HISTORY AND THE PEACE MOVEMENT

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World Affairs InstituteHISTORY AND THE PEACE MOVEMENTSource: Advocate of Peace through Justice, Vol. 92, No. 3 (August, 1930), pp. 155-159Published by: World Affairs InstituteStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20681465 .Accessed: 17/06/2014 11:13Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp .JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. .World Affairs Institute and Heldref Publications are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extendaccess to Advocate of Peace through Justice.http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded from 195.34.79.223 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 11:13:38 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=waihttp://www.jstor.org/stable/20681465?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspAdvocate of Peace, August, 1930 155 therefore should invoke our common re sources for its common defense when this common heritage is imperiled." On the assumption that the control of war profiteering is constitutional in nature, the act provides for the creation of a com mission to be composed of four members of the House, four members of the Senate, the Secretaries of War, Navy, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, and the Attorney Gen eral, to consider what amendment to the Constitution of the United States is neces sary to enable the Congress to take private property for public use during war, to equalize the burdens and to remove the profits of war, and to study the policies to be pursued in the event of war. The bill provides that the commission shall report definite recommendations to the President of the United States to be transmitted by him in turn to the Congress not later than the first Monday in December, 1931. It specifically provides that the commission shall not consider and shall not report upon the conscription of labor. To amend the Constitution of the United States is no easy matter. That an amend ment is necessary is doubtful. Our Govern ment had little difficulty controlling any thing it wished to control during the last war. It merged railroads, sold bonds, com mandeered manufactures, fixed prices, and directed our entire economic life. Should the existence of our national life be threat ened again by war, the Government would find ways to do these same things, and more if necessary. But the study of the entire problem as provided by this recent legislation is most desirable. HISTORY AND THE PEACE MOVEMENT TTkURING the war an eminent American historian said that he had found men trained in history to be a bit more efficient in the conduct of the war than others. He was probably right. The historically trained men are among the most useful of the foreign representatives of govern ments. History lends perspective. Other things being equal, it promotes wisdom. In this summer number of the Advocate of Peace there are historical matters relating to the peace movement, facts that should be of use to anyone interested to clarify one's own mind as to possible next steps toward the lessening of the ills of war. The American Peace Society is old enough to view with nothing but gratifica tion the activities of others in its special field. In the language of its founder, Wil liam Ladd, from whom it is ever profitable to quote, "the field is large and the reapers are few." The peace worker today must know the background of his work. He will of course wish to know his representatives in Con gress. He will seek to make use of men and existing organizations. He will look for specific projects calculated to advance the cause. He will add to the political aspects of his interests the achievments of science, of literature and of art. His approach to any or all these fields will be the more intelligent in proportion as he knows the achievements and the failures of the peace movement heretofore. E great inquiry of history is not where a man came from but where is he going? History is the science of cul tural values, of the meanings and effects of human behavior. In its larger aspects it unfolds our views and hopes. In his "The Decline of the West," Spengler is not so interested in events and causes as in the meaning of those events in the light of the days that are to come. He finds that there have been eight occasions when large groups of men have lived on a high level of culture: in Egypt, in Mesopotamia, in India, in China, along the north of the Mediterranean, in the Near East, in This content downloaded from 195.34.79.223 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 11:13:38 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp156 Advocate of Peace, August, 1930 Mexico and in Western Europe. He finds among all these the record of birth, growth, maturity and decline. He might have added, had he seen fit, that the decline in every instance was due primarily to the devastations of war. Whether or not our Western World is to go the way of all the others depends upon the merit and vitality of the peace movement. TNFAMILIARITY with data of his ^ tory is at the bottom of most of our social ills. This ignorance blinds us to the fact that the evolution of the peace movement is the most important achieve ment of our modern world. Knowledge