Essential Photoshop Editing Techniques

  • Published on
    08-Dec-2015

  • View
    223

  • Download
    5

Transcript

<ul><li><p>GettheIMAGEYOUWANT:EssentialPhotoshopEditingTechniquesByElementKJournalsCreativeTeam...............................................Publisher:PeachpitPressPubDate:June08,2005ISBN:0-321-34896-6Pages:288</p><p>TableofContents|Index</p><p>Creatinggreatphotographicimagesdoesn'tstopwithperfectingyourshootingtechniques.Onceyouhaveyourphotoindigitalform,youcantakeittothenextlevelwithimageeditingtoolslikePhotoshop.WhileotherPhotoshopbooksgofromfeaturetofeature,explainingeverylittledetailofthisexpansiveprogram,thisbookisseparatedintoeightchaptersthatdealwiththemainaspectsofworkingwithimagesinPhotoshsop.Thisway,youcankeepthebooknexttoyourworkspaceandreachforitwheneveryouneedtheperfectsolutiontoanimage-editingproblem.Readerswillstartwithlearningbasicimageeditingconcepts,suchasimportingfiles,correctingcolorandtone,croppingimages,andusingmasksandfilters.Alsoincludedisaproblem/solutionsectionattheendofeachchapter,containingspecifictechniquesandstreamlinedfixesthatyoucanapplytothemostcommonimage-editingchallenges.Alongtheway,thisfull-color,gorgeouslyillustratedbookofferspracticalhelpandhundredsofcreativeideas.Targetedattheseriousbeginner,thisfour-colorreferencebookteachescorePhotoshopanddigitalimagingconceptsatanaffordablepriceandanaccessiblepagecount.</p></li><li><p>GettheIMAGEYOUWANT:EssentialPhotoshopEditingTechniquesByElementKJournalsCreativeTeam...............................................Publisher:PeachpitPressPubDate:June08,2005ISBN:0-321-34896-6Pages:288</p><p>TableofContents|Index</p><p> Copyright Foreword Introduction Startbycalibratingyourmonitor OpeningfilesinPhotoshop KeepimagesorganizedandeasytofindwiththeFileBrowser Beconsistentwithcolorcorrectingdigitalimages Part1:ColorandTonalCorrections1 Chapter1.ColorCorrection ImprovethecolorinyourimageswithCurves Adjusthueandsaturationtoselectivelycolorizeanimage CorrectcolorwiththeVariationscommand KeepcolorsconsistentwiththeMatchColorcommand CorrectcolorwiththeColorReplacementtool ChangecolorwithReplaceColor Problem:SolutionUsetheLevelscommandtocorrectcolorcasts Problem:SolutionMellowoversaturatedcolors Chapter2.TonalCorrection Determinetonalqualitybyreadingahistogram UseAutoContrasttoautomaticallycorrectanimage Addmissingdetailtoyourimages ImprovetonalrangewiththeShadow/Highlightcommand Correctexposureproblemswithdodgingandburning Problem:SolutionRestoreunderexposedshadowdetail Problem:SolutionRestoreoverexposedphotos Part2:EssentialImageEditingFixes Chapter3.Noiseandsharpening AddnoisewiththeAddNoisefilter Useblendingmodestofixdigitalnoise Keepyourdigitalimagesnoisefree BoostclaritywiththeUnsharpMaskfilter Problem:SolutionRemovenoisewithLabcolor</p></li><li><p> Workinthelab Problem:SolutionUseabrushwiththeUnsharpMaskfilter Chapter4.RetouchingTechniques CorrectimperfectionsindigitalphotoswiththeHealingBrush RepairandedityourimageswiththePatchtool CleanupcolorproblemswiththeSpongetool Fixflawedarchitecturalimages Problem:SolutionEliminateskinflaws Problem:SolutionRestorecolortounderexposedareas