Ebner, M. Learning and Teaching with Mobile Devices

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  • 10th

    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE

    ON

    MOBILE LEARNING 2014

  • ii

  • iii

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE

    10th

    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE

    ON

    MOBILE LEARNING 2014

    MADRID, SPAIN

    28 FEBRUARY 2 MARCH, 2014

    Organised byIADIS

    International Association for Development of the Information Society

  • iv

    Copyright 2014

    IADIS Press

    All rights reserved

    This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material

    is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, recitation,

    broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other way, and storage in data banks.

    Permission for use must always be obtained from IADIS Press. Please contact secretariat@iadis.org

    Edited by Inmaculada Arnedillo Snchez and Pedro Isaas

    Associate Editor: Lus Rodrigues

    ISBN: 978-989-8704-02-3

  • v

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    FOREWORD xi

    PROGRAM COMMITTEE xiii

    KEYNOTE LECTURE xvii

    PANEL xviii

    FULL PAPERS

    SUPPORTING TEACHERS TO DESIGN AND USE MOBILE

    COLLABORATIVE LEARNING GAMES Iza Marfisi-Schottman and Sbastien George

    3

    EBOOKS AS PDF FILES, IN EPUB FORMAT OR AS INTERACTIVE IBOOKS?

    DIGITAL BOOKS IN PHYSICS LESSONS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION Manfred Lohr

    11

    MOBILE LEARNING AND EARLY AGE MATHEMATICS Shir Peled and Shimon Schocken

    19

    M-LEARNING ON PATH TO INTEGRATION WITH ORGANISATION

    SYSTEMS Shilpa Srivastava and Ved Prakash Gulati

    26

    IMPROVING HISTORY LEARNING THROUGH CULTURAL HERITAGE,

    LOCAL HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY Graa Magro, Joaquim Ramos de Carvalho and Maria Jos Marcelino

    34

    INTRIGUE AT THE MUSEUM: FACILITATING ENGAGEMENT

    AND LEARNING THROUGH A LOCATION-BASED MOBILE GAME Jetmir Xhembulla, Irene Rubino, Claudia Barberis and Giovanni Malnati

    41

    MOBILE-BASED CHATTING FOR MEANING NEGOTIATION IN FOREIGN

    LANGUAGE LEARNING Mara Dolores Castrillo, Elena Martn-Monje and Elena Brcena

    49

    STUDENT PREFERENCES FOR M-LEARNING APPLICATION

    CHARACTERISTICS mer Delialio lu & Yasaman Alioon

    59

  • vi

    LEARNING AND TEACHING WITH MOBILE DEVICES AN APPROACH IN

    SECONDARY EDUCATION IN GHANA Margarete Grimus and Martin Ebner

    66

    CROSS-CULTURAL DESIGN OF MOBILE MATHEMATICS LEARNING

    SERVICE FOR SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS Tanja Walsh, Teija Vainio and Jari Varsaluoma

    75

    MOBILE LEARNING AND ACHIEVEMENT GOAL ORIENTATION PROFILES Minna Asplund

    85

    A REVIEW OF INTEGRATING MOBILE PHONES FOR LANGUAGE

    LEARNINGRamiza Darmi and Peter Albion

    93

    OVERLAPPING CHATS ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS BETWEEN

    STUDENTS WITH AND WITHOUT DISABILITIES DUE TO THE MOBILE

    LIMITATIONSRoco Calvo, Ana Iglesias and Lourdes Moreno

    101

    UML Quiz: AUTOMATIC CONVERSION OF WEB-BASED E-LEARNING

    CONTENT IN MOBILE APPLICATIONS Alexander von Franqu and Hilda Tellio lu

    109

    PEDAGOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF SMARTPHONE INTEGRATION

    IN TEACHING - LECTURERS', STUDENTS' & PUPILS' PERSPECTIVES Tami Seifert

    117

    MOOC TO GO Jan Renz, Thomas Staubitz and Christoph Meinel

    125

    STRATEGIES AND CHALLENGES IN IPAD INITIATIVE Chientzu Candace Chou, Lanise Block and Renee Jesness

