In chemistry this process is called the oxidation of glucose. The hydrogen carriers NAD and FAD are used to help release the energy in glucose by moving hydrogens and electrons around.
A simple sugar(C6H12O6)
Atoms held together by covalent bondsGlucose In-text figure Page 136
Summary Equation for Aerobic Respiration
C6H1206 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H20 glucose oxygen carbon water dioxide
Glycolysis -in cytoplasm-does not use oxygenOccurs in Two Stages Energy-requiring steps ATP energy activates glucose and its six-carbon derivativesActually uses 2 ATPsEnergy-releasing stepsThe products of the first part are split into 2 three carbon pyruvate molecules4 ATP and 2NADH form4 ATPs form 2 ATPs used = 2 net ATPs made
Glycolysis is often called anaerobic respriation because it does not need oxygen. This process occurs in the cytoplasm. Two net molecules of ATP are made for cell use. It involves glucose being converted to two molecules of pyruvic acid (or pyruvate).
This process is not very efficient at converting the energy of glucose into ATP as only 2 ADP are phosphorylated instead of 32 as in Krebs and chemiosmosis.
Energy-Requiring Steps Figure 8.4(2) Page 137
Energy-Releasing StepsADPpyruvateADPpyruvateH2OPEPH2OPEP2-phosphoglycerate2-phosphoglycerateADP3-phosphoglycerateADP3-phosphoglycerateNAD+NADHPi1,3-bisphosphoglycerateNAD+NADHPi1,3-bisphosphoglyceratePGALPGALFigure 8.4 Page 137Phosphorylations
Glycolysis: Net Energy Yield Energy requiring steps: 2 ATP invested
Energy releasing steps:2 NADH formed 4 ATP formed
Net yield is 2 ATP, 2 pyruvic acid and 2 NADH
After glycolysis:-If oxygen is present, the pyruvic acid will go into the mitochondria where the Krebs cycle (or citric acid cycle) is performed followed by the ETC. This allows the rest of the energy stored in the hydrogen to be extracted. -If no there is no oxygen, then the Kreb's cycle can not be completed (or started in some organisms). A cell can continue doing glycolysis in the absence of oxygen to produce some ATP, BUT it must regenerate NAD to keep glycolysis going. This is called anaerobic respiration (or fermentation). Pyruvate will form either lactic acid (muscles) or ethanol (bacteria, yeast or plants). In either case NAD is regenerated so that glycolysis can continue.
Fermentation PathwaysBegin with glycolysisDo not break glucose down completely to carbon dioxide and waterYield only the 2 ATP from glycolysisSteps that follow glycolysis serve only to regenerate NAD+
Lactate FermentationC6H12O6ATPATPNADH2 lactateelectrons, hydrogen from NADH2 NAD+22 ADP2 pyruvate24energy outputenergy inputGLYCOLYSISLACTATE FORMATION2 ATP net
Alcoholic FermentationC6H12O6ATPATPNADH2 acetaldehydeelectrons, hydrogen from NADH2 NAD+22 ADP2 pyruvate24energy outputenergy inputGLYCOLYSISETHANOL FORMATION2 ATP net2 ethanol2 H2O2 CO2
Anaerobic Electron TransportCarried out by certain bacteriaElectron transfer chain is in bacterial plasma membrane Final electron acceptor is compound from environment (such as nitrate), not oxygenATP yield is low
After glysolysis, if oxygen is present aerobic respiration proceeds in the mitochondria.
