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Foundations of Libraryand Information ScienceTHIRD EDITIONRichard E. RubinNeal-Schuman PublishersNew York LondonPublished by Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc.100 William St., Suite 2004New York, NY 10038Copyright 2010 Richard E. Rubin.All rights reserved. Reproduction of this book, in whole or in part, without written permissionof the publisher, is prohibited.Printed and bound in the United States of America.The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American NationalStandard for Information SciencesPermanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials,ANSI Z39.48-1992.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataRubin, Richard, 1949-Foundations of library and information science / Richard E. Rubin. 3rd ed.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6 (alk. paper)1. Library scienceUnited States. 2. Information scienceUnited States. I. Title. Z665.2.U6R83 2010020'.0973dc222010009302Editorial Advisory BoardKendra Albright, Associate Professor, School of Library and Information Science,University of South CarolinaMichele V. Cloonan, Dean and Professor, Graduate School of Library & InformationScience, Simmons CollegeJoseph Janes, Associate Professor, Information School, University of WashingtonMichael Stephens, Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Library and InformationScience, Dominican UniversityContentsList of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vForeword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiJoseph JanesPreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ixAcknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Chapter 1. The Educational, Recreational, and Informational Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Chapter 2. From Past to Present: The History and Mission of Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Chapter 3. Library and Information Science: An Evolving Profession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77Chapter 4. The Organization of Information: Techniques and Issues . . . . . 127Chapter 5. The Library as an Institution: An Organizational Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165Chapter 6. Redefining the Library: The Impact and Implications of Technological Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225Chapter 7. Information Science: A Service Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271Chapter 8. Information Policy: Stakeholders and Agendas . . . . . . . . . . . . 309Chapter 9. Information Policy as Library Policy: Intellectual Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371Chapter 10. The Values and Ethics of Library and Information Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405iiiAppendix A. Summary of Major Library and Information Science Associations and List of Additional Associations . . . . . . . . . . . 441Appendix B. Accredited Masters Programs in Library and Information Science in the United States and Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471IV FOUNDATIONS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCEDONT MISS THIS BOOKS COMPANION WEB SITE!www.neal-schuman.com/foundationsFind expanded Selected Readings lists for the major subjectareas covered in this book:History and Mission of LibrariesThe LIS ProfessionIntellectual Organization of LibrariesLibraries as OrganizationsImpact of TechnologyInformation ScienceInformation PolicyInformation Policy and LibrariesEthics and ValuesFiguresFigure 1.1 Average Time Spent with Consumer Media per User per Year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Figure 1.2 Number of Public, Academic, Government, and Special Libraries, 19802009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Figure 1.3 The Structure of Education in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Figure 3.1 Employment by Occupation, 2006, and Projected 2016 Library and Information Science Occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114Figure 3.2 Employed Persons by Detailed Occupation and Age, Annual Average 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115Figure 3.3 Racial and Gender Characteristics of Selected Occupations, 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115Figure 4.1 Dewey Decimal Classification Main Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130Figure 4.2 Library of Congress Main Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131Figure 4.3 Sample Library of Congress Subject Headings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136Figure 4.4 Cutters Objects of the Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139Figure 4.5 Functions of the Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139Figure 4.6 Selected MARC Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152Figure 4.7 Sample MARC Record with Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152Figure 5.1 Number of Libraries in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173Figure 7.1 The Spectrum of the Information Disciplines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274Figure 8.1 Library of Congress Year 2008 at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355Figure 9.1 The Library Bill of Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389vFigure 9.2 Freedom to View Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391Figure 9.3 The Glasgow Declaration on Libraries, Information Services, and Intellectual Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400Figure 10.1 ALA Library Code of Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428Figure 10.2 Code of Ethics for Archivists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429Figure 10.3 ASIS&T Professional Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431Figure 10.4 Libraries: An American Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435VI FOUNDATIONS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCEForewordTextbooks are unique. We normally think of them, naturally, as instructional aids,sources that can be read or consulted when needed (or perhaps just highlighted aspart of some mystically osmotic process of learning), usually accompanying a formal,structured course. They serve both as frameworks for those courses and as a kind ofrepository to be dipped into on demand; in some ways theyre like narrative booksand in others more like reference materials. They also have a secondary functionthey make great milestones, marking thepath that a topic or discipline takes as it evolves. This is particularly true when youlook at them over time. Reading, for example, Margaret Hutchinss Introduction toReference Work from 1944, you can see just how far our knowledge and practice ofreference services has comeand how much remains the same.So writing a good textbook isnt easy, but it is