    133

    BLENDING CLASSROOM TEACHING AND LEARNING WITH QR CODES Jenni Rikala and Marja Kankaanranta

    141

    PROGRAMMING EDUCATION WITH A BLOCKS-BASED VISUAL

    LANGUAGE FOR MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT Can Mihci and Nesrin Ozdener

    149

    SHIFTING CONTEXTS: INVESTIGATING THE ROLE OF CONTEXT

    IN THE USE OF UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING FOR DESIGN-BASED

    LEARNINGKatharine S. Willis and Gianni Corino

    157

    EVALUATION FRAMEWORK FOR DEPENDABLE MOBILE LEARNING

    SCENARIOS Manel Bensassi and Mona Laroussi

    167

    INITIAL EVALUATION OF A MOBILE SCAFFOLDING APPLICATION THAT

    SEEKS TO SUPPORT NOVICE LEARNERS OF PROGRAMMING Chao Mbogo, Edwin Blake and Hussein Suleman

    175

    DEFINING A SET OF ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS FOR

    SERVICE-ORIENTED MOBILE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS Nemsio Freitas Duarte Filho and Ellen Francine Barbosa

    183

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    PORTABILITY AND USABILITY OF OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    ON MOBILE DEVICES: A STUDY IN THE CONTEXT OF BRAZILIAN

    EDUCATIONAL PORTALS AND ANDROID-BASED DEVICES Andr Constantino da Silva, Fernanda Maria Pereira Freire, Vitor Hugo Miranda Mouro, Mrcio Digenes de Oliveira da Cruz and Helosa Vieira da Rocha

    191

    EVALUATING QR CODE CASE STUDIES USING A MOBILE LEARNING

    FRAMEWORK Jenni Rikala

    199

    DEVELOPING A MOBILE SOCIAL MEDIA FRAMEWORK FOR CREATIVE

    PEDAGOGIES Thomas Cochrane, Laurent Antonczak, Matthew Guinibert and Danni Mulrennan

    207

    FACTORS AFFECTING M-LEARNERSCOURSE SATISFACTION

    AND LEARNING PERSISTENCE Young Ju Joo, Sunyoung Joung, Eugene Lim and Hae Jin Kim

    215

    A FRAMEWORK TO SUPPORT MOBILE LEARNING IN MULTILINGUAL

    ENVIRONMENTS Mmaki E. Jantjies and Mike Joy

    222

    SHORT PAPERS

    MOBILE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATED PEDAGOGICAL MODEL Arshia Khan

    233

    REPRESENTATIONS OF AN INCIDENTAL LEARNING FRAMEWORK

    TO SUPPORT MOBILE LEARNING Eileen Scanlon, Mark Gaved, Ann Jones, Agnes Kukulska-Hulme, Lucas Paletta and Ian Dunwell

    238

    USING MOBILE APPS AND SOCIAL MEDIA FOR ONLINE

    LEARNER-GENERATED CONTENT Paul David Henry

    243

    TWEETING AS A TOOL FOR LEARNING SCIENCE: THE CREDIBILITY

    OF STUDENT-PRODUCED KNOWLEDGE CONTENT IN EDUCATIONAL

    CONTEXTS Kaja Vembe Swensen, Kenneth Silseth and Ingeborg Krange

    247

    WHAT MOBILE LEARNING AND WORKING REMOTELY CAN LEARN

    FROM EACH OTHER Koen Depryck

    252

    IN-TIME ON-PLACE LEARNING Merja Bauters, Jukka Purma and Teemu Leinonen

    256

    M-LEARNING AND TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY: ANALYZING BENEFITS

    FOR APPRENTICESHIP Carlos Manuel Pacheco Corts and Adriana Margarita Pacheco Corts

    261

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    DESIGNING A SITE TO EMBED AND TO INTERACT WITH WOLFRAM

    ALPHA WIDGETS IN MATH AND SCIENCES COURSES Francisco Javier Delgado Cepeda and Ruben Dario Santiago Acosta