of past failures and achievements in this movement is necessary, not to convince the world that wars should cease?that has been accomplished?but to achieve a greater agreement upon the best methods now to be employed. The task of the peace worker is to guide public sentiment of all countries to the choice of wise meth ods for the avoidance of irreconcilable disputes, and to open ways for the just settlement of all other controversies as they may arise. Such a service should not be embarrassed by the imprudence of unin formed zealots. Disagreements in the peace movement are almost entirely over methods. If the peace workers knew more they would agree better. It is history that ties faith to experience, experience to knowledge, and knowledge to wisdom, which is the wise use of knowledge. Familiarity with the past enables one to advance if not to originate wisdom. The difficulties of the peace movement are in tensified more by its advocates than by its enemies, due principally to an unfamili arity with the work that has been done. Many of our "new ideas" in the peace movement are but the skeletons of errors that died generations ago among their worshipers. Wise men looked upon those "ideas," weighed their merits against their demerits, and found them wrong. History, progressive revelation that it is, is essen tial to tolerance, and to the vigor, breadth of view and wisdom that follow in the steps of tolerance. E outstanding need of the peace movement?that is a dangerous way to begin a sentence. But why not finish it? The peace movement needs to be baptized with a more general culture, a wider vigor of thought, a deeper catholicity of spirit. The peace movement waits for a new in fusion of those qualities associated 700 years before Christ with Isaiah, classic genius of Judaism?qualities of grandeur, of concentration, of imaginative power and splendor. Where are we to find leadership like that? E peace movement has been impeded most, not by its enemies but by the imprudence of its friends. This has been due for the most part to an ignorance of the facts of the story of experience, which is history. Patrick Henry was not the only one to find no way of judging the future except by the past. Experience may keep a dear school but it is a necessary school. The peace worker among the other social endeavorers must lay experience by the side of the things to be done, else in the future, as often in the past, the things that are done will have to be undone. The peace movement needs the dignity that thrives between the dull and the florid, the realization that the task is interesting be cause true and convincing. If it can escape pedantry and ostentation, find its efforts measured by the failures and successes of the past, it will find itself in the hearts of men, winning their judgments and support. This content downloaded from 195.34.79.223 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 11:13:38 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspAdvocate of Peace, August, 1930 157 STANDARDS of measurement for the further development of the peace movement may yet prove to be largely out side the current standards most familiar to our day. They may have little to do with money, salaries, memberships, build ings, publicity, size of organization, stand ardization based on statistics, propaganda or any outward success in terms of brag and crowds. These things may play their part, but the peace movement cannot af ford to close its doors to the inventors, the artists, the poets and the prophets, for in its substance there are the spiritual reali ties of courage, confidence and insight. The most sacred of the Christian sacraments began in no endowed temple, but in a little upper room borrowed for the purpose; and that in no hour of success and acclaim, but among a few anxious men faced with an aweful tragedy. NE WONDERS how far conven tions now in force between the United States and a number of governments relative to the smuggling of intoxicating liquors are calculated to promote good feelings toward our government. Each of these conventions has a provision that au thorities of the United States may board private vessels under a foreign flag out side the limits of the territorial waters of the United States for the purpose of as certaining whether or not the vessel or persons on board are endeavoring to im port or have imported alcoholic beverages into the United States. The provisions go further. On sufficient evidence that such attempts have been made, or are being made, the United States may seize the vessel and bring it into a port of the United States for adjudication in accord ance with the laws of the United States. The first convention of this kind was signed by the United States with Great Britain in 1924. Similar conventions are now ?n force between the United States and Belgium, Cuba, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Pana ma, Spain, Sweden and Poland. One signed by the United States with Chile on May 27, 1930, is now pending ratifica tion by the two countries. qpWO EVENTS calculated to promote understanding between thoughtful per sons of the United States and Italy were recently reported by our Ambassador to Rome, Mr. John W. Garrett. It appears that there is held at Venice every year an exhibition of painting and sculpture to