Fun to teach , Fun to Learn

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    Using flashcardsUsing flashcardsUsing flashcardsUsing flashcards

    Using SongsUsing SongsUsing SongsUsing Songs

    Using storiesUsing storiesUsing storiesUsing stories

    Using GamesUsing GamesUsing GamesUsing Games

  • ContentContentContentContent

    1)1)1)1)IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction 1111----4444 2) 2) 2) 2) Pictures and FlashcardsPictures and FlashcardsPictures and FlashcardsPictures and Flashcards....4444----6666 3) 3) 3) 3) Using songsUsing songsUsing songsUsing songs........6666----8888 4) 4) 4) 4) Using stories in teachingUsing stories in teachingUsing stories in teachingUsing stories in teaching8888----10101010 5) 5) 5) 5) Using gamesUsing gamesUsing gamesUsing games.11.11.11.11----12121212 6) 6) 6) 6) References References References References .1.1.1.13333

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    Introduction

    Teaching English to young learners can be one of the most rewarding experiences you will ever

    have. Foreign language instruction must take into consideration the needs and characteristics of

    young learners in order to be successful. Teaching objectives and approaches should be geared to

    the learners cognitive level and interests.

    Characteristics of Young Learners:

    Young learners generally have the following characteristics. They are: keen and enthusiastic. curious and inquisitive. outspoken. imaginative and creative. active and like to move around. interested in exploration.

    learn by doing/hands-on experience. holistic, natural learners searching for meaningful messages. The above needs and characteristics of young learners have implications for language instruction. Teachers should provide a wide range of opportunities for hearing and using the language and play should be an active part of the teaching. Tasks should be meaningful and help children to make sense of new experiences by relating them to what they already know. The use of routine and repetition should be emphasized along with opportunities for interaction and cooperation. Finally, praise and encouragement is necessary to maintain childrens positive attitudes, motivation, and self-confidence.

    The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

    Howard Gardner (1983) grouped human capabilities into eight categories which he called "intelligences." Gardner defines intelligence as:

    the ability to solve problems that one encounters in real life; the ability to generate new problems to solve; the ability to make something or offer a service that is valued within one's culture. In his

    cross-cultural exploration of the ways in which people are intelligent, he has identified seven distinct types of intelligences:

    o Verbal/Linguistic

    o Logical/Mathematical o Musical o Visual/Spatial o Body/Kinesthetic o Interpersonal o Intrapersonal

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    According to Gardner's theory, one form of intelligence is not better than another; they are equally valuable and viable (Gardner, 1983).

    Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory is a very useful model for developing a systematic approach to nurturing and teaching children and honoring their individual needs and strengths within a classroom setting.

    DEVELOPING MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

    IN THE ENGLISH CLASS Offering a great variety of activities, Teachers will make sure to reach every child and give her the chance to learn no matter which is her most prominent intelligence. Here there is a table with the different intelligences, the ways to learn best and suggested activities for each type.

    Intelligence They learn best

    by

    Activities

    Linguistic Saying, hearing words. Memory games Storytelling

    Logical mathematical

    Asking questions, categorizing and working with patterns

    Counting Saying the age Puzzles

    Musical Using rhythm, with music on Singing songs Listening to music

    Bodily Kinesthetic

    Moving, touching and doing

    TPR activities Action songs Miming Moving games Role playing

    Visual Spatial

    Visualizing , using the minds eye

    Flashcards

    Colours Pictures Drawing Memory games

    Interpersonal Cooperating, working in groups and sharing

    Mingle activities Group games Role play

    Intrapersonal

    Working alone

    Brainstorming Talking stick

    Naturalist Working outside and observing nature

    The cycle life of animals and plants. Stories , songs or pictures of animals or plants

    Let children learn having fun and enjoy learning!Let children learn having fun and enjoy learning!Let children learn having fun and enjoy learning!Let children learn having fun and enjoy learning!

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    In this Fun book we will discuss:

    1- Using pictures and flashcards.