    266

    AN ENVIRONMENT FOR MOBILE EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING Otto Petrovic, Philipp Babcicky and Philipp Babcicky

    271

    SUPPORTING SITUATED LEARNING BASED ON QR CODES WITH

    ETIQUETAR APP: A PILOT STUDY Miguel Olmedo Camacho, Mar Prez-Sanagustn, Carlos Alario-Hoyos, Xavier Soldani, Carlos Delgado Kloos and Sergio Sayago

    277

    RAISING AWARENESS OF CYBERCRIME - THE USE OF EDUCATION

    AS A MEANS OF PREVENTION AND PROTECTION Julija Lapuh Bele, Maja Dimc, David Rozman and Andreja Sladoje Jemec

    281

    MOBILE GAME FOR LEARNING BACTERIOLOGY Ryo Sugimura, Sotaro Kawazu, Hiroki Tamari, Kodai Watanabe, Yohei Nishimura, Toshiki Oguma, Katsushiro Watanabe, Kosuke Kaneko, Yoshihiro Okada, Motofumi Yoshida, Shigeru Takano and Hitoshi Inoue

    285

    THE THEORY PAPER: WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF MOBILE LEARNING? John Traxler and Marguerite Koole

    289

    RAPID PROTOTYPING OF MOBILE LEARNING GAMES Maija Federley, Timo Sorsa, Janne Paavilainen, Kimo Boissonnier and Anu Seisto

    294

    PREPARING LESSONS, EXERCISES AND TESTS FOR M-LEARNING

    OF IT FUNDAMENTALS S. Djenic, V. Vasiljevic, J. Mitic, V. Petkovic and A. Miletic

    299

    THE MOTIVATING POWER OF SOCIAL OBLIGATION: AN INVESTIGATION

    INTO THE PEDAGOGICAL AFFORDANCES OF MOBILE LEARNING

    INTEGRATED WITH FACEBOOK Nurhasmiza Sazalli, Rupert Wegerif and Judith Kleine-Staarman

    303

    WHEN EVERYONE IS A PROBE, EVERYONE IS A LEARNER Boris Berenfeld, Tatiana Krupa, Arseny Lebedev and Sergey Stafeev

    308

    MOBILE LEARNING AND ART MUSEUMS: A CASE STUDY OF A NEW ART

    INTERPRETATION APPROACH FOR VISITOR ENGAGEMENT THROUGH

    MOBILE MEDIA Victoria Lpez Benito

    313

    LEARNER CENTRIC IN M-LEARNING: INTEGRATION OF SECURITY,

    DEPENDABILITY AND TRUST Sheila Mahalingam, Faizal Mohd Abdollah and Shahrin Sahib

    318

    M-LEARNING PILOT AT SOFIA UNIVERSITY Elissaveta Gourova, Pavlin Dulev, Dessislava Petrova-Antonova and Boyan Bontchev

    323

    A MOBILE SERVICE ORIENTED MULTIPLE OBJECT TRACKING

    AUGMENTED REALITY ARCHITECTURE FOR EDUCATION

    AND LEARNING EXPERIENCES Sasithorn Rattanarungrot, Martin White and Paul Newbury

    327

  • ix

    REFLECTION PAPERS

    LEARNERS ENSEMBLE BASED SECURITY CONCEPTUAL MODEL

    FOR M-LEARNING SYSTEM IN MALAYSIAN HIGHER LEARNING

    INSTITUTION Sheila Mahalingam, Faizal Mohd Abdollah and Shahrin Sahib

    335

    SUPPORTING THE M-LEARNING BASED KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER

    IN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION AND CORPORATE SECTOR Andrs Benedek and Gyrgy Molnr

    339

    POSTER

    THE FUTURE OF UBIQUITOUS ELEARNING Timothy Arndt

    347

    AUTHOR INDEX

  • x

  • xi

    FOREWORD

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 10th

    International Conference on Mobile

    Learning 2014, which was organised by the International Association for Development of

    the Information Society, in Madrid, Spain, 28 February 2 March, 2014.