Problem:SolutionRemovelinesandwrinkles Chapter5.Optimizationandsizing Choosethebestfileformatsfortheweb Optimizeyourimagestogetthebestwebresults AdjustJPEGwebqualitywiththeModifyQualitySettingcommand Makeprecisecroppingselectionsusingguides OptimizeyourimagesforuseinMicrosoftPowerPoint Problem:SolutionImproveblurringincompressedwebimages Problem:SolutionImproveresampledimagesforprint Part3:ImageManipulationandAlteration Chapter6.ArtisticApproaches Burntheedgesofyourphotostoaddmood PaintgradualtoneswiththeAirbrushoption Createconvincingreflections ControlvisualfocuswiththeGradienttool CombineimageswiththeExtractcommand Enhanceyourimageswithwell-placedlight Problem:SolutionRemoveacompleximagefromitsbackground Problem:SolutionRemoveanobjectfromaphoto Chapter7.Filters UsingtheFilterGallery Combiningfilterlayers Filteryourportraits Adjusttheimagefortonalquality Addtexturewithsimulatedfilmgrain Problem:SolutionCorrectcolorcasts Problem:SolutionModifyfacialfeatures Chapter8.Masks UseQuickMaskmodetomakeaselection Createvignetteswithlayermasks Cutoutpartsofimageswithlayermasks Editingwithvectormasks Problem:SolutionFixaccidentalsilhouettes Problem:SolutionRestorelosthighlightdetail Glossary Appendix PhotoshopCSkeyboardshortcuts Index</p></li><li><p>Copyright</p><p>PeachpitPress</p><p>1249EighthStreetBerkeley,CA94710</p><p>510/524-2178800/283-9444510/524-2221(fax)</p><p>FindusontheWorldWideWebat:</p><p>www.peachpit.com</p><p>Toreporterrors,pleasesendanoteto</p><p>errata@peachpit.com</p><p>PeachpitPressisadivisionofPearsonEducation.</p><p>PublishedinassociationwithElementKJournals.</p><p>Copyright2005byElementKJournals</p><p>ProductionTeam</p><p>Publisher:MichelleL.Rogers</p><p>Editor:StephenDow</p><p>ContributingEditors:A.Cloutier,G.H.Cloutier,GaryDeFranco,StephenDow,ReneDustman,AmyGebhardt,DianneSloan,T.N.Tumbusch,JimWhitcomb,RonWilder</p><p>ProjectEditor:JanMater-Cavagnaro</p><p>ProductionEditor:LisaBrazieal</p><p>CopyEditors:LeesaIsraelandRebeccaO'Keefe</p><p>CoverDesign:AliciaNataleandAmyPalermo</p></li><li><p>InteriorDesign:AmyPalermo</p><p>GraphicDesignManager:CharlesWilley</p><p>SomeimagesinthisbookwereprovidedbyPhotoSpin.Someoftheseimagesweremodifiedforeducationalpurposes.www.photospin.com</p><p>NoticeofRights</p><p>Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthisbookmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisher.Forinformationongettingpermissionforreprintsandexcerpts,contactpermissions@peachpit.com.</p><p>NoticeofLiability</p><p>Theinformationinthisbookisdistributedonan"AsIs"basis,withoutwarranty.Whileeveryprecautionhasbeentakeninthepreparationofthebook,neithertheauthornorPeachpitPressshallhaveanyliabilitytoanypersonorentitywithrespecttoanylossordamagecausedorallegedtobecauseddirectlyorindirectlybytheinstructionscontainedinthisbookorbythecomputersoftwareandhardwareproductsdescribedinit.</p><p>Trademarks</p><p>Manyofthedesignationsusedbymanufacturersandsellerstodistinguishtheirproductsareclaimedastrademarks.Wherethosedesignationsappearinthisbook,andPeachpitPresswasawareofatrademarkclaim,thedesignationsappearasrequestedbytheownerofthetrademark.Allotherproductnamesandservicesidentifiedthroughoutthisbookareusedineditorialfashiononlyandforthebenefitofsuchcompanieswithnointentionofinfringementofthetrademark.Nosuchuse,ortheuseofanytradename,isintendedtoconveyendorsementorotheraffiliationwiththisbook.