ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT No: 2 ASSIGNMENT environmental management assignment no: 2 assignment name: environmental material accounting tools student names id numbers: carla isabel ...

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CVEN9888 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT No: 2 ASSIGNMENT NAME: ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIAL ACCOUNTING TOOLS STUDENT NAMES & ID NUMBERS: Carla Isabel Guilcapi Duran z3402968 Solange Kamanzi z3402599 Jenani Paramarajah z3400773 PHONE: 0487651504 0478843925 0449572893 EMAIL: carla_guilcapi@yahoo.es kamsol3@yahoo.fr janani.paramarajah@gmail.com DATE SUBMITTED: 14/05/2013 PLACE SUBMITTTED: Room 308 Civil Engineering, submission box Table of Contents 1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Phosphorus and Carbon in GMR Sydney ........................................................................................ 1 2.1 System Boundaries for P and C in Metapolis ................................................................................ 2 2.1.1 System Boundary of Phosphorus in Metapolis ....................................................................... 2 2.1.2 System Boundary of Carbon in Metapolis ............................................................................. 3 3. Design Development and Associated Infrastructure for Metapolis Suburb in terms of Phosphorus and Carbon ........................................................................................................................................... 3 3.1 Proposal for Phosphorus Sustainability in Metapolis Suburb ................................................... 3 3.2 Commerce Sector ....................................................................................................................... 3 3.3 Houselhold ................................................................................................................................. 4 3.4 Agriculture Sector ...................................................................................................................... 4 3.5 Reducing P flow from sewage system plants to the oceans ..................................................... 5 4. Design Development and Associated Infrastructure for Metapolis Suburb in terms of C .......... 6 4. 1 Domestic sector .................................................................................................................... 6 4.2 Commercial Sector ............................................................................................................... 8 4.3 Transport Sector .................................................................................................................... 9 4.4 Other considerations ............................................................................................................... 11 5. Conclusion and Recommendations ................................................................................................ 12 Reference ........................................................................................................................................... 13 Appendix A: Sources associated with Phosphorus and Carbon and MFA ........................................ 15 Appendix B: Process contributing to the inflow of P across GMR ................................................... 19 Appendix C: Process contributing to the outflow of P from GMR Sydney ...................................... 19 Appendix D: Main carbon flows in the GRM of Sydney .................................................................. 20 Appendix E: Calculations of the population, density and total area of Metapolis suburb ................ 21 Appendix F: Phosphorus MFA in Metapolis no change and change scenarios ................................ 28 Appendix I: Remaining world Phosphate rock in 2009 ..................................................................... 31 Appendix J: Sustainable scenario for meeting long term future phosphorus demand through phosphorus use efficiency and recovery ............................................................................................ 31 Appendix K: Material used for house construction ........................................................................... 32 Appendix L: Insulated concrete slab. ................................................................................................ 32 Appendix M: Single glazed aluminium windows ............................................................................. 32 Appendix N: Solar pergola window .................................................................................................. 33 Appendix O: PV Roofs ...................................................................................................................... 33 Appendix P: Matrix of Density per Household According to Accessibility to Public Transportation and Local Facilities ............................................................................................................................ 34 Appendix Q:Mixed-use development to encourage social interaction in the commuting to different services by walking and cycling. Taken from ................................................................................... 35 Appendix R: Characteristics of a walking suburb ............................................................................. 36 Appendix S: Comparative summary of emissions between petrol and electric cars ......................... 37 Appendix T: Typical length of car journeys in Australia .................................................................. 37 Appendix U: GHG emissions according to transport means ............................................................. 38 Appendix V: Relationship between vehicle speed and emissions level ............................................ 38 Appendix W:Minimum design requirements for cycleways ............................................................. 39 Appendix X: Integration of landscape and city ................................................................................ 39 1 1. Introduction On the basis of a hypothetical relocation of Sydney Airport to Badgery's Creek, a study has been requested to the consultants Guilcapi, Paramarajah and Kamanzi in order to assist the town planners and architects to redevelop the site that was occupied by the airport, and as far as possible its vicinity into townhouses and apartments of medium to high density, as well as business parks uses. According to the current consumption patterns, and in particular of such products as phosphorus and carbon, some constraints are essential in order to reach a sustainable consumption minimizing on the long-term environmental impacts. Aiming at developing a "low phosphorus and carbon" city, Metapolis, this report is addressed to the Minister of Environment and Infrastructure and contains some suggestions on the conceptual development of the aforementioned city as well as its infrastructures. This was made possible by the close analysis of phosphorus and carbon flows in the "GMR" of Sydney which was taken as reference. 