Preparatory reactionsPyruvate is decarboxylated and oxidized (releasing carbon dioxide)NAD+ is reducedAcetyl Co-A is formedEx. 1PreparatoryStepsEx. 2
The Krebs CycleOverall Products
Coenzyme A2 CO23 NADHFADH2ATPOverall Reactants
Acetyl-CoA3 NAD+FADADP and Pi
The enzymes for Kreb's is found in the inner compartment of the mitochondria. Summary of Krebs- Occurs in Mitochondria 2X'sPyruvate---> 3 CO2 6 CO2 1 ADP ---> 1 ATP 2 ATP4 NAD ---> 4 NADH 8 NADH1 FAD ---> 1 FADH2 2 FADH2(also, oxaloacetate regenerates so cycle can continue)
Coenzyme Reductions during First Two Stages
Glycolysis2 NADHPreparatoryreactions 2 NADHKrebs cycle 2 FADH2 + 6 NADH
Total 2 FADH2 + 10 NADH
Occurs in the mitochondriaCoenzymes deliver electrons to electron transfer chainsElectron transfer sets up H+ ion gradientsFlow of H+ down gradients powers ATP formation (chemiosmotic)Electron Transfer Phosphorylation
The purpose of chemiosmosis is to extract the energy found in NADH and FADH2 to make more ATP. This involves the cristae. There are electron transport chains that are used.The electrons from the NADH and FADH2 are used to move on the electron transport chain. As the electrons move down the electron transport chain, H+ ions are pumped across the membrane.The electrons from one NADH can pump 6 H+ across the membrane, but the electrons from FADH2 can only pump 4 H+ across the membrane.
Creating an H+ GradientNADHOUTER COMPARTMENTINNER COMPARTMENT
The outer compartment of the mitochondria becomes positive and the inside becomes negative like a battery. This "battery" can do work. The hydrogen ions can cross an F1 particle and make ATP.It takes 2 H+ to cross the F1 particle to provide enough energy to make ATP.
Making ATP: Chemiosmotic ModelATPADP + PiINNER COMPARTMENT
Summary8 NADH2 x 6 H = 48 H+2 FADH2(Krebs)x 4 H = 8 H+2 FADH2(glyc.) X 4 H = 8 H+ 64 H+
64 H+ --> 32 ATP
Importance of OxygenElectron transport phosphorylation requires the presence of oxygen
Oxygen withdraws spent electrons from the electron transfer chain, then combines with H+ to form water
Summary of Energy Harvest(per molecule of glucose)Glycolysis2 ATP formed by substrate-level phosphorylationKrebs cycle and preparatory reactions2 ATP formed by substrate-level phosphorylationElectron transport phosphorylation32 ATP formed
Overview of Aerobic RespirationCYTOPLASMGlycolysisElectron Transfer PhosphorylationKrebsCycleATPATP2 CO24 CO2232water2 NADH8 NADH2 FADH22 NADH2 pyruvatee- + H+e- + oxygen(2 ATP net)glucoseTypical Energy Yield: 36 ATPe-e- + H+e- + H+ATPH+e- + H+ATP24Figure 8.3 Page 135
686 kcal of energy are released 7.5 kcal are conserved in each ATPWhen 36 ATP form, 270 kcal (36 X 7.5) are captured in ATPEfficiency is 270 / 686 X 100 = 39 percent (at best)Most energy is lost as heatEfficiency of Aerobic Respiration
**Fats/Lipids = Glycerol and 3 fatty acidsGlycerol is converted to PGAL and respired in glycolysis. The fatty acids are chopped into 2 carbon acetyl groups and used in the Krebs or citric acid cycle. **Proteins = amino acidsThe amino acids are sent to the liver where the liver removes the amine group. The left over acid is then used at some point in the Krebs cycle.
Alternative Energy SourcesFOODcomplex carbohydratessimple sugars
pyruvateacetyl-CoAglycogenfatsproteinsamino acidscarbon backbonesfatty acidsglycerolNH3PGALglucose-6-phosphateGLYCOLYSISKREBS CYCLEureaFigure 8.11 Page 145Other organic molecules can be involved in respiration.
When life originated, atmosphere had little (none) free oxygenEarliest organisms used anaerobic pathwaysLater, noncyclic pathway of photosynthesis increased atmospheric oxygenCells arose that used oxygen as final acceptor in electron transport and were more efficient Evolution of Metabolic Pathways
Processes Are Linked sunlight energywater+carbon dioxidePHOTOSYNTHESISAEROBIC RESPIRATIONsugar moleculesoxygenIn-text figure Page 146
Requires carbon dioxide
Makes carbsAerobic Respiration
Releases carbon dioxide