</p><p>AdobeandPhotoshopareregisteredtrademarksofAdobeSystemsIncorporatedintheUnitedStatesand/orothercountries.</p><p>987654321</p><p>PrintedandboundintheUnitedStatesofAmerica</p></li><li><p>Dedication</p><p>Toourfamilies,</p><p>whocontinuetosupportusnomatterhowtiredandcrankyweareattheendoftheday.</p></li><li><p>ForewordIntheearlydaysofimageediting,onlyprofessionalshadtheexpertiseandfinancialmeanstorunthecomplexcomputersystemsneededtodigitallyprocessimagefiles.</p><p>Nowadays,almostanyonecangetsetupwiththerighttoolsforcreatingprofessionalresultswheneditingimages.So,howaboutyou?Youhavethedigitalcamera,thescanner,thecomputer,andthemonitor.YouevenhaveAdobePhotoshop.Withallofthepiecesinplace,youfeelreadytostarteditingyourimage,butwhat'sthebestwaytogoaboutdoingso?Theprocessofadjustingadigitalimageisnotonlyverysubjective,butit'salsoahighlytechnicalexperience.Butpixel-pushingdoesn'thavetoberelegatedtoprofessionalswhochargealotofmoneytoremoveascratchfromyourscanoradjustthecontrastinyourdigitalimage.</p><p>Thisbookismeanttodispelthemythsthatimageeditingishard,byhelpingyoubecomeamethodicalandefficientPhotoshopuser.OtherPhotoshopbookssimplygofromfeaturetofeature,explainingeverylittledetailofthisexpansiveprogram.Butwewantedtomakeiteasiertofindtheinformationthatpertainstoyourparticularimage-editingneed,sowe'vedividedthisbookintoeightchaptersthatdealwiththemainaspectsofworkingwithimagesinPhotoshop.Thisway,youcankeepthebooknexttoyourworkspaceandreachforitwheneveryouneedtheperfectsolutiontoanimage-editingproblem.</p><p>We'vealsoincludedaProblem/Solutionsectionattheendofeachchapter.Thesearespecifictechniquesyoucanapplytothemostcommonimage-editingchallenges.Ourstreamlinedfixesaresuretobecomeyourmostvaluededitingtechniques.</p><p>Inthisbook,we'llassumeyouhavethesoftwareandanunderstandingofhowtodothebasics,suchasopenfilesandnavigatethroughtheuserinterface.Pleasenotethatwe'vedecidedtousetheMicrosoftWindowsversionofAdobePhotoshopasourleadversion,butwe'veincludedMacintoshequivalentstoallkeyboardshortcutsandanythingelsethatmightbedifferent.Essentially,Photoshopworksthesameoneitherplatform;itjustlooksabitdifferent.</p><p>Imageeditingisbothaskillandanart.Byfollowingalongwiththisbook,you'llbeabletodeveloptechniquesthatwillbridgethesedisciplinesandallowyoutocreateimagesthataretechnicallyperfect,butthatarealsogreattolookat.Takinganimagefromblahtobeautifuldoesn'thavetobehardandwe'llshowyouthebestwaystodoit.</p><p>Wishingyoutheperfectimage,TheElementKJournalsCreativeTeam</p></li><li><p>Introduction</p><p>Startbycalibratingyourmonitor</p><p>OpeningfilesinPhotoshop</p><p>KeepimagesorganizedandeasytofindwiththeFileBrowser</p><p>Beconsistentwithcolorcorrectingdigitalimages</p></li><li><p>Startbycalibratingyourmonitor</p><p>BeforeyouevenopenanimageinPhotoshop,thefirstthingyoushoulddoistakeamomenttooptimizeyourworkspace.Sinceyourmediuminthedigitalrealmisessentiallypixels,andpixelsaredisplayedonyourmonitor,thismeansyouneedtomakesureyourmonitorisproperlyadjustedtogiveyouaccuratecolorandneededdetail.