2. Phosphorus and Carbon in GMR Sydney Based on the first results from the study in current development by the University of New South Wales about Phosphorus and Carbon within the system boundary of Greater Metropolitan Region of Sydney (GMR) in the financial period of 2007-08, there has been identified major inflows and outflows of these materials. It is important to mention that in the GMR Sydney's system boundary the amount of some P and C flows have not been identified yet and it might change the final figures. However, as a previous results, they can be used to identify what are the processes that require attention to build a low carbon Metapolis. In the case of phosphorus, the main outflow occurs from the commerce sector to the sewage system and treatment (3454 t/a) and from this one to the ocean (2664 t/a). In addition, there has been identified high inflows to the commerce sector which comes from the importation of phosphorus goods contained in animal feed (1545 t/a), food products (2090 t/a) and detergent (1244 t/a). On the other hand, for carbon, the main outflow occurs by the exportation of carbon from the mining sector as export coal (13,200,000 t/a) and as coking coal (4,640,000 t/a) and from power station to air (12,000,000 t/a) (taken only the correspondent proportion inside GMR Sydney's system boundary) as CO2 emissions. Furthermore, also important output flows as CO2 to air comes from transport (4,220,000 t/a), mining (3,080,000 t/a) and industrial and commercial (2,780,000t/a) sectors. Finally, a considerable output flow occurs from mining to power stations (5,400,000 t/a), but this flow is exported outside the GMR Sydney's system boundary. In regards to the inflows of carbon to the system, it was identified high carbon flows from outside the system boundary to refinery (5,520,000 t/a) and to the industrial and commercial sector (5,110,000 t/a). In addition, a significant inflow takes place from the industrial and commercial sector to the transport sector (5,270,000 t/a). Further explanation about the flow of P and C are given in Appendix A. After carrying out the MFA of phosphorus and carbon (Appendix A), it seems that the sectors that use more P are commerce sector, through the importation of Food product, animal feed and detergent, and Households (Appendix B), whereas the sectors with the higher outflow of P are sewage from households and the discharge from sewage to ocean outfall (Appendix C). On the other hand, the processes that appear as major consumers of fossil-fuel carbon sources are power stations, and industrial and commercial, refinery and transport (Appendix D), while the processes 2 that generate more GHG emissions in terms of CO2 are power station, transport, and industrial and commercial sectors. It is essential to emphasize that the processes identified above use significant amounts of P and C, respectively, but their origin comes from the demand of consumers. As a result, consumers indirectly are the ones who determine the rate of use and disposal of those materials. Further explanation will be given at the sections of defining the system boundary and the design development and associated infrastructure for Metapolis. 2.1 System Boundaries for P and C in Metapolis In order to define the system boundaries of Metapolis in terms of P and C, it was first estimated the MFA of Metapolis for P and for C under no change scenario conditions making a relationship of proportion between the population in GMR Sydney and Metapolis. The population of Metapolis in 2023 was estimated to be 41,154 persons. The total area was estimated to be 1534 ha with a surrounding area (buffer zone) of 634 ha which gives a population density equivalent to 26.83 persons/ha. From the total area of Metapolis, 50 % will be allocated to green spaces. The system boundary for Phosphorus in Metapolis was the same that for GMR Sydney; however, for the system boundary of carbon in Metapolis, only were considered inside of the system transport, domestic and commercial sectors because those are present in Metapolis; nevertheless, it has also been considered the transboundary impacts of the system in the major sources of use of carbon. The assumptions and calculations about population, total area, population density and buffer zone of Metapolis are shown in Appendix E. 2.1.1 System Boundary of Phosphorus in Metapolis According to the phosphorus (P) flow in Sydney, P is mainly used in food production at the rate of 2090tons per year. Animal feed is the second most contributor to the P flow at about 1545t/year. Apart from these major contributors, detergent, fertilizer and other products also contribute to the P flow across the GMR in the amount of 1244ton/year, 420 ton/year and 693 ton/year respectively. The biggest flow of P goes to ocean as waste water (2664 ton/ yr) which is out of the boundary for this analysis. From these totals we calculate that the total inflow of P is 5992 ton/ year and the outflow of P is 2911 ton/year and significant amount of P, around 3000 tons, is accumulated within the Sydney region. Phosphorus plays a dual role in terms of crop production and as a pollutant to the environment. Analysis of the amounts of phosphorus entering city boundaries through human activity sheds light into the environmental impacts of such vast flows MFA is used to analyse the P flow in the new suburb called Metapolis. The given data about the P flow across the GMR was used to find the P flow across Metapolis. Since our boundary has been defined as Sydney airport and the surrounded area, our challenge is to identify the P flow across our boundary. Since the redevelopment of Metapolis, the suburb now mainly consists of residential town houses, apartments and business parks;production and application of fertilizer can be excluded from the boundary. However phosphate fertilizer is essential for the food production, therefore fertilizers used in agriculture sector indirectly influence the P flow across the boundary. Since there is not enough research done within the Sydney region, research in other areas was considered to explain the identified phosphorus flow. The MFA of Metapolis in terms of P is shown in Appendix F. 3 2.1.2 System Boundary of Carbon in Metapolis In order to define the Metapolis's system boundary, the sectors that has been considered are domestic, transport, and commercial. However, due to the new design of development and associated infrastructure at Metapolis, the transboundary impacts of these changes at the power stations, mining, refinery and landfill sectors, placed outside the system boundary, will also be considered to achieve a sustainable suburb (Obernosterer et al., 1998). Metapolis system boundary consider the proposal of design development and associated infrastructure described in the next section. The MFA of Metapolis in terms of C is shown in Appendix G. 3. Design Development and Associated Infrastructure for Metapolis Suburb in terms of Phosphorus and Carbon A design development and associated infrastructure has been proposed in order to make Metapolis more sustainable in terms of phosphorus and carbon. The proposal not only takes into account physical infrastructure considerations, but also prescribe covenants and constraints which helped the new suburb to be sustainable in terms of P use and to be low carbon living. 3.1 Proposal for Phosphorus Sustainability in Metapolis Suburb 3.2 Commerce Sector In order to reduce the importation of P in commerce sector (animal feed, food product, , detergent , fertiliser), the following measures are proposed: Supermarkets: sell detergents free of P. Detergents that combine citric acid together with zeolites that perform equally or better than detergents containing P (Commission, 2003) will be sold in the supermarkets. Periodically training: Past studies on meat in the diet show that in developed countries, 50% of the total P consumption is from the meat sector (Smith et al., 2009). Most of the land is used to produce meat and dairy products rather than plant-based products. As a result, periodically training intends to modifying the diet patterns of people. Media campaigns to promote the health aspects of vegetables compared to meat can be highly effective in deterring people from eating large amounts of meat and thus, the over intake of P. Policies: There will be stated policies for all the residents in Metapolis that restrict their pattern of consumption of P product, in particular, meat. Campains: campaigns will be carry out in Metapolis each tree months to promote the reduction of wasting food in households. The suggested topic are: how to avoid waste food, depletion of P can cause wars (appendix H), Fines: A strictly control will be carry out of the garbage produced in households. If it is found that 1/3 of the total garbage produced is food, residents will be fined. Taxation of meat: in Metapolis all and other phosphorous-intensive food can result in higher prices and lower demand. Promote vegetarian food: promote vegetarian diet and only allow vegetarian restaurants (or at least restrict the number of non-vegetarian restaurants. 