Ecological Assessment: An Overview Environmental Issues and Public Policy Zoo 446 Fall 2001.

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<ul><li><p>Ecological Assessment: An OverviewEnvironmental Issues and Public PolicyZoo 446Fall 2001</p></li><li><p>Standard QuestionsIs there a problem?Is it getting better or worse?Whats causing the problem?Can we fix it?Is it getting better or worse?</p></li><li><p>Stressor-ResponseAssessmentResponseAssessmentExposure (stressor)AssessmentRisk (Condition) CharacterizationRiskManagementDecisionManagementOptionsPoliticsLegal ConsiderationsSocial FactorsPublic HealthEconomicsRisk AssessmentRisk ManagementModified from EPA 1996</p></li><li><p>Stressor GradientEcological Conditionlowhighlowhigh(Ecological Values and Indicators)CWA Ultimate Goal (e.g. protect all native taxa)Response Assessment(Is there a problem?)Exposure AssessmentStressor-Response Relationship(Whats Causing the Problem?)Ecological Risk Assessment</p></li><li><p>Stressor GradientEcological Conditionlowhighlowhigh(Ecological Values and Indicators)CWA Ultimate Goal (e.g. protect all native taxa)Response Assessment(Is there a problem?)Exposure AssessmentStressor-Response Relationship(Whats Causing the Problem?)Ecological Risk Assessment</p></li><li><p>Stressor GradientEcological Conditionlowhighlowhigh(Ecological Values and Indicators)CWA Ultimate Goal (e.g. protect all native taxa)Response Assessment(Is there a problem?)Exposure AssessmentStressor-Response Relationship(Whats Causing the Problem?)Ecological Risk Assessment</p></li><li><p>Risk AssessmentMod. From EPA 1996Stressor-Response RelationshipHazard AssessmentExposure AssessmentRisk CharacterizationQuality of LifeHuman HealthEcological HealthStressors Physico-chemical Measurements Biotic IndicesHuman Activities (GIS &amp; Modeling)Diagnosis, CertaintyMultiple Lines of EvidenceIndices of Sustainability and RestorabilityObservational ApproachesExperimental Approaches</p></li><li><p>Ecological Assessment FrameworkStudy DesignAnalysisIntegration Objectives Conceptual Model Hypotheses &amp; Indicators Sampling Plan Define Expected Condition Measure Observed Condition Assess Human Effects (E-O) Stressor-Response Relationships Determine Causes or Threats to Impairment Develop Management Plans Assess Management Success</p></li><li><p>Ecological Assessment FrameworkStudy DesignAnalysisIntegration Objectives Conceptual Model Hypotheses &amp; Indicators Sampling Plan Define Expected Condition Measure Observed Condition Assess Human Effects (E-O) Stressor-Response Relationships Determine Causes or Threats to Impairment Develop Management Plans Assess Management Success</p></li><li><p>Ecological Assessment FrameworkStudy Design</p></li><li><p>Objectives:Defining the Problem Legislatively in USProtect SpeciesProtect Ecological Integrity *Physical and Chemical IntegrityBiotic Integrity: Structural and FunctionalProtect Fish, Shellfish, and Wildlife*Interim Goal: larger and important animalsProtect Ecosystem ServicesBiodiversity support, flood control, nutrient retention, aesthetics, sustainable productivity* Clean Water Act Goals Endangered Species Act</p></li><li><p>Objectives (Support Designated Uses), Measurable Responses and IndicatorsDrinkabilityTaste, odor, toxic,Microbial ContaminationFishabilityLow DO, TempSwimmabilityWater clarityMicrobial Contamination</p></li><li><p>Stream ChannelModificationUrbanization/Residential DevelopmentForest PracticesAgricultureMiningRecreation &amp; MgmtAtmospheric DepositionDamsChannelizationDiversionsLeveesRevetmentsIncreasing PopulationRoadsConstructionPoint SourcesWastewaterPetsFragmentationFertilizersPesticidesRoadsMonocultureCompactionSedimentationFertilizersLivestockPesticidesHabitat