    2- Using songs in EFL classes.

    3- Using Games.

    4- Using Stories

    Flashcards and story cards: used as a visual aid for the introduction of vocabulary and storytelling. They are also used in moving games and TPR Activities, to sequence the stories, to help understanding the songs, etc.

    Songs and dances: music is a very helpful resource in the English class and especially dealing with young children. Songs allow the students to play using the target language and give them good patterns to practice rhythm, intonation.

    Games: we can use different kinds of games: visual games, memory games, group games, and moving games, among others. We have to keep in mind that they must be short, varied and easy to explain. The games instructions are always given in English, using simple vocabulary and structures and it is always very important to give an example before starting to play.

    Storytelling: stories are a great help to introduce the contents that we wish to work with. There

    are a few things that we have to keep in mind while telling a story: the content must be

    interesting and close to the childrens reality the characters should be interesting and must

    have positive attitudes and values the action has to be simple and has to contain structures that

    are easy to understand the linguistic contents should be rich, well contextualized and adapted

    to the childrens knowledge. Choosing stories with repetitive structures will ensure the

    childrens understanding, participation and memorization of the language,

    1- Pictures and flash cards

    Who was it that said "a picture is worth a thousand words"? You know, they were right! The use of visual aids can greatly enhance your presentation. Making it easer for you to reach your teaching objectives and for your students to understand them.

    We humans take more information in visually, even when we are reading something .it's processed and stored as a visual thought in our minds.

    Flashcards are wonderful teaching tools. They offer fun, interactive learning for all levels of education for all subject types. They can help with memory skills, mathematical skills, advanced discussion work, interaction via games, speaking and listening skills of all ages. Flashcards come in a variety of shapes, sizes and materials. People can get creative with the cards.

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    What are Flash cards:

    Flashcard from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A flashcardflashcardflashcardflashcard or flash cardflash cardflash cardflash card is a card that is used as a learning aid. One writes a question on a card and an answer overleaf. Flashcards can bear vocabulary, historical dates, formulas or any subject matter that can be learned via a question and answer format. Flashcards are widely used as a learning drill to aide memorization by way of spaced repetition.

    Why use flash cards? Howard Gardener's multiple intelligence theory reminds teachers that there are many types of learners within any one class. Gardener's research indicates that teachers should aim to appeal to all the different learner types at some point during the course. It is particularly important to appeal to visual learners, as a very high proportion of learners have this type of intelligence. Flashcards can be bright and colourful and make a real impact on visual learners. Some of the activities also appeal to kinesthetic learners. For children at reading age, flash cards can be used in conjunction with word cards. These are simply cards that display the written word. Word cards should be introduced well after the pictorial

    cards so as not to interfere with correct pronunciation. Flashcards are a really handy resource to have and can be useful at every stage of the class. They are a great way to present, practise and recycle vocabulary and when students become familiar with the activities used in class, they can be given out to early-finishers to use in small groups. I sometimes get the students to make their own sets of mini flash cards that can be taken home for them to play with, with parents and siblings.

    Where to get flash cards?

    Do not reinvent the wheel Buy them Make them yourself - If you don't have access to professionally produced flashcards, don't

    worry, it's really easy to make your own even if you're not very artistic. You can use pictures from magazines, draw simple pictures or copy from the internet or clip art.

    Look in the folder on this CD with the name flashcards. Look in the internet on these websites.

    http://www.eslflashcards.com/ http://www.eslkidstuff.com/

    http://www.esl-kids.com/flashcards/flashcards.html http://bogglesworldesl.com/cards.htm

    http://www.mes-english.com/ http://www.teachchildrenesl.com/

    http://www.eslhq.com/ http://www.1-language.com/eslflashcards/

    http://www.englishraven.com/trflashcards.html http://www.teachchildrenesl.com/flashcards.htm

    http://www.esljunction.com/esl-efl-flashcards/esl-tefl-efl-flashcards.html http://www.esl-kids.com/

    http://www.english-4kids.com/flashcards.html http://www.thefrankes.com/esl/eslflashcards.htm

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    Ask students to make them - After introducing a new lexical set, using realia or the course book, ask students to produce the flash cards for you. Give each one an item to draw. They can be mounted on card to make the set.