4 Covenant Trainings: Residents will attend the trainings about the wise use of phosphorous, their efficiency and recovery (appendix I ), and how to reduce phosphorus in their diets, how to waste less food. Meat to purchase: Worldwide, large amount P fertilizers are used in cultivation of cereal and soy bean, of which more than 30% of the cereal is used to feed the cattle. Residents will not but meat of animals fed with human food. Residents will buy meat with low contain of fat, such as meat of kangaroo. Taxation: People will have to pay the respective fine if they more than 1/3 of the total garbage produced is food. Policies: Resident will comply the policies stated in Metapolis. Composting: All the food wasted at home will be used as compost to use as fertiliser of the lands in Metapolis. Constraint Fish bones: The bones from the selling of fishes will be collected for in the "Source" for the production of animal food. Vegetarian and non vegetarian restaurants: within Metapolis system boundaries the number of non-vegetarian restaurants will be limited. Vegetarian food will be cheaper than food old in non-vegetarian restaurants, Type of meat sold in supermarkets: Supermarkets will not sell meat of animals fed with human food, such as meat from cattle fed with corn. Collection of food at facilities: restaurants and other food facility will collect the food that has not been sold or than has been waste for the elaboration of composting to be used as fertiliser of land in Metapolis. Commerce sector: It is banned the selling of detergents with P. 3.3 Houselhold P accumulation in land fill cannot be recovered and the landfill area cannot be used for agricultural purpose Metapolis council should also implement a separate food waste bin system. Covenant Composting: resident will be in charge of compost all the organic wastes from their lands. Constraint Purchase of detergents: residents of Metapolis are not allowed to buy detergents with P. Fertiliser: Waste food will serve to prepare compost which will help as fertiliser of the lands. 3.4 Agriculture Sector As it was mentioned that 50% of Metapolis will be green space which will be used to cultivate mainly fruit trees and vegetables. By doing this, the importation of P food products into Metapolis system boundary will be reduced significantly around 70%. Collection bin: separate bin to recover waste food and organic material will be allocated in strategic places in Metapolis. 5 Phosphorus recovery: P will be recovered using acid dissolution and alkali precipitation method proved that significant amount P can be recovered from chicken manure ashes, acid leaching of ashes from co-combustion of sewage sludge and wood and two-step acidbase leaching of the sewage sludge ash in the percentage of 92%, 60% and 70% respectively (Kalmykova and Karlfeldt Fedje, 2013). The recovered P can be used in Agriculture as fertilizer. In addition, incineration of solid waste cannot reduce the usage of fertilized, but still uncontaminated phosphorus can be recovered in the incineration process of municipal waste.(Kalmykova et al., 2012). Reducing surface runoff and storm water: Action can be taken to prevent urban runoff by making ponds to treat the water. Stormwater catchment ponds are a widely used technique to intercept storm water. Pollutants and Phosphorus in the stormwater precipitate in the pond; sediments can be used as organic manure after composting. Rain water harvesting has become popular recently due to the scarcity of water, which also reduce the surface runoff and recover some P. These innovations can be implemented in Metapolis. Recovery of P from run off: Agriculture, dairy farm runoff and leachate from manure contains significant amount of phosphorus. Engineered wetland is more favourable and sustainable method to treat runoff which - efficiency between 50-70% (Chalmers, 1993)- which contains free water surface and two post wetland systems. It consists of vegetative filters and phosphorus adsorption filters. Steel furnace slag is used in the phosphorus filters to absorb the phosphorus(Joy et al., 2001).Council should adapt the engineered wet land for agriculture runoff to recover phosphorus and reduce the P that goes to surface water. Improve intake of P by plants: Markers can be used to reproduce beneficial genetic traits to improve the efficiency of P uptake in plants. Since roots play a major role in the uptake of P, a strategy of breeding efficient root systems has been found to be effective, especially in soybean crops. When there is insufficient variation in genetic traits within one species, alien genes can be transferred to increase PE. By studying and identifying the genes of plants adapted to low P levels, these genes can be introduced into crops by transgenic modification to improve PE (Tian et al., 2012). Simply improving PE levels is not enough but effort must be made to reduce the levels of P in soil as well. An optimal balance between preventing P deficiency in plants and environmental damage due to higher use of P must be found. The balance between demand and supply of P can be greatly improved by placing the fertilizer close to the root system of plants thus avoiding wastage (rhizosphere-based P management)(Tian et al., 2012). Constraint It is forbidden in Metapolis the use of chemical fertilizers. Only manure as well as the compost product from the use of organic waste and waste food. 3.5 Reducing P flow from sewage system plants to the oceans Collection of urine: Sewage coming from the urban areas contains large amount of P in the form of urine and faeces. Urine contains 60-70% of phosphorus found in human excreta and 30-40% occurs in faeces. Urine diverting double-flushed toilets combined with Aquatrons for faecal separation can 6 be used in Metapolis. Separated urine is transported to the collection tank and from there it is sent to the agricultural farms. Urine-separating toilets are a solution to increase phosphorous recovery. This system should be employed in the Metapolis to recover phosphorus in urine and faeces efficiently and to save the flush water. P availability for plants by urine is superior to chemical fertilizer. Availably of phosphorus in Faecesis equivalent to chemical fertilizer because phosphorus is mainly bound to calcium in faeces. Urine diverting toilets can be used to separate dry faecal material from urine thus creating two easier fractions to handle. Separated flush water can be treated in the sewage treatment plant and the solid can be sent to biological treatments such as composting. P recovery using zirconium ferrite adsorbent: A high level of P recovery (up to 83.8%) from organic effluent was achieved by using zirconium ferrite adsorbent. This material can be used to recover P from large-scale waste water treatment plant(Ishiwata et al., 2010) send it to fertilise agriculture lands. Eutrophication reduction: Recovering phosphorus in the waste water flow not only reduces the use of phosphorus fertilizer, it also helps to reduce number of other environmental problems, and mainly eutrophication. 4. Design Development and Associated Infrastructure for Metapolis Suburb in terms of C 4. 1 Domestic sector The domestic sector at GMR Sydney generates indirectly a huge amount of GHG emissions mainly due to the use of electricity base on fossil fuel carbon sources. By the following proposal about zero carbon houses and buildings is intended to totally eliminate the dependency on non-renewable resources. a) Zero Energy Houses and Buildings Design Zero energy houses and buildings will be design for Metapolis which do not require electricity from fossil fuel, heating and cooling systems. The space energy to be achieve may be 5MJ/m2/year. Among the requirements to be considered are (Bambrook et al., 2011): Material of walls and roofs: structural insulated panels (SIP) (Appendix K) with R 5.2 and R 6.5 insulation, respectively. If SIP is not feasible to be implemented, evaluate the use of timber for being a renewable resource (Ritchie and Thomas, 2009), but it should be produced in Australia. Floor material: insulated concrete slab to provide thermal comfort (appendix L). Type of windows: single glazed with frames of aluminium, double glazed with wood frames (appendix M), and double glazed with low emissivity. Windows facing the east, west and south will have external vertical shading devices, whereas for the north window a solar pergola vertical shade (appendix N) will be installed to avoid internal uncomfortably temperatures in summer, but to allow almost total sun penetration in the colder months in Sydney. Use windows of low U-values. A proportion of least 1:6 between the surface area 7 of the window that faces the north and the surface area of the thermal mass in contact with the inside air should also be considered. Ventilation: summer night ventilation may be used to purge the heat from the thermal mass. Material and power of photovoltaics panels on roof: monocristalline