</p><p>Whiletherearenearlyuniversalstandardcolorsettingsforgraphicsandimaging,therearenoneformonitors.Therelationshipbetweenthevoltageappliedtoamonitorandthebrightnessemittedisnon-linear.Inotherwords,ifanRGBpixelisatthemaximumvalueof255,changingthevalueto127(halfoftheoriginal)won'tproduceavisualresultofhalfbrightness.Instead,therelationshipfollowsapowerlawofthevoltagetothepowerofgamma,withthevariablegammarepresentingthevoltageofthemonitor.</p><p>Thefunctionofgamma</p><p>Mathematicsaside,itcanbesaidthatgammaistherelationshipbetweenthebrightnessofapixelandthenumericalvalueofthatpixel.Simplyput,gammaaffectsthebrightnessandcolorsaturationoftheimageswithwhichyouwork.Theimagesdisplayedonmonitorswithuncorrectedgammawillbetoodark,whereasovercorrectedgammawillcauseimagestoappeartoolight.Eitherway,hueswillchangefromthemonitortotheprintedpage.</p><p>Calibrateyourmonitorandmore</p><p>Monitorcalibrationshouldbeyourfirstorderofbusiness.Anuncalibratedorincorrectlycalibrateddisplaywillshowdifferentcolorsthanthosethatactuallyprint.Fortunately,thereareseveralspecificapplicationsavailableformonitorcalibration,whichwe'lldiscussinamoment.</p><p>Calibration,however,beginsatalevelevenmorebasicthanthat.Beforeyoubootupanapplicationordiveintotheweb,checkthelightinginyourworkspace.Forpropercolorappearance,thescreenshouldbeasglare-freeaspossible.Infact,themonitorsusedbyimagingprofessionalsarefrequentlyhoodedwithaplasticoverhangtofilteroutintrusiveoverheadlighting.Onceyoubootupyourcomputer,givethemonitor30minutestowarmupandstabilizebeforecalibration.It'salsoagoodideatosetthebackgroundcolortogray,asavibrantlycoloreddesktopcanalterthewayyouperceivethecolorswithinyourimages.</p></li><li><p>Thecalibrationprocess</p><p>Mostimagersshootforagammavalueof1.8.PhotoshopcomeswithAdobeGammaforWindows,whichguidesyouthroughthecalibrationprocessandgetsyouclosetogamma1.8.MacOSXuserscanusetheDisplayCalibratorAssistant.Thereis,however,astrongsentiment(especiallyamongthephotographicset)thatAdobe'scalibrationmethodsaretooimprecise.Whiletheyworknicelyformostgraphicdesignapplications,afineradjustmentmaybenecessarywhenworkingwithextremelydetailedphoto-realisticimages.</p><p>Ifyou'renewtocalibration,tryoutAdobeGamma.Then,ifyou'reunsatisfiedwiththeresultsofcalibrationwithAdobeGammaorifyouaren'tusingit,searchthewebformonitorcalibrationtogetmoredetailedcalibrationinstructions.</p><p>Note</p><p>MacintoshandWindowscomputersdealwithgammaindifferentwaysandcanproducedrasticallydifferentdisplayresults.AnoverlydarkimageonaMacmaybetoolightortoodarkonanuncorrectedPCdisplay.ThegammaforWindowsmachinesmustfrequentlybetinkeredwithatthevideo-cardlevel.Bottomlineifyourimageiscrossingplatforms,it'svitaltocheckthegammaforbothplatforms.