ENERGY ATP Adenosine triphosphate Energy is the ability to ____________or__________. Nearly every activity in modern society depends upon energy. cause.

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<p>CELLULAR RESPIRATION</p> <p>ENERGY</p> <p>ATP</p> <p>Adenosine triphosphateEnergy is the ability to ____________or__________. </p> <p>Nearly every activity in modern society depends upon energy. cause changedo work</p> <p>Why do you need energy?</p> <p>growthActive transport</p> <p>Temperature control</p> <p>movement</p> <p>The sun is the ultimate source of energy.</p> <p>sun.Living things obtain this energy directly or indirectly from the ______Energy from the sun enters living systems when _________________absorb sunlight.plants and algae </p> <p>foodcarbohydrates</p> <p>The energy in sunlight is captured and used to make ______ . . . _________________.</p> <p>These carbohydrates store chemical energy </p> <p>. . . energy stored in chemical bonds.</p> <p>sunCO2H2OGlucoseC6H12O6O2Photosynthesis is the process that converts light energy from the sun into chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds of sugars . . . carbohydrates . . . food. </p> <p>Photosynthesis takes place in the____________ </p> <p>chloroplastIn which organelle does photosynthesis take place?PhotosynthesissunlightglucosePhotosynthesis also produces oxygen.</p> <p>oxygen</p> <p>Carbondioxidewater6CO2+++6H2Olight energyC6H12O66 O2</p> <p> The oxygen in our lovely atmosphere is the result of photosynthesis. </p> <p> Sunlight Energy sourceAbsorbs sunlight Makes foodStored chemical energyConsumes foodStored energyConsumes food Stored energy The flow of energy in living systems:sun leaf caterpillar birdAutotrophs are organisms that use energy from sunlight to make carbohydrates . . . food. Autotrophs are organisms that make their own food. Autotrophs are producers. </p> <p>carbohydrates</p> <p>Examples of autotrophs :</p> <p>algaeplantsSome protists</p> <p>Some bacteriaUltimately, nearly all life on Earth depends on the ability of autotrophs to capture the energy of sunlight and store it in molecules of carbohydrates.</p> <p>Some organisms eat plants, obtaining energy from the stored glucose in the plant.Some animals eat other animals.</p> <p>Heterotrophs are organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from the sun. </p> <p>Heterotrophs cannot make their own food, they must consume food.</p> <p> F U N G I</p> <p>AnimalsExamples?Heterotrophs are consumers.</p> <p>Animal-like protists</p> <p>BacteriaHeterotrophs obtain energy from the food they eat. But how?</p> <p>How does a car move? Gasoline is the fuel that powers the car. </p> <p>Food is the fuel that powers our bodies.</p> <p>All these macromolecules contain ______________.</p> <p>stored chemical energylipidsproteins.What are the foods you eat composed of?The foods you eat are composed of _______________ :carbohydratesmacromolecules</p> <p>Gasoline is the fuel that powers the car. Gasoline must be burned in order to release the energy to move the pistons. </p> <p>The foods we eat must also be burned to produce energy to power our bodies. </p> <p>The macromolecules in food must be broken down - - - digestion and burned - - - cellular respiration to release the stored chemical energy. </p> <p>Cells obtain energy from food through the process of cellular respiration.Cellular respiration is a process by which food (glucose) is broken down to produce energy - - - ATP.</p> <p>C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP(glucose) (oxygen) carbon (water) (energy) dioxide</p> <p>6Carbon1Carbon ATPCellular respiration consists of a series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that gradually release the chemical energy stored in food molecules. </p> <p>The energy released is stored in ATP.</p> <p>ATP is the energy molecule. </p> <p>ATP powers the cell.</p> <p> ATP</p> <p> ATP</p> <p>ATP is made in the mitochondria during the process of cellular respiration.</p> <p>ATP --- adenosine triphosphate.</p> <p>ATP immediate energyGlucose - short term energy storageCarbohydrates &amp; Fats - long term energy storageA working muscle uses over 10 million ATPs per second</p> <p>ATP - - - Immediate Source of Energy</p> <p>The cell prefers carbohydrates over lipids, and lipids over proteins.</p> <p>CarbohydratesMy favorite!!!Heres something interestingWhich is the cells favorite energy source?The cell harnesses the energy in macromolecules in the following order:</p> <p>1. Carbohydrates</p> <p>2. Lipids</p> <p>3. Proteins </p> <p>glycogen--- glucose stored in liver --- the liver secretes glucose when blood sugar is low.Carbohydrates Source of stored energy for cells.</p> <p> glucose (in blood) --- quick energy --- make ATPSugars</p> <p>BODY</p> <p>FAT</p> <p>Long term energy storageInsulation and ProtectionLipidsWhen an organism is not consuming enough food, the cell breaks down lipids for energy.--- stored energy --- lipids contain more energy than carbohydrates (2X) --- lipids store most of the energy in organisms (80% of energy is stored as fat)</p> <p>so only in extreme circumstances, such as starvation, does your body break down proteins for energy. </p> <p>ProteinsImportant?Yeah!EnzymesJust about everything is protein</p> <p>They do all the work!</p>


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