silicon with multilayer structures to attain efficiencies over 30% (Randall, 2002). To achieve zero carbon houses, at least 2.4kWp photovoltaic system should be considered. Consider the distance from house to house to avoid overshadows (Appendix O). Negative energy impact occurs at average obstruction angles greater than 30 degrees/200 dwelling/ha (Randall, 2002). Facilities for charging of electric vehicles (Australian Sustainable Built Environment Council, 2010). Zero carbon software: Use specialized software, such as AccuRate (Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, 2010) to integrate all the requirements and achieve a zero carbon house in Australian conditions. In addition (Ritchie and Thomas, 2009): Housing density: Use the matrix guideline provided in Appendix P to determine the density per household which will vary according to the proximity to public transportation and local facilities. Storeys and lifts: Consider five storeys per household as an ideal number for urban and central sites. One lift will be implemented in each house. Suburb development: A mixed-use development will be promoted in Metapolis to encourage social interaction in the commuting to different services by walking and cycling Appendix Q. Density ranges for central, urban and suburban sites: based on access level to public transportation and local facilities (Appendix R). Water recycling: From PV surfaces, the rainwater runoff may be collected underground in tanks to be used in toilet flushing, washing machines and yard irrigation. b) Covenants Electric equipment: All electric equipment will be endorsed with the ENERGY STAR logo to save energy (Pipkorn, 2010) and reduce CO2 emissions even in standby mode. Lamps and bulb lights: Lamps of fluorescent or compact fluorescent (Pipkorn, 2010) will be used to save energy and minimize CO2 emissions . Yards: People will sow different kind of products in their yards, such as fruit trees, and vegetables to promote local sourcing of food, reduce the use of transportation outside the suburb and therefore, minimize CO2 emissions. Carpooling: Share cars with people who work at same places to reduce CO2 emissions, promote social interaction an reduce travel cost. Entertainment: Participate on weekend of the sport activities organized by volunteers. c) Constrains Lifts: Lifts at houses will be used only for incapable people and for moving furniture. 8 Subsidies: Wealth people will subsidized the expensive apartments of the poor people that will live in Metapolis. Mowing: Done by hand or with electric mowings to eliminate emissions from fuel mowers. Plastic bags: banned. Purchase will be done with cloth bags. 4.2 Commercial Sector Small appliances - Other occupant driven equipment Commercial ovens or refrigeration, special equipments such as MRI, X-ray etc. and controls outside of common areas and light fittings. Central services infrastructure Escalators and elevators, centralized HVAC equipment, Water heating system, controls outside the common areas and lighting fittings (Skarbek and McDonald, 2010). GHG emission can be reduced by use green energy (solar), reduce energy demand, and exploit waste heat through ground source heat pumps. Since Metapolis is newly develop suburb these reduction plans can be utilized easily. In buildings level of insulation can be increased, air leakage through windows and doors need to be checked. All the electrical appliances should be energy efficiency. Solar panels should be installed. Commercial buildings should adapt the vegetarian green roof to reduce building energy demand. Source of the electricity generation also should consider in order to reduce the GHG emission. Hydro and wind plants should be implemented for the newly develop Metapolis. a) Covenants ENERGY STAR labeled appliance should be used in Metapolis, which can save 10 to 50% of energy compared to the normal products. Government should allow to produce or import only the ENERGY STAR labeled appliances, and cancel the license of who are not producing ES labeled appliances. Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) must be used and available in shops. It consumes one quarter the electricity of normal standard bulbs to produce the same amount of light. Government should imply laws or banns the incandescent bulbs. Introducing the green roofs to the commercial buildings will significantly reduce the energy demand in summer. Vegetarian roofs save 5% of the annual energy needed for cooling. Planting as much as trees provide shading and reduce wind speed in cities, which is reduce the annual energy demand for heating and cooling 5-10% Solar panels need to be installed in the commercial building; solar water heating and air heating reduce energy demand significantly 25 -50%. The use of ground source heat pumps saves energy 30 70% in heating mode and 20 to 50% in cooling mode compared to the conventional ones. Implementing the building codes or standards and new buildings should build according to the energy efficiency building codes. Introduce the LED bulbs and replace all the other bulbs with LED bulbs. Its energy efficiency is very high, LED bulbs save the 90% energy compared to incandescent bulbs and saves 60% compared to CFL. 9 Aquifer thermal energy storage is used in some of the countries. Most of the apartments in Toronto use ATES, which saves 25% in heating energy and 70% in cooling energy. (Sugar and Kennedy, 2013). 4.3 Transport Sector In terms of transport emissions reduction, there are generally different suggestions; economic, energy and/or spatial, aiming mostly at discouraging dependence on private car for non-commuting or commuting travels. The common ones include the carbon tax, increased fuel taxes, both of which have been considered to be the ideal measures at the European Conference of Ministers of Transport (2007), improved fuel and vehicle technologies, change of transport mode (use of public transport, cycling or walking), setting the maximum age of vehicles, higher parking fees and many others. However, in order to achieve a low-carbon Metapolis with regard to transport, this will primarily be done through behaviour change aiming at reducing to the maximum extent possible the number of cars and where this is not possible the use of zero carbon vehicles that do not require the use of fuel along with planning for adequate infrastructures. As far as Metapolis is a new suburb and that living there will be by choice as explained previously, some covenants will apply in order to reach those low-carbon transport objectives. These are presented below: No car agreement: In order to be accepted to Metapolis residential area/apartments, priority will be given to persons who do not own/have any vehicle regardless of their social category, exception being for people with disabilities. Therefore walking, cycling and use of public transport will be the main mode of transport. Working place distance: Similarly, priority will be given to persons working closer to their residential place so as to encourage walking, cycling or public transport use. Characteristics of allowed car: Where the car use will be allowed, other restrictions will apply. Considering the known relationship between fuel consumption and CO2 emissions with factors such as vehicle fuel and engine type, speed, vehicle mileage, style of driving and others (Environmental Change Institute, 2006), only electric cars (EV) will be allowed in Metapolis. These will totally exclude fossil fuel consumption and the emissions to air attributable to residential transport due to the electric motor proven efficiency as well as energy saving systems such as the regenerative braking (Ritchie and Thomas, 2009). The required recharging energy will need to be obtained from a solar energy system so as not to impact on increased demand on the electricity grid (power station) with further emissions (appendix S). Advantage shall therefore be taken on the installed PV panels for recharge needs but sufficient green smart charging infrastructure will need to be installed around Metapolis. Normally, EV energy consumption varies between 20 to 30 kWh/100 km depending on the size and make (Ritchie and Thomas, 2009). Mandatory tyre pressure monitoring: maintaining adequately inflated tyres through tyre pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) such as VisiTyre (local brand) can reduce by up to 3% the emissions from small cars and by the same time can save up to 10% fuel consumption (ETV, 2011). Therefore, TPMS in cars will be mandatory. 