</p></li><li><p>OpeningfilesinPhotoshop</p><p>Onceyouhaveyourworkspacesetupandyourmonitorcalibrated,youcantakethenextstepofopeningafileinPhotoshop.Photoshophastheabilitytoopendozensofdifferentfileformats.Youcaneasilyopenandeditfiles,suchasJPEGsandGIFs,withPhotoshop'sampleresources,buttherearetimeswhenyouneedtodomorethanmerelyopenthemtomakethemuseful.Sometimes,you'rebringinginafilefromanexternalsource,suchasadigitalcamera,scanner,orevenadigitalvideocamera.Thisprocess,knownasimporting,allowsPhotoshoptobringinimagesfromothersources.</p><p>Importingfilesfromyourscanner</p><p>WhilemostfilessimplyusetheOpencommand,importingfilesfromexternalsourcesrequiresusingothermenuitems.Inthecaseofscanners,aspecialtechnologyknownasTWAINisused.AlmosteveryscannercomeswithaTWAIN-compliantdriverforPhotoshop.ATWAINdriverallowsthescannerandPhotoshoptospeakthesamelanguageandalsoputsthecontroloverhowthescannerperformsinyourhands.</p><p>TWAINdriveruserinterfacesvarybetweenmanufacturers,butyou'llalwaysfindthemonthesamemenuinPhotoshop.ChooseImportfromtheFilemenu.Ifyouhavescannersoftwareinstalled,Photoshoplistsitherebymanufacturerandmodelname,asshowninFigureA.Youmighthavemorethanonescannerlistedifyouhavemultiplescannersinstalledonyoursystem.</p><p>FigureA.</p></li><li><p>Oncelaunched,eachscannerhasdifferentoptionsandmethodsforscanningyourimage.OurscannersoftwareloadsfromwithinPhotoshop.Itgivesustheabilitytosettheresolutionandsizeofthescan,aswellasmakeimageadjustmentsbeforeourimageimports.Mostscannersoftwareallowsyoutodesignatetheareaofthescannerglassthatyou'dlikescanned.It'sagoodideatoonlyscanwhatyouneedoryou'llbewaitinglongerthanyouhavetoforyourscantocomplete.</p><p>Onceyou'vemadeyourchoices,clickScantoimporttheimage.OncetheimageisloadedintoPhotoshop,aswithEPSfilesbefore,youcansavetheimagetoanyfileformatyouchoose.</p><p>Importingfilesfromadigitalcamera</p><p>Importingpicturesfromadigitalcameraisn'tmuchdifferentthanimportingfromascanner.Digitalcamerasstoreimagesintheirinternalmemoryoronremovablestoragedevicessuchascompactflashcards.Youcanimporttheseimagesintwoways:withtheuseofanexternalreaderorbyusingplug-instobringtheinformationdirectlyintoPhotoshop.</p><p>Usingcardreadersforimportingdigitalimages</p><p>Sincemanydigitalcamerasuseremovablestoragemedia,havingareaderthatcanquicklytransferyourimagestoacomputerisamust-haveformanydigitalcameraenthusiasts.WhilefastUSBandFireWireconnectionshavemadethetransferofimagesdirectlyfromthecameramuchfaster,storagecapacityonmanymemorycardshasalsoincreased.CardreadersworkjustlikeadiskdriveyousimplychooseOpenfromtheFilemenuinPhotoshop,locateyourcardreader,andselecttheimageorimagesyou'dliketoopen.ImportingyourimagesintoPhotoshopusingacardreaderisfastandrelativelyfoolproof,andworksexactlythesameasimportingimagesontoyourharddrive.</p><p>Usingplug-insforimportingdigitalimages</p><p>Manycameramanufacturersalsoincludeaplug-inthatallowsdirectaccesstothedigitalcamerausingsomesortofconnection.ThisconnectionrangesfromUSB,serial,FireWire,andeveninfrared.Aplug-inisathird-partyapplicationthat'scompliantwithPhotoshop(orwhateverprogramthemanufacturercreatedittoworkwith).Thetwoapplicationsruntogethertoachieveagoal,usuallytocreatespecialeffectsorincreaseproductivity.Forexample,aplug-inallowsusto</p></li><li><p>communicatewithadigitalcameraandimportfilesdirectlyintoPhotoshop.</p><p>Youcanaccessplug-insfordigitalcameras,si...</p></li></ul>