which "all the world" comes. America has been twice represented there in former years, but, it is said, inadequately, and in rooms in the main building, which is ordinarily given up to Italian art or to exhibitions of minor importance from countries which have no buildings of their own. All the major countries of Europe have buildings of their own and do not fail of adequate representation. There are pavilions flying the flags of France, Great Britain, Spain, Germany, The Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Belgium, among others. This year for the first time America is represented by its own build ing, a satisfactory and beautiful pavilion in the neo-classic colonial style designed by Messrs. Delano and Chester Aldrich of New York and erected at the expense of the Grand Central Art Galleries. Mr. Walter L. Clarke, President of the Grand Central Art Galleries, has, with great skill and labor, brought together some one hundred paintings and pieces of sculpture by modern American artists, and although there are some important names lacking, especially of the younger artists, it is im pressive to see canvases of Cecilia Beaux, George Bellows, Frank W. Benson, Charles Chapman, Childe Hassam, Rockwell Kent, Leon Kroll, Jonas Lie, Gari Melchers, John This content downloaded from 195.34.79.223 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 11:13:38 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp158 Advocate of Peace, August, 1930 Sloan, and Eugene Speicher, to pick out a few names rather at random; and pieces of sculpture by Malvina A. Hoffman, Paul Manship, and others. The second event has been the triumphant tour of the orches tra of the Philharmonic Symphony Society of New York under the leadership of Arthur Toscanini. The presentation to gether of the greatest conductor and the greatest orchestra of our time is a revela tion of good music to the people of Europe. Particularly in Italy the combination of this American orchestra and its Italian Maestro has brought about an enthusiasm and delight that is said not to have been equalled here before. The orchestra has given two concerts in Milan, one in Turin, two in Rome, and finished the Italian part of its tour in Florence. It has been a musical triumph everywhere, and a great debt of gratitude is due to Mr. Clarence Mackey and his colleagues who have sent this splendid embassy of Ameri can art to Europe. npHERE IS AN international aspiration ? ? among the artists of the world that may well give pause to the politicians and reformers. There is a marked tendency away from attitudinizing in art to keep up appearances, away from the imitations of the old masters and toward an open mindedness, a stern passion for sincerity, integrity, truth, a disposition to temper one's personal pr?f?rences with a tolerant appreciation of different points of view. The real artists of our day, almost with out exception, aim to place their work above and beyond the disputes of nations. They speak a universal language. Nicholas Roerich proposes an international agreement to raise above museums, art galleries and cathedrals an individual flag, claiming and receiving the same im munity as the flag of the Red Cross, and thus to protect artistic treasures through times of madness and destruction. Dun can Philips is editor of Art and Under standing, a magazine devoted to the en couragement of tolerance and open-mind edness in art and life and to the cultiva tion of intelligent enjoyment of the inten tions of artists and the varied qualities of their work. He points out that the crea tive spirit unites. He urges that the crea tions of a country's contemporary artists be exhibited in legations abroad, and that attach?s be detailed to interpret these to visitors, as the Honorable Vincent Massey, long Canadian Minister at Washington, has done for the artists of his land. It is diffi cult to conceive of a finer service to the cause of international respect and under standing. WflTH APOLOGIES to "The Path " finder,99 the following amended para graph is printed for no definable reason: A "Literary Digest."?A "modern Priscilla" crossed the "Atlantic" in search of an "American boy" who had gone to help with the "world's work." Having good "success" she found the "country gentleman" leaning against a "Satur day evening post" and gazing at an "evening star." He asked her to be his "youth's companion" and share his "farm home and fireside." A "pathfinder" guided them to his home, where the "household" goods consist mostly of "needlecraft" and old "farm bureaus." The "current opinion" was that they would have an "independent" "life," but after they had enjoyed "farm life" for nearly a "golden age," she received a "dispatch" from a "Virginia farmer," saying, "come back." She laid aside her "red book" and said to her "woman's home companion," I'm going to leave this "cos mopolitan" country, and return to "America" and be an "American woman" and an "Advocate oj Peace." THE REFUSAL of our Department of State to favor the sale of $2,000,000 worth of bombing airplanes to Russia by a Baltimore company is a logical sequel to the fact that we have no diplomatic relations with Russia. It is a resolution This content downloaded from 195.34.79.223 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 11:13:38 