10 Commercial delivery cars or trucks: priority will be given to suppliers of goods that will commit using vehicles run by biofuels. In fact, shifting from diesel to biodiesel can reduce by more than 67.7% net CO2 emissions (Biofuels Association of Australia, 2013). As suggested previously, behavior change is one of the strategies that can better apply to the target of having a carbon neutral Metapolis with particular focus on eliminating car dependence. Following are some suggestions: Walking promotion: people that will be living in Metapolis need to be encouraged to regularly walk taking advantage on Metapolis nature with parks and trees that provide shadow. By doing this, not only will they be living healthier lifestyle but also it will result into significant emissions cut-off particularly for such short trips (11 existing ones such as Cooks river cycleway. This aims at providing a maximum uninterrupted movement for users. The design has to consider an adequate width, grade, drainage, provisions for handrails, road reflective lights, appropriate signposting and others. Besides, minimum design standards have to be respected. One summarized example is provided by Mackay City Council (2008). It can be found in appendix W. In addition, sufficient bicycle parking areas shall be provided particularly in common areas to encourage the cycling activity beyond the sole need of exercising. Besides, water refill stations can also be provided. Pedestrian lanes: similarly to cycleways, pedestrians lanes need to be provided separately from other lanes. Provisions of public seats at reasonable distances shall be as well considered. Minimum design requirements can also be found in appendix W. Moreover, provision for appropriate pedestrian crossing facilities may be considered. Public transport facilities: in order to promote an enjoyable use of public transport, planning for facilities such as bus transit areas or terminals need to be considered. In addition, covered bus stops have to be set at regular intervals and taking advantage of these, wall advertisements can mainly focus on zero carbon tips. Detailed bus infrastructure design requirements are provided by NSW Transport State Transit (2011). Not only all these previously proposed behaviour change and infrastructure design considerations will have an impact in the reduction of fuel consumption as well as the emissions attributable to the transport sector but will also impact on other processes outside the boundaries such as refinery which in this case will reduce its production and consequently its emissions to air or similarly the car industry whose demand will be sensibly decreased resulting as well in a cut-off of emissions from various manufacturing processes. Therefore, by implementing the proposed changes it is assumed that an overall 80% can be reduced on the demand for fuel in refineries and that this will cut down emissions from transport by the same percentage with complete substitution of fossil fuel by renewable energy in residential transport (appendix G). 4.4 Other considerations Local shoppings: deliver orders made by Internet door to door to reduce the use of private cars and CO2 emissions. Jobs: Residents will be hired at positions in the local facilities to decrease the need of private and/or public transportation and CO2 emissions generation. Plants: use native plants considering their pollution resistance, insect and bird attraction. Trees lifetime should be at least 5-10 years to compensate the carbon emissions in their planting and maintenance (Ritchie and Thomas, 2009). Site water retention: 5% will be reserved of a site to allow free drainage, (Thomas and Fordham LLP, 2002). Shops and services: accessible for all, located along the main street, in the heart of the movement routes and in the surrounding areas of key places, such as railway station (Thomas and Fordham LLP, 2002). 12 Local entertainment: volunteers will organize sport activities on weekends. Landscape: city and landscape are integral (appendix X) to create microclimates and bring mental, and environmental relieve (Thomas and Fordham LLP, 2002). 5. Conclusion and Recommendations In summary, suggestions on the conceptual development and design of infrastructures in Metapolis have been proposed based on the need to sustain the flow of carbon and phosphorus, particularly in the domestic, commercial and transport sector for carbon, and food production, animal feed, detergents and fertilizers for phosphorus, which were identified to be most concerned. By implementing the proposed changes in flow for the two products, the domestic sector will be totally carbon neutral, while the commercial and transport sectors will considerably reduce their reliance on carbon products. Similarly, the agricultures phosphorus use will decrease considerably through improved biotechnology and equally, imported and exported (wastewater discharge to the ocean) phosphorus will be decreased significantly, recycling being enhanced in the latter so as to reduce the unrecoverable stock of phosphorus. The consultants submit to the Minister of Environment and Infrastructure the following recommendations: 1. That the Minister considers that the study being assessed is for the redevelopment of 1,539 ha of Sydney Airport (to be relocated) site and part of its surroundings into residential, commercial and parks uses that will reflect a sustainable consumption of phosphorus and carbon products. 2. That the Minister notes in the report processes using more phosphorus on one hand, and processes using more fossil-fuel carbon sources with subsequent generation of GHG emissions in the GMR of Sydney on the other hand, set out in section 2. 3. That the Minister notes that the consultants concluded that it was possible to reach a low- phosphorus and carbon Metapolis, provided that some proposed covenants and constrains are respected by future Metapolis citizens. 4. That the Minister imposes the covenants and constrains recommended. That the Minister considers the projected phosphorus and carbon MFAs in appendix F and G, respectively illustrating the extent at which Metapolis can be made sustainable with direct or indirect impact on other major processes outside its boundaries. 13 Reference AUSTRALIAN SUSTAINABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENT COUNCIL. 2010. NET ZERO EMISSION HOMES: An Examination of Leading Practice And Pathways Forward. Available: http://asbec.asn.au/files/121213_Zero_Emission_Homes_Leading_Practice.pdf [Accessed viewed 9 May 2013]. BAMBROOK, S. M., SPROUL, A. B. & JACOB, D. 2011. Design optimisation for a low energy home in Sydney. Energy and Buildings, 43, 1702-1711. BARTH, M. & BORIBOONSOMSIN, K. 2009. Traffic Congestion and Greenhouse Gases. Available: http://www.uctc.net/access/35/access35_Traffic_Congestion_and_Grenhouse_Gases.pdf [Accessed 11 May 2013]. BIOFUELS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA. 2013. Biodiesel on Emission Reductions [Online]. Victoria: Biofuels Association of Australia. Available: http://www.biofuelsassociation.com.au/biodiesel-on-emission-reductions [Accessed 9 May 2013]. COMMISSION, E. 2003. Citric Acid an Alternative Builder for phosphate-free detergents. Europe: ECAMA. CPF. 2008. Economic Benefits of Cycling for Australia. Available: http://www.sensibletransport.org.au/sites/sensibletransport.org.au/files/u5/CPF_CyclingBenefits_Screen.pdf [Accessed 7 May 2013]. CHALMERS, J. 1993. The potential use of wetlands to reduce phosphorus export from agricultural catchments. Fertilizer Research, 36. DEPARTMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY. 2010. NatHERS software [Online]. Available: http://nathers.gov.au/software/index.php [Accessed 11 May 2013. ENVIRONMENT, M. O. T. 2010. Phosphorus Reduction Strategy. Ontario. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE INSTITUTE. 2006. Quick Hits: Limiting speed. Available: http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/research/energy/downloads/qh2-limitingspeed.pdf [Accessed 10 May 2013]. ETV. 2011. VisiTyre Reduces Vehicle CO2 Emissions [Online]. NSW: ETV. Available: http://www.etv.com.au/CO2.htm [Accessed 9 May 2013]. EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF MINISTERS OF TRANSPORT 2007. Cutting Transport CO2 Emissions: What Progress?, OECD Publishing. EXPOL THERMASLAB. 