Europenan Paintings 15-18the Century

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book on the painting 15 till 18 th century

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<ul><li><p>The Robert Lehman Collection </p><p>II </p></li><li><p>The Robert Lehn1an </p><p>Collection II </p><p>Fifteenth- to Eighteenth- Century European Paintings </p><p>France, Central Europe, The Netherlands, Spain, and Great Britain </p><p>CHARLES STERLING, MARYAN W. AINSWORTH, CHARLES TALBOT, </p><p>MARTHA WOLFF, EGBERT HAVERKAMP-BEGEMANN, </p><p>JONATHAN BROWN, JOHN HAYES </p><p>The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York in association with </p><p>Princeton University Press, Princeton </p></li><li><p>Copyright I998 by The Metropolitan Museum of Art All rights reserved under international and Pan-American </p><p>copyright conventions </p><p>Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann, Coordinator </p><p>Published by The Metropolitan Museum of Art </p><p>John P. O'Neill, Editor in Chief Sue Potter, Editor </p><p>Bruce Campbell, Designer Richard Bonk, Production Manager </p><p>Jean Wagner, Bibliographer </p><p>Photographs of Nos. I (verso), 2-IO, I2 (detail of mirror), i6, I7, I9, 20, 22-25, 28, 3I-38, 4I, and 42 were taken by Schecter Lee, New York. Photographs of other paintings in the Robert Lehman Collection were taken by the </p><p>Photograph Studio, The Metropolitan Museum of Art </p><p>Typeset by Aardvark Editorial Services, Hartford Printed by Meridian Printing, East Greenwich, Rhode Island </p><p>Bound by Acme Bookbinding, Charleston, Massachusetts </p><p>LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Sterling, Charles </p><p>Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Paintings: France, Central Europe, The Netherlands, Spain, and Great Britain I by Charles Sterling, Maryan W. Ainsworth, Charles Talbot, Martha Wolff, Egbert </p><p>Haverkamp-Begemann, Jonathan Brown, John Hayes p. em. - (The Robert Lehman Collection, 2) Includes bibliographical references and index. </p><p>ISBN 0-87099-88I-I -ISBN 0-69I-00698-9 (Princeton) I. European paintings - Catalogs. </p><p>4. Lehman, Robert, I892-I969- Art collections- Catalogs. 5. European paintings- Private collections- New York (N.Y.)- Catalogs. </p><p>6. European paintings- (New York, N.Y.)- Catalogs. 7 Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.) - Catalogs. </p><p>I. Ainsworth, Maryan W. II. Talbot, Charles III. Wolff, Martha IV Haverkamp-Begemann, Egbert V Brown, Jonathan VI. Hayes, John VII. Title VIII. Series </p><p>N6II.L43N48 I998 708.I47'I 86-I25I9 </p></li><li><p>Contents </p><p>PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS </p><p>BY EGBERT HAVERKAMP-BEGEMANN I Vll </p><p>NOTE TO THE READER I X </p><p>CATALOGUE </p><p>France, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries CHARLES STERLING AND MARYAN W. AINSWORTH I I </p><p>Central Europe, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries CHARLES TALBOT I 29 </p><p>The Southern Netherlands, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries MARTHA WOLFF I 61 </p><p>The Netherlands, Seventeenth Century EGBERT HAVERKAMP-BEGEMANN I 125 </p><p>Spain, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Century JONATHAN BROWN I I69 </p><p>Great Britain, Eighteenth Century JOHN HAYES I I85 </p><p>CONCORDANCE I 196 </p><p>BIBLIOGRAPHY I 197 </p><p>INDEX I 231 </p></li><li><p>Preface and Acknowledgments </p><p>The quality of the paintings discussed and analyzed in this volume of the catalogue of the Robert Lehman Collection is inverse to their limited number. The forty-two paint-ings reviewed here in the light of their historical significance are marked also by their diversity; they range in date from the mid-fifteenth to the end of the eighteenth century, and they were created by artists working in France, the Netherlands, Central Europe, Spain, and Great Britain- the oltralpi according to the Italians (whose works are the subject of Volume I of this series). Philip and Robert Lehman were not trying to encapsu-late all facets of the art of continental Europe and Great Britain, but instead selected a few remarkable works that would exemplify major aspects of the art of painting during this period. </p><p>Five paintings stand out from the fifteenth century. Civic achievement and self-confidence seem fundamental themes in the Goldsmith in His Shop (No. I2), painted by Petrus Christus in I449 Contemporaneous with Christus' Goldsmith but representa-tive of totally different cultural sensitivities and ambitions is the Virgin and Child with a Donor Presented by Saint Jerome (No. 6), here analyzed as to its physical makeup and historical origin and convincingly placed in Bavaria or Austria. Although the artist who made it remains unidentified, the painting undoubtedly is one of the major works made in central Europe in the mid-fifteenth century. By placing the sitter before a landscape, a formula that had lasting repercussions in Italian as well as Northern art, Hans Memling conveyed the prestige of the wealthy merchant or banker who was the subject of his Por-trait of a Young Man (No. I3), here dated to about I475-8o. The Annunciation (No. I4), one of Memling's finest works, was painted about half a decade later. Near the end of the century, Jean Hey portrayed the young Margaret of Austria, using