Alt.IrrigationCompactionAnimal WasteHabitat Alt.Toxic WasteOilGravel ExtractionHeavy MetalsLimingRoadsConstructionHabitat Alt.BoatingFishingFish Intro.,PoisoningNOxSOxAir ToxicsLimingChanges in flow, timing,amount,pathwayChanges in sediment loadChanges in VegetationChemical Loading;ToxinsNutrientsO2 DemandAcid/BaseMobilizationof heavy metalsPhysical HabitatChanges in Biological AssemblagesWater QualityChemical Habitatmodified from Bryce et al. 1999Natural Stressors/Geographic Setting (Climate, Geology, Latitude, etc.)Human ActivitiesStressorsEndpointsConceptual Model</p></li><li><p>Study PlansSurveysUse: primarily to assess condition of ecosystems and establish probable exposure problems or threatsProsRealistic ResponsesRealistic ExposuresStressorsHuman ActivitiesConsExpensiveTime consumingPoor cause-effect determinationExperiments (Bioassays)Use: primarily to establish exposures at which undesirable effects occurProsCost-effectiveRelatively RapidEstablish cause-effectConsUnrealistic ResponsesUnrealistic ExposuresStressors not natural</p></li><li><p>Ecological Assessment FrameworkAnalysisStressor-Response RelationsHuman Effects AssessmentStressor IndicatorsLand Use IndicatorsExpected ConditionResponse IndicatorsEcological UnderstandingObserved ConditionLand Use IndicatorsResponse IndicatorsStressor Indicators</p></li><li><p>Stressor IndicatorStressor IndicatorResponse IndicatorResponse IndicatorHuman Activities BMPsLand Use IndicatorsLand Use IndicatorsHuman Activities BMPsooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooObserved Conditions&amp; Relations</p></li><li><p>Stressor IndicatorStressor IndicatorResponse IndicatorResponse IndicatorHuman Activities BMPsLand Use IndicatorsLand Use IndicatorsHuman Activities BMPsooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooExpected ConditionObserved Conditions&amp; Relations</p></li><li><p>Stressor GradientEcological ConditionStressor Criterionlowhighlowhigh(Ecological Values and Indicators)CWA Ultimate Goal (e.g. protect all native taxa)</p></li><li><p>Stressor GradientEcological ConditionIndicator of BI (e.g. change in species composition)BioCriterion for IBI based on Protecting GoalStressor Criterionlowhighlowhigh(Ecological Values and Indicators)CWA Ultimate Goal (e.g. protect all native taxa)</p></li><li><p>Stressor GradientEcological ConditionIndicator of BI (e.g. change in species composition)BioCriterion for IBI based on Protecting GoalStressor Criterionlowhighlowhigh(Ecological Values and Indicators)CWA Ultimate Goal (e.g. protect all native taxa)</p></li><li><p>Stressor GradientEcological ConditionIndicator of BI (e.g. change in species composition)BioCriterion for IBI based on Protecting GoalStressor Criterionlowhighlowhigh(Ecological Values and Indicators)CWA Ultimate Goal (e.g. protect all native taxa)</p></li><li><p>Stressor GradientEcological ConditionIndicator of BI (e.g. change in species composition)BioCriterion for IBI based on Protecting GoalStressor Criterionlowhighlowhigh(Ecological Values and Indicators)CWA Ultimate Goal (e.g. protect all native taxa)</p></li><li><p>Criteria for Indicators (NRC)General ImportanceConceptual BasisReliabilityStatistical PropertiesTemporal &amp; Spatial ScaleData RequirementsSkills RequiredData QualityData ArchivingRobustnessInternational CompatibilityCosts, Benefits, and Cost-Effectiveness</p></li><li><p>NRC Recommended IndicatorsExtent and Status of Nations EcosystemsLand cover type and areaLand useEcological CapitalTotal species diversity, Native species diversityNutrient runoff, Soil organic matterEcosystem Function and PerformanceCarbon storage, Productive capacity, Net primary