2013. Concrete Floor Insulation [Online]. Available: http://www.expol.co.nz/thermaslab.html [Accessed 11 May 2013. FARRINGTON, R. & RUGH, J. 2000. Impact of Vehicle Air Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range. Earth Technologies Forum Washington, D.C. Washington D.C: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. HAIBIN, L. & ZHENLING, L. 2010. Recycling utilization patterns of coal mining waste in China. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 54, 1331-1340. ISHIWATA, T., MIURA, O., HOSOMI, K., SHIMIZU, K., ITO, D. & YODA, Y. 2010. Removal and recovery of phosphorus in wastewater by superconducting high gradient magnetic separation with ferromagnetic adsorbent. Physica C: Superconductivity, 470, 1818-1821. JOY, D., WEIL, C., CROLLA, A. & BONTE-GELOK, S. 2001. New technologies for on-site domestic and agricultural wastewater treatment. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 28, 115-123. KALMYKOVA, Y., HARDER, R., BORGESTEDT, H. & SVANNG, I. 2012. Pathways and Management of Phosphorus in Urban Areas. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 16, 928-939. 14 KALMYKOVA, Y. & KARLFELDT FEDJE, K. 2013. Phosphorus recovery from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Waste Management. KNOWLTON, K. F. & KOHN, R. FEEDING MANAGEMENT TO REDUCE PHOSPHORUS LOSSES FROM DAIRY FARMS. Mid Atlantic Dairy Management Conference, 1999 Pennsylvania. MACKAY CITY COUNCIL. 2008. Engineering design guidelines: Cycleway and pathway design. Available: http://www.mackay.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/14780/15.08_-_Cycleway_and_Pathway_Design_V2.pdf [Accessed 10 May 2013]. MONTANGERO, A., CAU, L. N., ANH, N. V., TUAN, V. D., NGA, P. T. & BELEVI, H. 2007. Optimising water and phosphorus management in the urban environmental sanitation system of Hanoi, Vietnam. Science of the Total Environment, 384, 55-66. NSW TRANSPORT STATE TRANSIT. 2011. StateTransit Bus Infrastructure Guide. Available: http://www.statetransit.info/publications/Bus%20Infrastructure%20Guidelines%20-Issue%202.pdf [Accessed 11 May 2013]. OBERNOSTERER, R., BRUNNER, P. H., GAGAN, T., GLENCK, E., HENDRIKS, C., MORF, L., PAUMANN, R. & REINER, I. 1998. Materials Accounting as a Tool for Decision Making in Environmental Policy. Case Study Report 1: Urban Metabolism, The City of Vienna, Vienna, Institute of Water Quality and Waste Management. Department of Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology. PIPKORN, J. 2010. Australia's guide to environmentally sustainable homes: Energy Use. Available: http://www.yourhome.gov.au/technical/fs14.html [Accessed 9 May 2013]. RITCHIE, A. M. & THOMAS, R. 2009. Sustainable urban design : an environmental approach, London. New York, London. New York : Taylor & Francis. SCHRODER, J. J., CORDELL, D., SMITH, A. L. & ROSEMAIN, A. 2009. Sustainable Use of Phosphorus. Netherland Wageningen University and Research Center Stockholm Environment Institute. SIMPSON, A. 2009. Environmental Attributes of Electric Vehicles in Australia. Available: http://sustainability.curtin.edu.au/local/docs/0907_Environmental_Attributes_EVs_Australia.pdf [Accessed 12 May 2013]. SKARBEK, A. & MCDONALD, M. 2010. Australian Carbon Trust Report: Commercial buildings emissions reduction opportunities. Australia: ClimateWorks Australia, Carbon Trust Australia. SMITH, A. L., BINDRABAN, P. S., SCHRODER, J. J., CONIJN, J. G. & MEER, H. G. V. D. 2009. Phosphorus in agriculture: global resources, trends and developments. Netherlands: World Soil Information, Wageningen University. STRUCTURAL ISOLATED PANEL ASSOCIATION. 2011. Ask a SIP expert: how do I attach stucco to SIP walls? [Online]. Available: http://www.sips.org/ask-a-sip-expert-how-do-i-attach-stucco-to-sip-walls/ [Accessed 10 May 2013. SUGAR, L. & KENNEDY, C. 2013. A low carbon infrastructure plan for Toronto, Canada. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 40, 86-96. THOMAS, R. & FORDHAM LLP, M. 2002. Sustainable urban design, New York, New York : Spon Press. TIAN, J., WANG, X., TONG, Y., CHEN, X. & LIAO, H. 2012. Bioengineering and management for efficient phosphorus utilization in crops and pastures. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 23, 866-871. 15 Appendix A: Sources associated with Phosphorus and Carbon and MFA Sources associated with flows of Phosphorus P flow is considered within the urban area in food for human and animal, detergent, wood products, agriculture, food waste, waste water collection and municipal solid waste collection. Consumption of food Human consumption of food contains large amount of phosphorus which result in major flow of P. Phosphorus intake in Sweden was estimated as 1.5gP/day for men and 1.2 g P/day for women. Almost 90 % of the administered phosphorusis excreted as human waste and finally end up in ocean through sewage treatment plant. (Kalmykova et al., 2012). Food waste Past studies conducted in Swedish confirm that 30% of the food is being wasted before the consumption, of which 5- 10% is in retail level and 20 to 35% is in house hold level(Kalmykova et al., 2012). Detergents Considerable amount of detergents are used in Sydney according to the phosphorus material flow. Research conducted in Netherland reveals that the amount of phosphorus usage for detergent is decreasing due to the regulations. Since these detergents end up in surface water or waste water, Phosphorus causes eutrophication and poses high-risk to fish(Schroder et al., 2009). Animal feed Animal feed and fodder lead to phosphorus imbalances on animal farms. Phosphorus accumulates in soil due to high levels of input of P, which exceeds demand. Therefore, accumulated p contaminates the water sources and ground water due to the surface runoff and leaching of p from animal farms. Digestion of P in animal also plays an important role in P accumulations. Research on metabolism shows that digestion of p in animal decrease with the age of the animal(Knowlton and Kohn, 1999).Significant amount of P consumed by pet animals also contribute to the p flow within the urban area. More than 60 % of pet excretes are disposed via municipal soild waste and the rest goes to non agricultural lands (Kalmykova et al., 2012). Wood Product, Paper and Cardboard P flow in other category includes wood and paper, since these consume phosphorus. Wood packaging and wood products contribute to P flow across the region. 16 Agriculture As growth in arable lands does not keep pace with population growth, application of fertilizer is intensifying to increase food production. However only 25% of the applied phosphorus is taken up by the crops, rest of the phosphorus is lost in soils and water surface due to surface runoff. Agriculture sector is the biggest contributor to the P flow through the eco system, nearly 80% of P demand comes from agriculture in China (Haibin and Zhenling, 2010). Recently biofuel has been adopted as a renewable energy to produce electricity, Bio fuel is derived from bio-energy crops. The need for cultivating bio-energy crops has become mandatory which results in higher use of P fertilizer. (Smith et al., 2009). Sewage waste water collection According to P flow in GMR, sewage system and treatment has the biggest P flow across the plant. Most P flow originates from households. Commercial sector also contributes but at a very low level. In 2000 in GMR, 3770 ton of phosphorus has reached the sewage treatment plant from household and commercial sectors and finally almost 90% of the phosphorus ended up in the ocean. Urban areas are highly populated and the sewage collected from urban areas is highly phosphorus enriched. Past studies show that urine and faeces contains 0.5-1 kg of phosphorus per person per year, which is enough to cover wheat production for one person per year. Since the phosphorus is being lost in the ocean as waste water, phosphate rocks are continuously mined to produce phosphate fertilizer (Montangero et al., 2007). Global annual production of phosphate rock (Schroder et al., 2009) 17 Surface runoff and storm water Urban storm water also contributes to the total P flow across the GMR. Urban storm water contains phosphorus used in land application such as lawns, parks, p from pet animal food and detergents. Storm water runoff carries considerable amount of phosphorus and finally reaches the water bodies(Environment, 2010). Municipal Solid waste collection Composting