Memling's idea of a landscape backdrop but adding a large dividing wall behind the sitter that lends monumentality to the composition. As a portrait of a future leading political figure in her youth by one of the greatest artists of the time, Margaret of Austria (No. 3) is rightly con-sidered a milestone in the history of French painting, and in the history of portraiture. </p><p>Already a portent of the sixteenth century is a second major work from France, al-though by an artist who was probably trained in the Netherlands. The Virgin and Child of about I 500 (No.4) is one of the few known paintings by the artist called the Master of Saint Giles. His manner of painting and the shape and sophisticated iconography of the Christ Child, here clarified for the first time, demonstrate that he was among the great artists in western Europe at the turn of the century. Though they are only part of a larger work of art, the wings of a triptych Gerard David painted about I 5 IO (Nos. 20, 2 I) represent the best of Bruges painting before the economic and artistic decline of the city later in the century. Hans Holbein's small and much appreciated later version of his portrait of the great humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam and Venus with Cupid the </p><p>Vll </p></li><li><p>Vlll </p><p>Honey Thief of about I530 and the Nymph of the Spring of about I550 by Lucas Cranach father and son (Nos. 9-I I) are other high points of the sixteenth century. </p><p>The pattern repeats itself in the seventeenth-century paintings in the collection, which are few in number but of the highest quality. Opening the century is El Greco's Saint Jerome as Scholar (No. 38), which can be seen as the embodiment of both religious fervor and human dignity. From the close of the century is one of Rembrandt's most impressive late works (No. 3 I), a sophisticated and sensitive portrayal of his fellow artist Gerard de Lairesse that cannot help but elicit viewers' compassion. </p><p>Philip and Robert Lehman set high standards for the acquisition of old master paint-ings, but they also were attracted by the appeal of the subjects depicted. The eighteenth century is represented here by three portraits as human as they are elegant. All three are products of a special relationship between artist and patron. The Condesa de Altamira and Her Daughter, Maria Agustina (No. 40) records Goya's connections with the influential Altamira family. George Romney's Lady Lemon (No. 4I) was commis-sioned by the sitter's husband, Sir William Lemon of Cornwall. And William Fraser of Reelig (No. 42) was the second in a series of portraits Sir Henry Raeburn painted of Edward Satchwell Fraser and his children. </p><p>When the idea for a catalogue of the Robert Lehman Collection was implemented in about I98o, it was fortunate that the most accomplished authorities were willing to undertake the scholarly assessment of the works of art in each volume. The forty-two paintings in this volume have been catalogued by seven authors. Additionally, in accor-dance with the original plan, the Paintings Conservation Department of The Metro-politan Museum of Art carried out investigations of the condition and technical struc-ture of all the paintings. Due to the complexities of multiple authorship, much time has passed since this volume was originally conceived. Those authors who submitted their sections rapidly needed later to review their texts and update them to accommodate recent developments in art-historical interpretation and, particularly, in technical re-search. Because of its growing sophistication, the investigation of the material struc-ture and other aspects of works of art not visible to the naked eye has assumed greater significance in recent years, and is increasingly requiring the reexamination of historical issues. I am grateful to the authors who dutifully completed their entries early for their willingness to revise them (one author in fact did so twice) to reflect as much present knowledge as possible. </p><p>A special word is needed about the five entries written by Professor Charles Sterling. He was the first author to complete his section of the volume, in I 9 8 3. With his concur-rence, arrangements were then made for the incorporation of the results of technical investigations carried out by Maryan Ainsworth, Senior Research Fellow in the Paint-ings Conservation Department .. Sterling's death in I99I prevented him from reviewing most of the results of these investigations. Fortunately, Ainsworth was willing not only to provide her technical findings, as she had for other sections of the book, but also to incorporate them into Sterling's texts and update the entries accordingly. While review-ing the paintings' material structure by various technological processes that included </p></li><li><p>infrared reflectography and X radiography, she discovered features that provided in-sights into their subject matter and chronology. In the case of Jean Hey's Margaret of Austria (No. 3 ), Ainsworth's identification of the sitter's jewelry adds to our under-standing of the painting and allows a hypothesis about a lost pendant. In the Virgin and Child by the Master of Saint Giles (No. 4), she recognized the object the Christ Child holds as a dragonfly, symbol of his triumph over the devil. In these and other