    The Mobile Learning 2014 International Conference seeks to provide a forum for the

    presentation and discussion of mobile learning research which illustrate developments in

    the field. In particular, but not exclusively, we aim to explore the theme of mobile learning

    under the following topics:

    - Learning analytics and mobile learning

    - Cloud computing and mobile learning

    - Pedagogical approaches, models and theories for mLearning

    - mLearning in and across formal and informal settings

    - Strategies and challenges for integrating mLearning in broader educational scenarios

    - User Studies in mLearning

    - Learner mobility and transitions afforded by mlearning

    - Socio-cultural context and implications of mLearning

    - Mobile social media and user generated content

    - Enabling mLearning technologies, applications and uses

    - Evaluation and assessment of mLearning

    - Research methods, ethics and implementation of mLearning

    - Innovative mLearning approaches

    - Tools, technologies and platforms for mLearning

    - mlearning: where to next and how?

    The Mobile Learning Conference 2014 received 83 submissions from more than 29

    countries. Each submission has been anonymously reviewed by an average of 4

    independent reviewers, to ensure that accepted submissions were of a high standard.

    Consequently only 28 full papers were approved which means an acceptance rate of 15%.

    A few more papers were accepted as short papers, reflection papers and poster. An

    extended version of the best papers will be published in the International Journal of Mobile

    and Blended Learning (ISSN: 1941-8647).

    The Conference, besides the presentation of full papers, short papers, reflection papers and

    poster also included a keynote presentation from an internationally distinguished

    researcher. We would therefore like to express our gratitude to Professor Steve Benford,

    Professor of Collaborative Computing in the Mixed Reality Laboratory at the University of

    Nottingham, UK, for accepting our invitation as keynote speaker. In addition, Mobile

    Learning 2014 features a Panel that is chaired by Nicole M. Kendall, Tennessee State

    University - Nashville, TN, USA and Robbie K. Melton, Tennessee Board of Regents -

    Nashville, TN, USA

  • xii

    A successful conference requires the effort of many individuals. We would like to thank the

    members of the Program Committee for their hard work in reviewing and selecting the

    papers that appear in this book. We are especially grateful to the authors who submitted

    their papers to this conference and to the presenters who provided the substance of the

    meeting. We wish to thank all members of our organizing committee.

    Last but not least, we hope that everybody has enjoyed Madrid and their time with

    colleagues from all over the world, and we invite you all to next edition of the International

    Conference on Mobile Learning in 2015.

    Inmaculada Arnedillo Snchez, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

    Conference Program Chair

    Pedro Isaas, Universidade Aberta (Portuguese Open University), Portugal

    Conference Chair

    Madrid, Spain

    February 2014

  • xi

    FOREWORD

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 10th

    International Conference on Mobile

    Learning 2014, which was organised by the International Association for Development of

    the Information Society, in Madrid, Spain, 28 February 2 March, 2014.

    The Mobile Learning 2014 International Conference seeks to provide a forum for the

    presentation and discussion of mobile learning research which illustrate developments in

    the field. In particular, but not exclusively, we aim to explore the theme of mobile learning

    under the following topics:

    - Learning analytics and mobile learning

    - Cloud computing and mobile learning

    - Pedagogical approaches, models and theories for mLearning

    - mLearning in and across formal and informal settings

    - Strategies and challenges for integrating mLearning in broader educational scenarios

    - User Studies in mLearning

    - Learner mobility and transitions afforded by mlearning

    - Socio-cultural context and implications of mLearning

    - Mobile social media and user generated content

    - Enabling mLearning technologies, applications and uses

    - Evaluation and assessment of mLearning

    - Research methods, ethics and implementation of mLearning

    - Innovative mLearning approaches

    - Tools, technologies and platforms for mLearning

    - mlearning: where to next and how?

    The Mobile Learning Conference 2014 received 128 submissions from more than 29

    countries. Each submission has been anonymously reviewed by an average of 4

    independent reviewers, to ensure that accepted submissions were of a high standard.

    Consequently only 28 full papers were approved which means an acceptance rate of 22%.