plant and landfill are commonly used in GMR for solid waste treatment. However solid waste volume can be significantly reduced by incineration and some of the energy can be recovered. Butflyash and the dust coming from incineration pollute the environment. Studies on phosphorus flows reveal that the solid waste also containing considerable amount of P as sewage. Solid waste consists food wastes, wood, textile, paper and cardboard and these contain P(Kalmykova and Karlfeldt Fedje, 2013). Organic waste contains a large amount of phosphorus and domestic residual waste, paper and cardboard waste also contain considerable amount of P(Kalmykova et al., 2012).As per the P flow across GMR, more phosphorus reached land fill rather than composting plant. All the commercial sector solid wastes go to landfills. Sources associated with flows of Carbon Power stations Power stations is the process that use more fossil-fuel carbon sources and it is the third generator of emissions. The huge amounts of coal are used to produce electricity to satisfy the requirement of industry (construction, commercial/consumer, manufacture and other industrial processes). It is important to mention that although almost all the power stations are located outside GMR Sydney' system boundary, their emissions were also taken into account in its MFA. Industrial and commercial Industrial and commercial sector is the second consumer of fossil fuel carbon sources and the third generator of GHG emissions. Refinery This is the third sector that uses more fossil fuel carbon sources. The crude oil using by GMR Sydney refinery process comes from outside Australia. Transport Transport is the forth consumer of fossil fuel carbon sources and the second generator of GHG emissions. The automotive fuels and oil are used for road transportation, railway, water transport, 18 civil aviation and other services. The inputs are equal to the output considering only the inflows of petroleum products and also that there is minimal to no stock in the sector. Among the types of transportation, the road transportation (public and private vehicles) is the one that generate more emissions in the GMR Sydney with 90% and from this percentage around 56% of the total carbon emissions are generated by residential transport. As a result, more emphasis will be done for this kind of transport in the infrastructure of Metapolis suburb. 19 Appendix B: Process contributing to the inflow of P across GMR Appendix C: Process contributing to the outflow of P from GMR Sydney 3454266405001000150020002500300035004000Ocean outfall from STP Surface waterOutflow of P from GMR in t/a20 Appendix D: Main carbon flows in the GRM of Sydney a) GMR Sydney boundary; b) outside GMR Sydney boundary Use of fossil fuel carbon source by the main processes at Sydney 21 Appendix E: Calculations of the population, density and total area of Metapolis suburb APPENDIX VPopulation, Total Area and Population Density of Metapolis SuburbTable of contents for calculations1. Data given12. Assumptions . .13. Calculations..33.1 GMR Sydney Population in 2000 ...33.2 Population density in 2016 and 2036 at Sydney Airport ...43.3 Population density in 2023 at Sydney Airport ..43.4 Inland area of Sydney Airport and calculation of its radio 43.5 Inland Area of Metapolis Suburb .53.6 Buffer Zone of Metapolis Suburb .53.7 Total Area of Metapolis Suburb...53.8 Population at Metapolis Suburb in 2023.63.9 Population Density at Metapolis Suburb in 2023..6Calcs By: Carla Guilcapi Date: 10/05/2013 Page: 0 Solange Kamanzi Janani Paramarajah 22 Assignment No. 2 Population, Total Area and Population Density of Metapolis Suburb1. Data givena. Table 1 shows the data given about housing density in Sydneya. Population Density at south subregion in 2016: 15.30 persons/hab. Population Density at east subregion in 2016: 37.27 persons/hac. Population Density at south subregion in 2036: 16.09 persons/had. Population Density at east subregion in 2036: 39.62 persons/haTable 1.12. Assumptions a. Number of years required for relocating Sydney Airport in Baggery's Creek (construction period): 5 years (EPA WA, 2001)b. Construction period of Metapolis: 5 yearsc. Projected year of Metapolis Settlement in ex Sydney Airport's area: 2023d. Sydney Airport area: 900 ha (Sydney Airport, 2009)Calcs By: Carla Guilcapi Date: 10/05/2013 Page: 1 Solange Kamanzi Janani ParamarajahSubregion Area (ha) 2006 2011 2016 2036 2006 2011 2016 2036Sydney City 2672 158610 184915 196219 237166 59,36 69,2 73,43 88,76Inner West 5964 222606 240542 256695 287631 37,32 40,33 43,04 48,23South 44938 644387 669338 687712 722857 14,34 14,89 15,30 16,09East 7947 274611 287813 296167 314907 34,55 36,21 37,27 39,62West Central 31210 669388 718561 760454 844098 21,45 23,02 24,37 27,05South West 337627 406556 448485 509101 775707 1,2 1,33 1,51 2,30North West 524666 752802 791568 861726 1081253 1,43 1,51 1,64 2,06Inner North 9827 296484 311773 323337 356587 30,17 31,72 32,90 36,29North 54710 257411 268515 280028 304612 4,17 4,91 5,12 5,57North East 25368 231568 241359 246537 265100 9,13 9,51 9,72 10,45Population Population Density (persons/ha)900 ha23 24 Assignment No. 2 Population, Total Area and Population Density of Metapolis Suburbi. Population Density in area of Sydney Airport: Average of South and East subregion's population density 3. Calculations3.1 GMR Sydney Population in 2000The population in GMR in the different years was calculated by the sum of population of all its subregions (Table 1)Table 3.1Calcs By: Carla Guilcapi Date: 10/05/2013 Page: 3 Solange Kamanzi Janani ParamarajahSubregion Area (ha) 2000 2006 2011 2016 2036 2006 2011 2016 2023 2036Sydney City 2672 158610 184915 196219 237166 59,36 69,2 73,43 88,76Inner West 5964 222606 240542 256695 287631 37,32 40,33 43,04 48,23South 44938 644387 669338 687712 722857 14,34 14,89 15,30 16,0926,29 26,83 27,86East 7947 274611 287813 296167 314907 34,55 36,21 37,27 39,62West Central 31210 669388 718561 760454 844098 21,45 23,02 24,37 27,05South West 337627 406556 448485 509101 775707 1,2 1,33 1,51 2,30North West 524666 752802 791568 861726 1081253 1,43 1,51 1,64 2,06Inner North 9827 296484 311773 323337 356587 30,17 31,72 32,90 36,29North 54710 257411 268515 280028 304612 4,17 4,91 5,12 5,57North East 25368 231568 241359 246537 265100 9,13 9,51 9,72 10,45GMR Sydney 1044929 3792000 3914423 4162869 4417976 5189918Population Density (persons/ha)Population Interpolation of Population Density for 2023Population of GMR Sydney by applying linear correlation using the equation y = 41896 * x - 8E+0725 Assignment No. 2 Population, Total Area and Population Density of Metapolis SuburbLinear correlation was applied to estimate the population of GMR Sydney in 2000 by applying the equation y = 41896*x - 8E+07 (Figure 1)The estimated population at GMR Sydney in 2000 is 3,792,000 people3.2 Population density in 2016 and 2036 at Sydney AirportPopulation Density at Sydney Airport in 2016 = (15.30 + 37.27)/2 = 26.29 persons/ha 1a and 1bPopulation Density at Sydney Airport in 2036 = (16.09 + 39.62)/2 = 27.86 persons/ha 1c and 1d3.3 Population density in 2023 at Sydney AirportInterpolation between population density at Sydney Airport in 2016 and population density at Sydney Airport in 2036 3.2Population density in 2023 at Sydney Airport = 26.83 persons/ha Table 23.4 Inland area of Sydney Airport and calculation of its radio 2g, 2e, 2d Inland area of Sydney Airport = Part of Sydney Airport located in the sea x Sydney Airport area 2g, 2e, 2d Inland area of Sydney Airport = 2/3 x 900 ha = 600 haCalcs By: Carla Guilcapi Date: 10/05/2013 Page: 4 Solange Kamanzi Janani Paramarajahy = 41896x - 8E+07R = 0.99570.00E+001.00E+062.00E+063.00E+064.00E+065.00E+066.00E+062000 2010 2020 2030 2040PopulationYearPopulation in GMR SydneyPopulationLinear (Population)26 Assignment No. 2 Population, Total Area and Population Density of Metapolis Suburb Inland area of Sydney Airport = x r2 = 900 ha 2gRadio of Inland area of Sydney Airport = 1. 