production, Lake trophic status, Stream oxygenNutrient use efficiency and Nutrient balance of ag. ecosystems</p></li><li><p>Multimetric Indices of Biotic IntegrityMultiple variables combined into one indexSpecies richness% Sensitive Species% Predator Species6-10 variables responding to different stressorsGood summary Easy to communicateMore reliable in broad use, but not as sensitive as refined, single-indicator responses</p></li><li><p>Response IndicatorsChange in Species CompositionChange in Ecosystem FunctionLoss of Native Species in Sensitive Assemblages (Microbes and Invertebrates)Loss of Health of Tolerant Organisms (e.g., Fish and Wildlife)Loss of Native Species of Tolerant Organisms</p></li><li><p>Stressor IndicatorsNutrient EnrichmentDecrease in Dissolved Oxygen ConcentrationSedimentationChanged TemperatureHabitat Alteration Habitat LossBiotic Indices: % High P spp.</p><p>% Urban Land Use% Agricultural Land Use% Impervious SurfaceWidth Riparian BufferProximity of Use to HabitatLand Use Indicators</p></li><li><p>Muskegon Watershed Land Use RegionsB. PijanowskiM. ColungaEffects of Human Activities DifferWith Activity and Habitat and Endpoint</p></li><li><p>Ecological Assessment FrameworkIntegration Cause/Threat Assessment Restoration/ Protection Assessment Management Options Management Decision &amp; Implementation</p></li><li><p>Stressor-Response RelationshipStressor LevelEcological Response (e.g. Eco-Integrity)okAcceptableNaturalAB</p></li><li><p>Everglades, South Florida, USA</p></li><li><p>Conceptual Model for Everglades MatsPAlgaeCaCO3P harvest &amp; Stability+-?+Growth</p></li><li><p>Change in Floating Mat Cover = f (Distance from P Source In Everglades)Distance from P Source (km)</p></li><li><p>Change in Number of Native SppIn Everglades</p></li><li><p>Deviation in Spp Relative Abundance from Reference in Everglades </p></li><li><p>TP on Gradient</p></li><li><p>Sediment P on Gradient</p></li><li><p>Algal Responses in the EvergladesDosing Facility</p></li><li><p>Total Sediment Phosphorus(mg/kg)Contour Mapfor WCA-2A</p></li><li><p>Risk AssessmentRisk ManagementModified from EPA 1996Response-StressorRelationshipHazardAssessmentExposureAssessmentRiskCharacterizationRiskManagementDecisionManagementOptionsPoliticsLegal ConsiderationsSocial FactorsPublic HealthEconomics</p></li><li><p>Sampling Sitesfor KY MI Stream Survey</p></li><li><p>A Stream Problem.. excessive Cladophora</p></li><li><p>SAIN Conceptual Model</p></li><li><p>SAIN Sampling Sites</p></li><li><p>Parameters AssessedDischargeTemperatureCanopy CoverConductivitypH, alkalinityNO3+NO2, NH4, TNPO4 (SRP), TPSilicaChlorideTotal Suspended Solids</p><p>Water Column Chl aPeriphyton Cover and Thickness3 3-rock clusters for algal biomass &amp; species composition **Inverts on 10 rocks5 5-rock clusters for invertebrate biomass &amp; species composition **** Only sampled 1/8 wk.</p></li><li><p>ALGAL METHODSSample Algae(Targeted orMultihabitat)Split SampleTake to LabAssay Pigments withSpectrophotometerIdentify and Count Algae MicroscopicallyDry &amp; BurnCell DensitySpecies Relative AbundancesAFDMChl aPhaeophytinAssess AlgalBiomass VisuallyIn FieldVisual BiomassMacroalgae &amp;Microalgae</p></li><li><p>Rapid Periphyton SurveyView Bottom at Sites along TransectsCharacterize % Cover of Different Algal Types Characterize Thickness of Each Algal Type</p></li><li><p>Peak Cladophora Biomass</p></li><li><p>Similarity of Diatom Composition Between Test and Reference Assemblages</p></li><li><p>Standard QuestionsIs there a problem?Is it getting better or worse?Whats causing the problem?Can we fix it?Is it getting better or worse?</p></li></ul>

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