    A few more papers were accepted as short papers, reflection papers and a poster. An

    extended version of the best papers will be published in the International Journal of Mobile

    and Blended Learning (ISSN: 1941-8647).

    The Conference, besides the presentation of full papers, short papers, reflection papers and

    a poster also included a keynote presentation from an internationally distinguished

    researcher. We would therefore like to express our gratitude to Professor Steve Benford,

    Professor of Collaborative Computing in the Mixed Reality Laboratory at the University of

    Nottingham, UK, for accepting our invitation as keynote speaker. In addition, Mobile

    Learning 2014 features a Panel that is chaired by Nicole M. Kendall, Tennessee State

    University - Nashville, TN, USA and Robbie K. Melton, Tennessee Board of Regents -

    Nashville, TN, USA

  • xii

    A successful conference requires the effort of many individuals. We would like to thank the

    members of the Program Committee for their hard work in reviewing and selecting the

    papers that appear in this book. We are especially grateful to the authors who submitted

    their papers to this conference and to the presenters who provided the substance of the

    meeting. We wish to thank all members of our organizing committee.

    Last but not least, we hope that everybody has enjoyed Madrid and their time with

    colleagues from all over the world, and we invite you all to next edition of the International

    Conference on Mobile Learning in 2015.

    Inmaculada Arnedillo Snchez, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

    Conference Program Chair

    Pedro Isaas, Universidade Aberta (Portuguese Open University), Portugal

    Conference Chair

    Madrid, Spain

    February 2014

  • xiii

    PROGRAM COMMITTEE

    PROGRAM CHAIR

    Inmaculada Arnedillo Snchez, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

    CONFERENCE CHAIR

    Pedro Isaas, Universidade Aberta (Portuguese Open University), Portugal

    COMMITTEE MEMBERS

    Abeer Alnuaim, University Of The West Of England Uwe Bristol, United Kingdom

    Adamantios Koumpis, Altec Software S.A., Greece

    Agostino Marengo, University Of Bari, Italy

    Alessandro Caforio, UNINETTUNO University, Italy

    Alessandro Pagano, University Of Bari, Italy

    Alessio Barbone, University Of Bari, Italy

    Alex Voychenko, Irtc, Ukraine

    Anastasios Economides, University Of Macedonia, Greece

    Anastasios Karakostas, Aristotle University, Greece

    Anastopoulou Stamatina, Systems and Products Design, University of the Aeg, Greece