38 km3.5 Inland Area of Metapolis SuburbRadio of Inlad area of Metapolis suburb = radio of inland area of Sydney Airport + Radio of buffer zone 3.4 and 2hRadio of Inlad area of Metapolis suburb = 1.98 kmInland Area of Metapolis Suburb = x r2 = x (Radio of Inlad area of Metapolis suburb) 2Inland area of Metapolis Suburb =1234 ha3.6 Buffer Zone of Metapolis Suburb Buffer Zone of Metapolis Suburb = Inland Area of Metapolis Suburb - Inland area of Sydney Airport 3.4 and 3.5Buffer Zone of Metapolis Suburb = 1234 ha - 600 ha = 634 ha3.7 Total Area of Metapolis SuburbArea of Sydney Airport located in the sea = Part of Sydney Airport located in the sea x Sydney Airport area 2f and 2dArea of Sydney Airport located in the sea = 1/3 x 900 ha = 300 haTotal Area of Metapolis Suburb = Inland Area of Metapolis Suburb + Area of Sydney Airport located in the seaTotal Area of Metapolis Suburb = 1234 ha + 300 ha = 1534 ha 3.5 Calcs By: Carla Guilcapi Date: 10/05/2013 Page: 5 Solange Kamanzi Janani Paramarajah600 ha1.38 km27 Assignment No. 2 Population, Total Area and Population Density of Metapolis Suburb3.8 Population at Metapolis Suburb in 2023Population at Metapolis Suburb in 2023 = Population density in 2023 at Sydney Airport x Total Area of Metapolis Suburb 3.3 and 2dPopulation at Metapolis Suburb in 2023 = 26.83 persons/ha x 1534 ha Population at Metapolis Suburb in 2023 = 41,157 persons 3.9 Population Density at Metapolis Suburb in 2023Population Density at Metapolis Suburb in 2023 = Population at Metapolis Suburb in 2023 / Total Area of Metapolis Suburb 3.7 and 3.8Population Density at Metapolis Suburb in 2023 = 26.83 haCalcs By: Carla Guilcapi Date: 10/05/2013 Page: 6 Solange Kamanzi Janani Paramarajah 28 Appendix F: Phosphorus MFA in Metapolis no change and change scenarios Phosphorus MFA in Metapolis no change scenario 29 Commerce sectorHousehold sectorAgriculture sector (including soils)LandfillSewage system and treatment plantOther soilsSurface waterGroundwaterAtmosphereFertiliserManureAnimal feedFood prodFood prodFertiliserFood FertiliserP free DetergentWaterSubstance flow: PYear 200077182031132900000 + 490???+ 100??? + 812 ??? + ???Household garden left over0Animal feed1512310.221331???03OthersStored in crops = 5520.4Compost plant1StormwaterEffluent Biosolids 6610.1Xxxxx + 10572??? + 127Other garden prod115??? + ???30 Appendix G: Carbon MFA in Metapolis no change and change scenarios Carbon MFA in Metapolis no change scenario Carbon MFA in Metapolis change scenario 31 Appendix I: Remaining world Phosphate rock in 2009 (Schroder et al., 2009)Appendix J: Sustainable scenario for meeting long term future phosphorus demand through phosphorus use efficiency and recovery (Schroder et al., 2009) 32 Appendix K: Material used for house construction Scheme of SIP (Structural Isolated Panel Association, 2011) Appendix L: Insulated concrete slab. Taken from (EXPOL ThermaSlab, 2013) Appendix M: Single glazed aluminium windows 33 Appendix N: Solar pergola window Appendix O: PV Roofs Sketch of influence of distance between households and yield of PV roof. Taken from (Ritchie and Thomas, 2009) Sketch of strategy to avoid overshadow in the use of PV roofs. Taken from (Ritchie and Thomas, 2009) 34 Appendix P: Matrix of Density per Household According to Accessibility to Public Transportation and Local Facilities. Taken from (Ritchie and Thomas, 2009). Setting0 to 1 2 to 3 4 to 6Suburban 150-200 hr/ha 150-250 hr/ha 200 - 350 hr/ha3.8-4.9 hr/d 35-55 dph 35 - 65 dph 45 - 90 dph3.1 - 3.7 hr/d 40-65 dph 40 -80 dph 55 - 115 dph2.7-3.0 hr/d 50-75 dph 50 -95 dph 70- 130 dphUrban 150-250 hr/ha 200 - 450 hr/ha 200-700 hr/ha3.8 - 4.6 hr/d 35-65 dph 45 - 120 dph 45 - 185 dph3.1 -3.7 hr/d 40-80 dph 55- 145 dph 55 - 225 dph2.7 3.0 hr/d 50 95 dph 70- 170 dph 70-260 dphCentral 150 - 300 hr/ha 300 - 650 hr/ha 650 110 hr/ha3.8 -4.6 hr/d 35 - 80 dph 65 170 dph 140 -290 dph3.1 - 3.7 hr/d 40 - 100 dph 80-210 dph 175 355 dph2.7 - 3.0 hr/d 50 - 110 dph 100-240 dph 215 405 dphPublic Transport Accessibility Level (PTAL) KeyAbbreviationshr = habitable roomd = dwellingha = hectaredph = dwellings per hectarehr/ha = habitablle rooms per hectareDefinition of site settingCentral =areas with very dense development a mix of different uses, large building footprints and typically buildings of 4 to 6 storeys, located within 800 metres walking distance of an International, Metropolitan Major town centreUrban =areas with very dense development a mix of different uses, large building footprints and typically buildings of 4 to 6 storeys, located within 800 metres walking distance of an International, Metropolitan Major town centreSuburban =areas with very dense development a mix of different uses, large building footprints and typically buildings of 4 to 6 storeys, located within 800 metres walking distance of an International, Metropolitan Major town centreDefinition of accesibilityNote:3.8-4.9 hr/d is typically detached and linked houses3.1 - 3.7 hr/d is typically terraced houses and flats2.7-3.0 hr/d is typically flatsThe PTAL is a mesure of the time taken to walk to an existing public transport mode35 Appendix Q:Mixed-use development to encourage social interaction in the commuting to different services by walking and cycling. Taken from (Ritchie and Thomas, 2009) Possible facilityCatchment populationStadium CityCathedral CityCity Hall CityTheatre CitySports Center 25,000 - 40,000District Center 25,000 - 40,001Library 12,000 - 30,000Health centre 9,000-12,000Community offcies 7,500Community centre 7,000 - 15,000Pub 5,000- 7 ,000Post office 5,000 - 10,000Ptimary school 2,500 - 4,000Doctor 2,500 - 3,000Corner shop 2,000 - 5,000Local hubs150-250 mCity Facilities4 - 10 km radiusDistrict TownNeighbourhood400-600 m2-6 km36 Appendix R: Characteristics of a walking suburb Taken from (Ritchie and Thomas, 2009) 37 Appendix S: Comparative summary of emissions between petrol and electric cars (Simpson, 2009) Appendix T: Typical length of car journeys in Australia (CPF, 2008) 38 Appendix U: GHG emissions according to transport means (CPF, 2008) Appendix V: Relationship between vehicle speed and emissions level (Barth and Boriboonsomsin, 2009) 39 Appendix W:Minimum design requirements for cycleways (Mackay City Council, 2008) Appendix X: Integration of landscape and city Taken from (Ritchie and Thomas, 2009) 1 Appendix Y: MFA for Phosphorus and Carbon Food 2768 Waste 215 landfill 0,61 Effluent 25 Sewage 316 Animal feed 1545 Garden left 106 Commerce 2 Animal feed 1550 69Detergent 1244 Waste 11 other soil 15 Agriculture 110 Sewage 3454 Food prod 2690 compost 570 1051Fertilizer 141 Waste 583 Storm water 67 Detergent 1244 grease 2 water 3,25Other garden prod 137 Other soil 150 Fertilizer 420 biosolid 310 fertilize 280Others 693 atm 69 sewage 760Total Inputs 4290 809 15,61 352 3770 6592 1057 2 3644,25 69Sewage 3454 waste 0,61 Ocean outfall 247 Bio solid 310 Fertilizer 250 surface water 150 othersoil 2 Food prod 600 69Landfill waste 583 Ocean outfall 2664 sewage 316 surface water 110Garden left 106 effluent 25 Food 2765 1051Surface water 35 Storm water 11 detergent 1244Compost plant 570 fertilizer 1412Other garden prod 137Storm water 21Total Outputs Sum 4748 0,61 0 247 3010 4876 0 150 2 1761 699865900 + ? 468000 + ? 470700 +? ? ?Stock -458 Stock 808,39 Stock 15,61 Stock 105 Stock 760 Stock 1716 Stock 907 0 1883,25 0MFA FOR PHOSPHORUSOutputcommerce sector Other soils agriculture sector AtmosphereHousehold sectorInputLanfill Groundwater Surface water Grease trapSewage sytem & treatment plant2 Gal 404000Petroleum Products ? Crude oil 5520000Automotive fuels and oil 5270000 Fuel ? Plastic ? CH4 38200 Flow 60 6610000 CH4 8430Plastic ? Plastic 301000 Plastic 219000 CO2 12000000 Coal 5400000 CO2 396000Otros ? LPG 44100 ? ? CH4 3080000Natural gas 5110000 CO2 107000Coking Coal 876000 CO2 468000Coal 1900000 CO2 4220000Plastic 26700 CH4 103000Automotive oil 757000 CO 181000CO2 682000CH4 2780000CO 253000CO2 282000CH4 162000Gases ?Total Inputs 0 404000 8669700 5520000 5270000 345100 219000 12038200 12010000 127224308669700+? 345100 +? 219000+? 12038200 + ? 12722430 + ?Coal 5400000 CH4 8430Automotive fuels and oil 5270000 CO2 468000 CO2 4220000 Plastic 26700 Gases ? CH4 38200 Gases ?CH4 3080000 CO2 396000 CO2 682000Petroleum products ? CH4 103000 Plastic ? CO2 12000000CO2 107000 CH4 2780000 CO 181000 CO2 282000Coking Coal 876000 CO 253000 Automotive oil 757000 CH4 162000Coal 1900000 Fuel ?Coking coal 4640000 Plastic 301000Export Coal 13200000 Plastic 219000LPG 44100Fuels 291000Plastic 25800Total Outputs Sum 29203000 404430 9865900 468000 5261000 470700 0 0 12038200 09865900 + ? 468000 + ? 470700 +? ? ?Stock -29203000 Stock -430 Stock -1196200 Stock 5052000 Stock 9000 Stock -125600 Stock 219000 12038200 -28200 12722430MFA FOR CARBONOutputDomestic Landfill Power Station AirMiningInputPower Station Industrial & Commercial Refinery AirTransport