How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Cellular respiration is the process by which energy is harvested by cells from sugar – Requires Oxygen (O 2 ) – Releases.
Slide 1How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Cellular respiration is the process by which energy is harvested by cells from sugar Requires Oxygen (O 2 ) Releases Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ), water (H 2 O) and a large amount of ATP All of our cells harvest chemical energy (from food) Slide 2 Cellular Respiration stores energy in ATP molecules A cell uses energy to build and maintain its structure, transport materials, manufacture products, move, grow and reproduce Cellular respiration involves mainly sugars, but other organic compounds can be broken down (nearly all the equations youll see use glucose as the representative food molecule) Our bodies require a continuous supply of energy just to stay alive Slide 3 Organisms use energy from ATP for all its activities Breathing Heart pumping Maintaining body temperature Thinking, dreaming www.sxc.hu/photo/ 437515 Slide 4 Organisms use energy from ATP for all its activities Above and beyond the energy we need for body maintenance, cellular respiration provides energy for voluntary activities The amount of energy it takes to perform these activities are expressed as kilocalories (a calorie on a nutritional label actually equals 1 kilocalorie) A kilocalorie is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg water by 1 C Slide 5 Energy consumed by various activities (kilocalorie consumed per hour) Running (from BIO 101 class)979 Dancing (after passing BIO 101)510 Bicycling (to test the potential/kinetic energy reference)490 Swimming (in a sea of knowledge)408 Walking (to lab)245 Sitting (and absorbing it all)28 Maybe we should try teaching this in a spinning class??? Slide 6 How cells tap energy Energy is contained in the arrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds that hold an organic molecule (such as glucose) together During cellular respiration, electrons are transferred to oxygen (why we need O 2 ) as the Carbon-Hydrogen bonds of the molecule (in this case, glucose) are broken down. When these electrons are transferred, they lose potential energy, which is released as energy Slide 7 Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration occurs in 3 stages Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle The Electron Transport Chain (Oxidative Phosphorylation) All of these steps occur in and around the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells, and in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm in prokaryotic cells Slide 8 Mitochondrion CO 2 NADH ATP High-energy electrons carried by NADH NADH C ITRIC A CID C YCLE G LYCOLYSIS Pyruvate Glucose and FADH 2 Substrate-level phosphorylation Substrate-level phosphorylation O XIDATIVE P HOSPHORYLATION (Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis) Oxidative phosphorylation ATP Cytoplasm Inner mitochondrial membrane Occurs in the cytoplasm Occurs in the mitochondria The Electron Transport Chain Slide 9 Cellular Respiration Glycolysis What two words do you see immediately in the word glycolysis? Glycolysis literally means the splitting of sugar Glycolysis begins with a molecule of glucose (6-Carbon sugar) and ends with 2 molecules of pyruvate (a 3-Carbon compound) Requires the initial input of 2 ATP molecules Slide 10 Glycolysis Glucose + 2ATP 2 Pyruvate (ionized form of pyruvic acid) Glycolysis is a multi-step pathway, which utilizes at least 6 different enzymes in a metabolic pathway that is anaerobic In the later stages of glycolysis, 4 ATP molecules are synthesized using the energy given off during the chemical reactions; net gain of 2 ATP Slide 11 Glycolysis http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_vie w0/chapter25/animation__how_glycoly sis_works.html Slide 12 Glycolysis The chemical energy stored in the bonds of the glucose molecule is used to form the high energy compounds, ATP Glycolysis is universal among organisms; simpler organisms (yeasts and bacteria) can satisfy their metabolic needs with the ATP produced by glycolysis alone. Most organisms have far higher energy demands and must undergo additional stages of cellular respiration to release more energy Slide 13 The Citric Acid Cycle (aka The Krebs Cycle) As pyruvate is formed at the end of glycolysis, it is transported from the cytoplasm into a mitochondrion The Citric Acid Cycle breaks down pyruvate in the mitochondrial matrix Compared to glycolysis, the Citric Acid Cycle pays big energy dividends to the cell, producing 2 ATP molecules plus 10 NADH and 2 FADH 2, two very high energy molecules Slide 14 The Citric Acid Cycle The energy stored in NADH and FADH 2 is released when these molecules shuttle their high-energy electrons to the Electron Transport Chain (stage 3) The Electron Transport Chain is oxygen-driven and produces the largest amount of ATPs in the entire cellular respiration process For every glucose molecule that enters glycolysis, there is a total net production of 36-38 ATPs by the end of the Electron Transport Chain Slide 15 The Electron Transport Chain The Citric Acid Cycle and the Electron Transport Chain occur in the mitochondria The many folds of the mitochondrial inner membrane enlarge its surface area, providing space for thousands of copies of the Electron Transport Chain occurring at once, producing many ATP molecules Slide 16 What do cigarette smokers and musk ox have in common? Brown fat is 1 of 2 types of fat found in mammals Unlike white fat, it is brown in color and especially abundant in newborns and arctic animals Its primary function is to generate heat in animals (or in newborns who can not yet shiver) What does this have to do with cellular respiration? Slide 17 Brown phat Brown fat has extremely high numbers of mitochondria One of the steps in the Electron Transport Chain involves the transfer of hydrogen ions (H + ) across the mitochondrial inner membrane which stores energy as a proton (H + ) gradient This energy is used to make ATP Slide 18 Thats (brown) phat! Many H + use an alternative route to generate heat, rather than producing ATP with the help of a protein, thermogenin Brown fat is especially rich in this protein which causes the proton gradient established during cellular respiration to generate heat rather than ATP Some skinny people may naturally have more brown fat than heavier people Slide 19 How now brown fat Brown fat production in humans usually disappears after infancy, but can be stimulated by exposure to severe cold So, what do smokers and musk ox have in common??? Smoking (nicotine) and caffeine stimulate thermogenin production! Less ATP, more heat Why you gain weight when you quit smoking (and why I wont give up my caffeine addiction) Slide 20 And you thought biology was boring???!!! www.flickr.com/ photos/ 73234878@N00/ 2388306833/ Slide 21 Cellular Respiration: Review Beginning with 1 molecule of glucose, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle produce a net total of 4 ATP NADH and FADH 2 are high-energy molecules produced by glycolysis, the grooming of pyruvate, and the citric acid cycle NADH and FADH 2 are electron carriers; they transfer electrons (& their energy) to other molecules releasing energy and producing ATP Slide 22 Cytoplasm Glucose FADH 2 Mitochondrion Maximum per glucose: O XIDATIVE P HOSPHORYLATION (Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis) C ITRIC A CID C YCLE Electron shuttle across membrane 2 NADH 2 2 6 2 (or 2 FADH 2 ) 2 Acetyl CoA G LYCOLYSIS 2 Pyruvate About 38 ATP about 34 ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation by oxidative phosphorylation 2 ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation 2 ATP Slide 23 Cellular Respiration: Review Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the Electron Transport Chain Without oxygen, electrons cannot be removed from the system, and their energy cannot be released to produce ATP In animals, breathing is the essential process that brings oxygen into the body for delivery to the cells to participate in cellular respiration Slide 24 Fermentation enables cells to produce ATP without oxygen In the absence of oxygen, ATP may still be produced via a process called fermentation Fermentation is the process of deriving energy from organic compounds such as carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen Cellular respiration always begins with glycolysis; the presence or absence of oxygen will then determine whether cellular respiration or fermentation will follow Slide 25 Fermentation Remember, glycolysis results in the formation of 2 3-carbon pyruvate molecules from 1 6-carbon glucose molecule, and 2 ATP molecules are released When oxygen is lacking, certain organisms (such as yeasts) can convert pyruvate into ethyl alcohol and CO 2 which removes electrons and allows continuous ATP production Yeasts are able to perform this process because they have the necessary enzyme to convert pyruvate into ethyl alcohol Slide 26 Fermentation CO 2 and ethyl alcohol this sounds familiar For thousands of years, people have used alcohol fermentation for brewing beer, winemaking and baking Yeasts (a type of fungi) are used in the process; the CO 2 generated by fermentation causes bread to rise (and makes our libations bubbly), while the ethyl alcohol, well, you know Slide 27 Fermentation Normally, ethyl alcohol is released to the surroundings (or burnt off during baking), but in a wine vat, the yeast will die when the alcohol content reaches ~15% (toxic) Some organisms, such as yeast can alternate between cellular respiration or fermentation, depending upon whether oxygen is available or not; others may only use fermentation and are poisoned by the presence of oxygen Slide 28 Fermentation continued In muscle cells, another type of fermentation takes place When muscle cells contract too quickly (e.g., strenuous exercise), they rapidly use up their oxygen supply, which slows ATP production Muscle cells, however, have the ability to produce a small amount of ATP through glycolysis in the absence of oxygen = lactic acid fermentation Slide 29 The muscle cells convert glucose to pyruvate, and then an enzyme in the muscle cells converts pyruvate into lactic acid, releasing 2 ATP molecules Lactic acid is toxic and must be removed by the liver (& converted back to pyruvate); heavy breathing after exercise helps restore oxygen back to the muscle cells Slide 30 How we use food for energy While we frequently focus on glucose as the starting molecule of cellular respiration or fermentation, many other organic compounds are utilized by our cells for energy The Far Side; Gary Larson Slide 31 How we use food for energy When you eat a bag of peanuts, for example, you are consuming lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates All of these compounds are used in the process of glycolysis, while fats (rich in carbon and hydrogen, and thus many energy-rich electrons) are broken into 2-carbon fragments which enter the citric acid cycle, and yield twice as many ATP as a carbohydrate Slide 32 Food, such as peanuts ProteinsFatsCarbohydrates Glucose O XIDATIVE P HOSPHORYLATION (Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis) CITRIC ACID CYCLE Acetyl CoA GLYCOLYSIS Pyruvate Amino acids Glycerol Sugars Fatty acids Amino groups G3P ATP Slide 33 Food also provides raw materials In addition to producing ATP for energy, many food molecules are used directly as raw materials which the cell uses to construct its structures and perform its functions For example, many proteins are broken down into amino acids by the cell to make its proteins In return, cells also use ATP to make biomolecules that are not present in food Slide 34 How a cell harvests energy The cells of all living organisms have the ability to harvest energy from the breakdown of organic molecules; the atoms of the starting materials end up being released CO 2 and H 2 O In contrast, the ability to make organic molecules using CO 2 and H 2 O is not universal Animal cells lack this ability, but plants can actually produce organic molecules from inorganic ones using the energy of the sun (photosynthesis)