    Using flash-cards in the English classroom Most teachers use flash-cards in their English lessons when they have to introduce new vocabulary.

    Using flash-cards our students will be able to understand the new vocabulary without any kind of

    translation. With flashcards we can:

    teach, practise, or review new vocabulary

    do guided practice (drills) practise grammatical structures practise listening comprehension do writing activities do semi-guided or free speaking practice such as problem solving activities, role plays,

    discussions, etc.

    2-Using songs It has been said that children have a natural musical taste and that play is the only activity that they take

    seriously. If this is so, teachers should not let song practice or any activity seem like work. They should

    keep it spontaneous. This has been shown to apply even to language teachers.

    Why we use songs? Songs, rhymes, chants, and musical games are fantastic materials for the language teacher to use

    with young learners. They have innumerable virtues.

    They are memorable, and so make students remember the language .

    They can be great fun.

    They cover the same topics as they kids are covering in the English lessons and other classes:

    animals (Old Macdonald), body parts (Teddy Bear Teddy Bear) etc.

    They are the best way of marking different stages of the lesson, e.g. starting the class every

    week with the same song, ending the class with another.

    Students can listen to the songs at home and revise the language.

    They provide an easy way of changing the pace.

    They provide an achievable challenge for all levels of learner in mixed ability classes, by letting

    some students just show their understanding by doing the actions while others can sing along or

    even improvise their own words .

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    They can be used at whatever stage you are at with the language- e.g. presentation, practice or

    revision before a test.

    They allow for lots of repetition of the language without kids getting bored .

    Using the song reinforces other things you are working on in the classroom such as discipline,

    teaching kids to work together, rewarding good behaviour, fostering learner independence etc.

    Finding and Using Songs Check the document attached with different songs.

    Check the following websites.

    Write them yourself if you can

    Activities can be linked with

    songs

    Using songs or music is one of the 8 MI mentioned in Gardener's book. For example, asking the

    learners to sing the ABC song will help the learners to better remember the sequence of the alphabet. Similarly, singing to the multiplication table song will help learners better remember the multiplication table.

    Being musically intelligent does not mean that the learner is very good in music, that he can sing or play a musical instrument well. Being musically intelligent means that the learner can lean best with song or music.

    However, not all learners learn best through songs and music. Some learners have better interpersonal or intrapersonal intelligences or any of the other 7 intelligences. Hence, by using music along in teaching, teachers would have neglected learners who are geared towards other intelligences.

    Filling in the blanks

    Songs are often used in this way in the ESL classroom. You can carefully choose which words to blank out depending on what lexical area you want your students to work on.

    Listening Comprehension

    Instead of doing your usual listening comprehension out of the course books, do a song instead. Get your students thinking about the subject and do any pre-teaching of vocabulary as necessary. As with standard listening comprehension, there are a variety of exercises that you can do with songs: true or false, matching exercises, open comprehension questions, etc.

    Phonetics

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    You can use a song with a clear rhyme pattern to do some phonetics work on particular phonemes.

    Strips of Paper

    The lyrics can be cut up into strips which then need to be reconstructed as the song unfolds. Alternatively, each student is given a strip to memorize beforehand and the students then work among themselves to 'physically' rebuild the song.

    Vocabulary

    Some songs lend themselves well to vocabulary work.

    Look in the internet on these websites. http://www.songsforteaching.com/esleflesol.htm

    http://www.caslt.org/resources/english-sl/classroom-resource-links-music-songs_en.php

    http://www.esl-kids.com/

    http://www.esl-lounge.com/songstop.shtml

    http://www.gigglepotz.com/eslsongs.htm

    http://gs.fanshawec.ca/tlwm/direct.htm

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/tweenies/songtime/songs/a/index.shtml

    http://freekidsmusic.com/

    http://www.bussongs.com/

    http://kids.niehs.nih.gov/music.htm

    http://www.britishcouncil.org/kids-songs-little-kids.htm

    3-Using stories in teaching

    Now more and more English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers of young learners are using

    stories and the technique of storytelling from the world of children's literature.