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspAdvocate of Peace, August, 1930 of Congress that empowers the President to impose embargoes on the shipment of military supplies to Latin-American coun tries and to China. The Department of State is opposed to the shipment of arms even to the government of the Soviet Union of Socialist Republics. One naturally wonders how far this act of the Depart ment may be looked upon as a straw indi cating the course of events in Eastern Europe and the Far East. "T\ES DEVOIRS?DES DROITS" is a phrase engraved over the entrance to the headquarters of the mayor of Neuilly, just outside the old walls of Paris. An English gentleman recently discovered this motto and wrote a letter about it. In that letter he called atten tion to the uneasiness in England and to 159 the despondency somewhat prevalent there. Having recently visited France, he was impressed by the facts that there is no un employment in France and that taxation is falling. He is greatly impressed by the order of the words in the motto. First, duty to the nation: then such rights as the performance of that duty has merited. He asks: "If France has engraved this principle not only on the stone of her building but also on the minds of her citi zens, is it not at the same time a possible explanation of her better condition and an example to ourselves?" He adds: "Is it too much to hope that our politicians and and the majority of our electorate may one day see the life of the nation in that light? If so, there is ground for hope." The Advocate of Peace is too well acquainted with the epic grandeur of Britain to doubt the outcome in that land. WORLD PROBLEMS IN REVIEW LEAGUE OF NATIONS COVENANT AND THE KELLOGG PACT THE most important item on the agenda of the Eleventh Assembly of the League of Nations, which will open in Geneva on September 11, is the discussion of the Re port of the Committee for the Amendment of the Covenant of the League of Nations in Order to Bring it into Harmony with the Pact of Paris (the Kellogg Pact). This Committee, which was appointed by the League Council at its session of January, 1930, in execution of the Tenth Assembly's resolution of September 24, 1929, sat at Geneva from February 25 to March 5, 1930. It elaborated a number of proposals which are now to be submitted to the League Assembly. Committee's Terms of Reference and Composition The Committee's terms of reference were embodied in the Tenth Assembly's resolu tion, which read as follows: The Assembly, Taking note of the resolution submitted to it on September 6th on behalf of various delegations that, in view of the large measure of acceptance obtained by the Pact signed at Paris on August 27th, 1928, whereby the parties renounced war as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another, it is desirable that Articles 12 and 15 of the Covenant of the League of Nations should be be re-examined in order to determine whether it is necessary to make any modifications therein; and Taking note also of the resolution proposed by the Peruvian delegation on September 10th recom mending that a report should be obtained as to the alterations which were necessary in the Covenant of the League in order to give effect to the pro hibitions contained in the Pact of Paris: Declares that it is desirable that the terms of the Covenant of the League should not accord any This content downloaded from 195.34.79.223 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 11:13:38 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspArticle Contentsp. 155p. 156p. 157p. 158p. 159Issue Table of ContentsAdvocate of Peace through Justice, Vol. 92, No. 3 (August, 1930), pp. 149-216FRANCE AND ITALY [pp. 149-150]EUROPE ON THE UPGRADE [pp. 150-150]THE INTERPARLIAMENTARY UNION [pp. 150-151]THE MACEDONIAN QUESTION [pp. 151-153]ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION TREATIES CONTINUE TO MULTIPLY [pp. 153-153]MORE TALK ABOUT THE MONROE DOCTRINE [pp. 153-154]BURDENS AND PROFITS OF WAR [pp. 154-155]HISTORY AND THE PEACE MOVEMENT [pp. 155-159]WORLD PROBLEMS IN REVIEWLEAGUE OF NATIONS COVENANT AND THE KELLOGG PACT [pp. 159-162]BRIAND PROPOSAL FOR A EUROPEAN FEDERAL UNION [pp. 162-163]FRANCO-ITALIAN RELATIONS [pp. 163-165]CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE IN INDIA [pp. 165-167]BRITISH POLICY IN PALESTINE [pp. 167-169]ARE WE MUDDLING INTERNATIONALLY? [pp. 170-173]EARLY PEACE EFFORTS IN RHODE ISLAND [pp. 174-184]EDWIN GINN AND THE WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION [pp. 184-190]INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTSPRESIDENT HOOVER ON THE HAWLEY-SMOOT TARIFF ACT OF 1930 [pp. 191-193]BRIAND PLAN FOR THE FEDERATION OF EUROPE [pp. 193-197]News In Brief [pp. 197-199]Book ReviewsFICTION FOR SUMMER READINGReview: untitled [pp. 199-199]Review: untitled [pp. 199-200]Review: untitled [pp. 200-200]Review: untitled [pp. 200-200]Review: untitled [pp. 200-201]NONFICTIONReview: untitled [pp. 201-201]Review: untitled [pp. 201-201]Review: untitled [pp. 201-202]Review: untitled [pp. 202-202]AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY ONE-HUNDRED-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS MAY 2, 1930 [pp. 203-212]CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS OF THE AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY [pp. 213-216]