important. The really fine onesleave a mark, and thats what Rick Rubin has done with this latest edition of hisfoundations textbook. Its staggering to think about how much effort and thoughtmust go into a book like this; trying to distill decades (centuries, really) of theory,practice, opinion, and experience in a field that is broad and expanding and evolvingon a daily basis.Its also particularly challenging because of the audience. Many people come tothe library and information professions after work in the field for a while, but manydont, so theres no common language or experience to draw upon. For some of you,this will be your first exposure to our world and professional culture. Let me reassureyou that youre in very capable hands.For those of you who are joining us, regardless of your background, this bookmay appear at first glance to be a straightforward exposition of the literature, history,and traditions of the library and information work, and that it is.It is also the story of humanity. Look at the sweep of human history and what youwill find is the records and traces: cave drawings, scrolls, clay tablets, manuscripts,books, newspapers, pamphlets, journals, diaries, letters, paintings, sound recordings,moving images, blogs, and on and on and on. From Lascaux to YouTube, the messageis the same: I was here, and I have a story to tell.viiThat cultural heritage, and the human record that tells those stories, is entrustedto us to preserve, collect, organize, manage, search, and help people to use, andthats what we do. So as you read this, learning about the rich heritage and traditionsof your new professional domain, once in a while I want you to stop and take a deepbreath and remember that while the fine details of AACR or CIPA or OCLC or theOED are important, theres more going on.We make humanity more human. We grease the wheels of knowledge, so that thepeople we serve can consult that human record more easily and effectively, and usewhat they find to learn and better themselves and their communities. The only thingI can guarantee you is that almost everything important in our world will change . . .yet much endures and youll find a lot to help you along here.One final word, on behalf of the long line of those who have gone before, and thethousands of colleagues eagerly awaiting your arrival. There is nothing better youcan do with your life. Youre entering a profession that we cherish deeply and holddear and we cant wait to see the wonderful things you do. All the best as you starton your way.Joseph JanesAssociate Professor, The Information SchoolUniversity of WashingtonSeattle, WashingtonVIII FOUNDATIONS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCEPreface Keeping up is hard to do. Much has happened since the second edition of Foundationsof Library and Information Science was published six years ago. The boundaries oflibrary and information science (LIS) continue to expand, the issues proliferateand grow in complexity, and the challenges we face are serious and relentless. It isdaunting and delightful. Our profession demands constant growth, continuouslearning, and open minds. We know that next year something new will again force usto reexamine our thinking and reassess our practices, policies, and sometimes evenour purpose. We are fortunate that we have a firm foundation on which to makechanges: a distinguished history, strong values, and an active professional andacademic community ready to address our challenges. As with its predecessors, this new edition has been designed to respond to themany changes occurring in the field and the society at large. It preserves much ofthe content of the second edition but has been reorganized, rewritten, and extensivelyupdated. Most important, new or enhanced discussions have been added including(1) the growing impact of the World Wide Web; (2) blogs, wikis, and other forms ofsocial networking on services; (3) electronic publishing, including e-books, digitallibraries, digital preservation, mass digitization, and digital repositories; (4) newefforts to organize knowledge such as the development of Functional Requirementsfor Bibliographic Records (FRBR); (5) the significance of the digital divide andpolicy issues related to broadband access and network neutrality; (6) changes inlibrary services such as roving reference, e-government, and gaming; (7) legaldevelopments such as new applications and impacts of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act;and (8) the increasing tensions in LIS education between information science andlibrary science. Regarding this last point, there remains an ongoing debate as to whether libraryscience and information science are separate disciplines. There are also argu-ments about what constitutes the domains of each. Foundations of Library andInformation Science is focused on the complementary nature of these disciplinesusing Boyd Raywards 1983 description of the relationship between library andinformation science as a disciplinary continuum . . . with no easily identifiableixboundary separating them though the difference between the extreme ends of thecontinuum are clear and even dramatic (p. 344). This book focuses on the points ofconvergence.PURPOSEThe primary purpose of Foundations of Library and Information Science remains todescribe the current library and information science environment and examine someof the ever-changing forces that shape that environment and the larger society. Myintent is to help prepare LIS professionals to cope with and effectively manage theirmany complex responsibilities. Bearing this emphasis in mind, this text is designedto accomplish six objectives:1. To provide an introduction to the field for individuals intending to work inlibraries or library-like institutions, related settings, or the information field ingeneral. 2. To identify and discuss major topics and issues in library and information sci-ence that are current in the United States and that will continue to affect theprofession for years to come.3. To provide librarians and information professionals with an opportunity torefresh their knowledge through a systematic review of major issues and topicsthat have changed the field. 4. To introduce the profession to interested individuals or those undecided aboutentering the library and information science field and to show its multifac-eted character and possibilities. 