instances, Ainsworth's additions amplify Sterling's interpretations. I am convinced that Charles Sterling would have appreciated them, and I am grateful to Maryan Ainsworth for having applied her intelligence and her time to a text that in essence was not hers. </p><p>As usual, all the texts needed to be edited. Even if from the start a minimum of con-sistency is sought, when no less than seven authors are involved unacceptable differences are bound to be numerous, and there are other pitfalls authors are not even aware of. Sue Potter, with the help of Jean Wagner, Mary Gladue, and others, edited the volume with her usual conscientious precision mitigated by a forgiving understanding of idio-syncrasies and also a sense of humor. </p><p>A project like this is the product not of just one individual (or in this case seven indi-viduals) but of an entire community. On behalf of the Robert Lehman Foundation and Laurence B. Kanter, Curator of the Robert Lehman Collection, I want to thank the authors, the directors and staffs of the Paintings Conservation and Editorial Depart-ments at the Metropolitan, and all those in libraries, museums, and other institutions who have facilitated the publication of this volume. Manus Gallagher, Francesca Valerio, and Monique van Dorp of the Robert Lehman Collection were especially helpful. The project has also been aided greatly by Ph.D. candidates at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, who contributed in various ways to the cataloguing of these paintings: Carina Frycklund, Maria F. Saffiotti, Mariet Westermann, Mary Brand, Jeff Schrader, Jan Leja, and especially Nancy Minty, whose work on the entries for the seventeenth-century Dutch and Flemish paintings was invaluable. With his perceptive historical and textual emendation of the entries, the late Sydney Freedberg improved this volume as he did the earlier books in the series. </p><p>In discussing and illustrating some of the finest works of art Philip and Robert Lehman acquired and made available to others to enjoy and study, this catalogue honors their perspicacity and generosity. It also is fundamental for the advancement of the history of art, as any new interpretation of a work of art must start from a solid knowledge of the object itself and of the scholarship that has gone before. Art history owes a debt of gratitude to the Robert Lehman Foundation and its board, particularly its secretary, Paul C. Guth, for arranging and facilitating this research and its publication in the vol-umes of the Robert Lehman Collection Scholarly Catalogue. </p><p>Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann John Langeloth Loeb Professor Emeritus of the History of Art, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University Coordinator of the Robert Lehman Collection Scholarly Catalogue Project </p><p>lX </p></li><li><p>X </p><p>NOTE TO THE READER </p><p>Within each of the six sections of the catalogue, the entries are ar-ranged chronologically. The paintings have been measured through the center; height precedes width. "Inscription and "inscribed" refer to comments, notes, words, and numbers presumably written by the artist who made the painting; "annotation" and "annotated" refer to the same when added by another hand. In the provenance sections, names and locations of dealers are enclosed in brackets. References to books and articles have been abbreviated to the author's name and the date of publication; the key to those abbreviations is found on pages 197-225. References to exhibitions and their catalogues have been abbreviated to city and year; the key to those abbreviations is found on pages 226-30. </p></li><li><p>FRANCE Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries </p></li><li><p>EuRoPEAN PAINTINGS </p><p>Simon Marmion Amiens ca. 1425-Valenciennes 1489 </p><p>Simon Marmion was perhaps the most illustrious painter-illuminator of the North, celebrated even in his own time by contemporary writers living in Valen-ciennes. Jean Molinet, chronicler of Duke Philip the Good and canon of the church of Notre-Dame la Salle in Valenciennes, composed a lengthy poem which was engraved as an epitaph on Marmion's grave, and the poet and rhetorician Jean Lemaire de Belges hailed him as the "prince d'enluminure." Although he left no docu-mented work, Marmion's oeuvre has been recon-structed from the correspondence between the archival details of his life and a stylistically cohesive group of miniatures and panel paintings. His major work is the painted portion of the Altarpiece of Saint Bertin (Gemaldegalerie, Berlin; National Gallery, London), which was ordered for the abbey of Saint Bertin at Saint-Omer by Bishop Guillaume Fillastre, one of the most important Burgundian dignitaries, and was dedi-cated in 1459. (The elaborate gilded silver centerpiece of the altar, which was produced in Valenciennes be-</p><p>Simon Marmion </p><p>1. The Lamentation of Christ I975I.I28 Oil and tempera(?) on oak panel. 51.8 x 32.7 em. Painted on the reverse: the coat of arms of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York, with their initials, C and M, tied to-gether with love knots in the four corners. The painting has not been cut down; a barbe is present along all four edges. Tiny losses as w...</p></li></ul>

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