    Why use stories in the EWhy use stories in the EWhy use stories in the EWhy use stories in the ESSSSL clasL clasL clasL classroom?sroom?sroom?sroom? Stories can give excellent contextualization for new or recycled language

    There are lots of opportunities for repetition in stories

    Stories offer opportunities for vocabulary building

    Stories can be used with different age and ability groups

    Good stories are highly motivating for learners (and teachers!)

    New and recycled language is supported

    Stories can sometimes link with childrens own knowledge of life /other stories

    Stories are excellent for theme-based and activity based work

    Stories offer great opportunities for cultural input

    Stories can be presented in many ways

    Stories can help teachers develop all 4 language skills plus cognitive and

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    developmental skills in their pupils

    How can we introduce stories in class?How can we introduce stories in class?How can we introduce stories in class?How can we introduce stories in class? Teachers can present the story read out loud, on a video/ audiotape, in pictures

    only etc.

    Teachers can read the book and show the pictures to the children.

    Children read (look at) the book to themselves, then listen to the teacher reading it out loud.

    Children read (look at) the book while they listen to a recording of it.

    Children put the pictures in order and then teacher/tape/other child reads it out loud.

    Split reading when each child takes a page .

    Activities that can be linked with stories Activities that can be linked with stories Activities that can be linked with stories Activities that can be linked with stories

    in the classroom:in the classroom:in the classroom:in the classroom: Telling the story Sequencing Activities Playing games linked to the story Talking about childrens likes and dislikes raised in the story Listening to music/songs linked to the story Singing & writing songs linked to the story Collecting interesting information on the topic Asking questions about the topic Writing notes about the topic

    Playing word games / board games / card games / commercial games linked to the story Designing things tee-shirts designs / posters / adverts around the story Acting and role-play

    Remember we can use stories in

    the EYL class at anytime in the

    lesson, term or year! And we can

    use any type of stories as long

    as they are relevant, interesting

    and of the right cognitive and

    linguistic levels for our

    learners!

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    Preparing to TeachPreparing to TeachPreparing to TeachPreparing to Teach

    Lesson PlanningLesson PlanningLesson PlanningLesson Planning Before you start designing worksheets and wordlists, make sure that you know where you're going.

    Think about your teaching objective, consider how much time you have to spend with the book,

    and then create a plan so that you have a systematic approach in mind as you design materials.

    Developing MaterialsDeveloping MaterialsDeveloping MaterialsDeveloping Materials Developing materials yourself, while challenging and time-consuming, can be very rewarding. Not

    only is it a good learning experience which may help give you insight into your teaching, it also

    allows you to target the types of activities that will be most valuable to your students, and to tailor

    them exactly to fit their needs.

    WorkbookWorkbookWorkbookWorkbook Young students need hands-on activities. A teacher-created workbook can act as a basis for one of

    those types of activities.

    Keep things simple. The workbook need be nothing more than a collection of papers stapled

    together. On the first day of teaching a new book, allow students to illustrate the covers of their own workbooks. This can provide a personal connection to the story at the outset of their study. You can use the pages as a place for students to draw artistic responses to the story. For example, if they've learned "house/mouse/train/rain" in class, then the lesson wrap-up may include time for them to draw a picture featuring the vocabulary words and labeled in English.

    FlashcardsFlashcardsFlashcardsFlashcards .Assign different key vocabulary words to different students and have them help make flashcards.

    You can collect and laminate the drawings and use them for various activities in follow up lessons.

    It is amazing to see the rapt attention students are willing to give materials they created themselves.