5. To place library and information science in a larger social, economic, andpolitical context. It is too easy to view the work of LIS professionals purelywithin an institutional setting. Increasingly, librarians and other informationprofessionals must negotiate and respond to a variety of political, economic,technological, and social forces.6. To invite the interested reader to further explore topics raised in this book.Many of these topics are part of an ongoing discussion in our field thatrequires further reading, research, and exchange.ORGANIZATIONAlthough many of the original chapter headings remain, the arrangement of chaptersin this edition has been altered in response to feedback from faculty members andour editorial advisory board. X FOUNDATIONS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCEThe Introduction and Chapter 1 provide a broad overview and context for theensuing chapters. The Introduction identifies and discusses four major forces shapingthe broader society and concomitantly the world of LIS professionals and institutions.Chapter 1, The Educational, Recreational, and Informational Infrastructure,provides an important context by describing and discussing critical institutions thatsupport libraries and other information-disseminating institutions. Chapters 2 and 3 provide the historical foundations of libraries as institutionsand of library and information science as a profession. From Past to Present: TheHistory and Mission of Libraries examines the character of libraries through timewith specific emphasis on their many and varied purposes. Chapter 3, Library andInformation Science: An Evolving Profession, reviews the evolution and developmentof the profession. The contemporary American library and information professional isa product of more than a hundred years of growth and change. The current role of LISprofessionals and the professional tensions that they experience are best understoodwhen placed in the context of the historical development of library and informationscience education and the profession.Chapter 4 examines the intellectual organization of libraries. The Organizationof Information: Techniques and Issues discusses the organizational systems thatmake information, in all its myriad forms, available. In spite of the vast quantities ofdisparate materials, our classification systems, subject headings, thesauri, data-bases, and powerful catalogs enable LIS professionals to offer information retrievalon demand. Organizing information is one of the touchstones of our profession.Chapters 5 and 6 explore libraries as institutions; first from a general perspective,and then focusing on the specific effects of technology. Chapter 5, The Library as anInstitution: An Organizational Perspective, examines contemporary libraries, theirtypes, and internal functions, as well as the major organizational issues that they face.Chapter 6, Redefining the Library: The Impacts and Implications of TechnologicalChange, deals with one of the biggest areas of change in our field, the growth ofinformation technologies, especially those that have affected the organization anddelivery of information in libraries and information centers. Information technologieshave altered the way information providers in all types of organizations interact withtheir users. Issues arising from these changes are addressed.Chapter 7, Information Science: A Service Perspective, focuses on the nature ofinformation science as a field of study, calling special attention to those aspects of thediscipline that inform the work of LIS professionals.Chapters 8, 9, and 10 deal with philosophical and policy issues affecting libraryand information science. These include the policies, laws, values, and ethics thatdefine our work. Chapter 8, Information Policy: Stakeholders and Agendas,discusses the more general aspects of information policy and the legal environmentin which libraries and other information institutions operate. Government, business,industry, public institutions, LIS professionals, and citizens all are stakeholders inPREFACE XItrying to shape how information will be disseminated and who will disseminate it.Chapter 9, Information Policy as Library Policy: Intellectual Freedom, focuses onlibraries and examines key information policies, such as those related to intellectualfreedom and equitable access to information. Chapter 10, The Values and Ethicsof Library and Information Science, examines the many ethical ramifications ofworking in the field. Ethical principles, codes, and situations are reviewed and thevalues that undergird our profession are examined.To permit an examination of the same topic from different vantage points, Foun-dations of Library and Information Science addresses most topics primarily in onechapter, but some important issues are raised anew in a different context in otherchapters. For example, censorship and intellectual freedom issues are discussedmost thoroughly in Chapter 9, but they also arise in Chapter 8, on information policy,and The Library as an Institution, Chapter 5. The Internet and Web, because theyundergird most information transmission today, are covered in multiple chapters aswell. Similarly, because of the tremendous breadth of our field, some complementaryareas are mentioned but not explored in depth, including such fields as publishingand book arts, archives, and computer science.A list of highly selected readings follows each chapter. These selections providesources of additional information and stimulate thought on the basic issues raised inthis text. See this books companion Web site (www.neal-schuman.com/foundations)for expanded lists of selected readings for the major subject areas covered in this book: History and Mission of Libraries The LIS Profession Intellectual Organization of Libraries Libraries as Organizations Impact of Technology Information Science Information Policy Information Policy and Libraries Ethics and ValuesReaders should understand that continuous consultation with the most recentlypublished material is essential if one is to stay current.Rounding out the book, two appendixes provide supplemental information on LISassociations and accredited schools of library and information science in the UnitedStates and Canada.No LIS professional can function unless he or she understands the importanceof information, how libraries are organized intellectually and administratively,the effects of information policies, and the values and ethics of librarians andXII FOUNDATIONS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCEthe profession. The challenge of all professionals is to stay current in a world influx. The library is a special place; library and information science is a specialprofession. The roles of the former and latter, as well as the broader forces that shapethose roles, constitute the major focus of Foundations of Library and InformationScience. Its goal is to be a valuable resource for those entering the profession andthose who have already taken their place within it.REFERENCERayward, Boyd. 1983. Library and Information Sciences. In The Study of Information:Interdisciplinary Messages. Edited by Fritz Machlup and Una Mansfield. New York:Wiley, 343363.PREFACE XIII

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