    Look in the internet on these websites.

    http://www.electricscotland.com/kids/stories/six.htm

    http://www.goodnightstories.com/

    http://www.netrover.com/~kingskid/108b.html

    http://www.magickeys.com/books/

    http://www.britishcouncil.org/kids-stories.htm

    http://www.pitara.com/talespin/story.asp

    http://www.momsview.com/freeprintablestorybooks.shtml

    http://www.apples4theteacher.com/holidays/spring/short-stories/index.html

    http://www.dltk-teach.com/

    http://storynory.com/

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    4- Using Games Educational gamesEducational gamesEducational gamesEducational games are games; board and card games, including video games that have been

    specifically designed to teach people about a certain subject, expand concepts, reinforce development, understand an historical event or culture, or assist them in learning a skill as they

    play.

    How to Choose aHow to Choose aHow to Choose aHow to Choose a GameGameGameGame ????

    Students may wish to play games purely for fun. Teachers, however, need more convincing

    reasons. 'Teachers need to consider which games to use, when to use them, how to link them up

    with the syllabus, textbook or programme and how, more specifically, different games will benefit

    students in different ways (Khan, J.1996).' The key to a successful language game is that the rules

    are clear, the ultimate goal is well defined and the game must be fun.

    Below are some questions which we might consider as we choose a game:

    Which language does the game target? Which skills does it practice? The language skill focus could be any one of the major skills

    of listening, speaking, reading or writing. What type of game is it? What's the purpose for using it? Does it fit the students? How could I simplify or make it more complex if necessary? Many

    games require modification in use when the students' need are taken into consideration. How much interaction and participation is there? Maximum involvement is something we

    are pursuing. Do I like the game myself?

    II. Hints and SuggestionsII. Hints and SuggestionsII. Hints and SuggestionsII. Hints and Suggestions

    When giving instructions to beginners, a few words in the mother tongue would be the

    quickest way to make everything clear. More English exposure is needed at a later stage.

    Games are best set up by demonstration rather than by lengthy explanation.

    It is very important not to play a game for too long. Students will begin to lose interest. It is best

    to stop a game at its peak.

    How to use games with learners:How to use games with learners:How to use games with learners:How to use games with learners:

    1- Demonstrate the game as a class

    2- Elicit the incidental language the students will need to play the game

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    2

    3- Elicit/ explain the rules and write them up on the board

    4- Split the class into groups/ teams

    5- Use instruction checking questions

    6- Have one group start playing with everyone else watching

    7- Let all the other groups start playing

    8- Go straight to any group that looks confused or is usually slow to catch on and get them

    started

    9- Whip quickly around the class making sure that everyone is playing the game more or less

    correctly. If everyone is doing the game seriously wrong or many teams have the same question

    about the rules, stop the whole class and explain again.

    10- Go around the class again, monitoring for the language used and errors of pronunciation

    and grammar

    http://www.englishclub.com/esl-games/index.htm

    http://www.teflgames.com/games.html

    http://www.rong-chang.com/game.htm

    http://www.genkienglish.net/games.htm

    http://iteslj.org/c/games.html

    http://www.eslkidstuff.com/OnlineGamesMain.htm

    http://www.shambles.net/pages/learning/EnglishP/eslgames/

    http://a4esl.org/

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    http://www.esljunction.com/esl-efl-flashcards/esl-tefl-efl-flashcards.html

    http://www.topenglishteaching.com/directory/material/flashcards/flash_cards/article.htm

    http://freecontent.janktheproofer.com/Flashcards.htm

    http://bogglesworldesl.com/cards.htm

    http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/resources/flashcard.shtml

    http://www.pointloma.edu/Tutorial_Services/Study_Tips____Hints/Studying_and_Note-Taking/Flashcards.htm

    http://www.the-bus-stop.net/flashcards.html

    http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Werff-Pictures.html

    http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Cakir-MusicalActivities.html

    http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Brown-ChildrensLit.html

    http://www.usingenglish.com/articles/using-songs-with-young-learners.html