    Andrea Pozzali, European University of Rome, Italy

    Andreas P. Schmidt, Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Germany

    Angelos Michalas, TEI of Western Macedonia, Greece

    Anna Ficarella, La Sapienza University, Italy

    Anna Riccioni, University Of Bologna, Italy

    Antoanela Naaji, Vasile Goldis Western University, Romania

    Antonio Panaggio, Ministry Of Education, Italy

    Balsam Alsugair, The Open University, United Kingdom

    Beat Doebeli Honegger, Schwyz University of Teacher Education, Switzerland

    Boriss F. Misnevs, Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Latvia

    Bren Taylor, Service Birmingham, United Kingdom

    Brendan Tangney, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

    Carl Smith, London Metropolitan University, United Kingdom

    Carmen Holotescu, Politehnica University Of Timisoara, Romania

    Cathleen Norris, University Of North Texas, Usa

    Charalampos Karagiannidis, University of Thessaly, Greece

    Charles Jennings, Learning & Performance Consultant, United Kingdom

    Chengjiu Yin, Kyushu University, Japan

    Chiara Rossitto, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV, Sweden

  • xiv

    Chiu-kuo Liang, Chunghua University, Taiwan

    Christoph Richter, Christian-Albrechts-Universitt zu Kiel, Germany

    Christos Bouras, University Of Patras, Greece

    Claire Bradley, Freelance Mlearning / Elearning Consultant, Spain

    Clark Quinn, Quinnovation, United States

    Claudia Steinberger, University Of Klagenfurt, Austria

    Cristina Muntean Hava, National College Of Ireland, Ireland

    Daniel Churchill, Hong Kong University, Hong Kong

    David Metcalf, University Of Central Florida, Usa

    Demetrios Sampson, University Of Pireaus, Greece

    Dick Davies, Ambient Performance, United Kingdom

    Dumitru Burdescu, University Of Craiova, Romania

    Elia Tomadaki, Velti S.A., Greece

    Elizabeth Fitzgerald, The Open University, United Kingdom

    Emad Bataineh, Zayed University, United Arab Emirates

    Erik Duval, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium

    Euripides Loukis, University Of the Aegean, Greece

    Fotis Liarokapis, Coventry University, United Kingdom

    Franz Lehner, University Of Passau, Germany

    George Magoulas, Birbeck College, United Kingdom

    Giasemi Vavoula, University Of Leicester, United Kingdom

    Giuliana Dettori, ITD-CNR, Italy

    Gwo-Jen Hwang, National Taiwan University Of Science and Technolo, Taiwan

    Hannu-Matti Jarvinen, Tampere University Of Technology, Finland

    Harald Kosch, University of Passau, Germany

    Helen Farley, University Of Southern Queensland, Australia

    Herman Van Der Merwe, North-West University, South Africa

    Hsien-sheng Hsiao, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan

    Inge de Waard, The Open University, United Kingdom

    Ingo Dahn, University Of Koblenz-landau, Germany

    Ioannis Anagnostopoulos, University of Thessaly, Greece

    Ivana Marenzi, University Of Hanover, Germany

    Jane Sinclair, University Of Warwick, United Kingdom

    Jekaterina Bule, Riga Technical University, Latvia

    Jia-sheng Heh, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taiwan

    Jie-Chi Yang, National Central University, Taiwan

    Jirarat Sitthiworachart, Walailak University, Thailand

    Jo Dugstad Wake, InterMedia, Uni Health, Uni Research, Norway

    Jocelyn Wishart, University Of Bristol, United Kingdom

    Jorge Couchet, Uned, Spain

    Jozef Hvorecky, Vysoka Skola Manazmentu, Slovakia

    Juan Manuel Santos-Gago, University of Vigo, Spain

    Judith Seipold, London Mobile Learning Group (LMLG), United Kingdom

    Judy Brown, Advanced Distributed Learning, United States

    Jun-Ming Su, National University of Tainan, Taiwan

  • xv

    Kateryna Synytsya, Irtc Its, Ukraine

    Konstantinos Tarabanis, University Of Macedonia, Greece

    Kris Isaacson, University Of Minnesota, Usa

    Kuo-liang Ou, National Hsin-chu University Of Education, Taiwan

    Lam-for Kwok, City University Of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

    Larissa Zaitseva, Riga Technical University, Latvia

    Louise Mifsud, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sc, Norway

    Luis Anido-rifon, University Of Vigo, Spain

    Lyn Pemberton, University Of Brighton, United Kingdom

    Maiga Chang, Athabasca University, Canada

    Malamati Louta, University of Western Macedonia, Greece

    Marcus Specht, Open University Of The Netherlands, Netherlands

    Marguerite Koole, Athabasca University, Canada

    Maria Helena Braz, Technical University Of Lisbon, Portugal

    Maria Uther, University of Winchester, United Kingdom

    Marina Rui, University Of Genova, Italy

    Mario Vacca, La Sapienza - University Of Rome, Italy

    Markus Rohde, University Of Siegen, Germany

    Martin Memmel, German Research Center For Artificial Intelligence, Germany

    Michael Beigl, Karlsruhe Institute Of Technology (kit), Germany

    Michele Notari, University of Teacher Education Bern, Switzerland

    Michelle Pieri, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy

    Mike Joy, University Of Warwick, United Kingdom

    Milan Turcani, Constantine The Philosopher University In Nitra, Slovakia

    Monica Divitini, Norwegian University Of Science And Technology, Norway

    Moushir M. El-Bishouty, Athabasca University, Canada

    Mudasser Wyne, National University, United States

    Naif Aljohani, University Of Southampton, United Kingdom

    Nicola Doering, Ilmenau University Of Technology, Germany

    Nicolaos Protogeros, University Of Macedonia, Greece

    Nigel Paine, Napier University, United Kingdom

    Oleksiy Voychenko, International Research And Training Center (irtc), Ukraine

    Otto Petrovic, University Of Graz, Austria

    Paul Hayes, National College Of Ireland, Ireland

    Petra Poulova, University Of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic

    Phelim Murnion, Galway-Mayo Institute Of Technology, Ireland

    Phillip Benachour, Lancaster University, United Kingdom

    Pramod Pathak, National College Of Ireland, Ireland

    Qing Tan, Athabasca University, Canada

    Raffaella Guida, University Of Surrey, United Kingdom

    Raquel Trillo Lado, University Of Zaragoza, Spain

    Rebecca Hogue, University Of Ottawa, Canada

    Roberto Bernazzani, Universita Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Italy

    Roza Dumbraveanu, State Pedagogical University "i.creanga", Republic Of Moldova

    Sanaz Fallahkhair, University Of Portsmouth, United Kingdom

  • xvi

    Sarah Mount, University Of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom

    Sean Siqueira, Federal University of the State of Rio De Janeiro , Brazil

    Sergio Ilarri, University Of Zaragoza, Spain

    Shen Ruimin, Shanghai Jaitong University, China

    Shenguan Yu, Beijing Normal University, China

    Stella Lee, University of Hertfordshire, Canada

    Stephen McNeill, Kennesaw State University, USA

    Stephen White, The University Of Huddersfield, United Kingdom

    Surya Bahadur Kathayat, Norwegian University Of Science And Technology, Norway

    Tamara Powell, Kennesaw State University, USA

    Teresa Cerratto-pargman, Stockholm University, Sweden

    Thierry Delot, University Of Valenciennes, France

    Thrasyvoulos Tsiatsos, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Tomayess Issa, Curtin University, Perth, Australia

    Tzung-shi Chen, National University of Tainan, Taiwan

    Vaggelis Kapoulas, Computer Technology Institute And Press Diophantus, Greece

    Vjaceslavs Sitikovs, Riga Technical University, Latvia

    Werner Beuschel, IBAW, Germany

    Yannis P. Psaromiligkos, Technological Education Institute Of Piraeus, Greece

    Yuan-kai Wang, Fu Jen University, Taiwan

  • LEARNING AND TEACHING WITH MOBILE DEVICES AN

    APPROACH IN SECONDARY EDUCATION IN GHANA

    Margarete Grimus and Martin Ebner Institute for Information Systems Computer Media, Graz University of Technology, Austria

    ABSTRACT

    While many developing nations find Internet-based e-learning unsuitable for their needs (lack of technology as well as of

    accessibility), mobile learning methods specifically those involving the use of mobile-phones for both formal and

    informal learning hold great promise for them (Grimus et al, 2013b). This article examines the chances and challenges

    of the use of mobile devices to support improvement and transformation of education in a Senior High School in Ghana.

    It draws attention to the local situation in a field-study looking at infrastructure, development of material and support. A

    model for teacher training was designed to facilitate teachers attitudes and abilities for implementation of mobile

    learning. The article figures out how mobile devices can be integrated in learning and teaching on the specific

    background of a school in Ghana. Based on our results we conclude that teachers and students want to use mobile devices

    in learning. Their perceptions are positive and they developed courses for specific subjects available for eReaders and

    mobile phones. The results and feedback from two workshops encourage us to propose this model as an example for

    integration of mobile devices for learning in other regions of Sub Sahara Africa.

    KEYWORDS

    Mobile devices, didactic potential, content-creation for small screens, collaborative learning.

    1. INTRODUCTION

    Although the education system in Ghana has witnessed various policy reforms with the aim of ensuring

    universal access to improved quality education for all children it is evident that progress towards the

    implementation of ICT in education in Ghana has been slow for several reasons, e.g. high cost of information

    and communication infrastructure, lack of technical expertise (UNESCO 2012, Grimus et al, 2013a) There is

    growing concern in Africa about the use of computers to support learning, but the general state of

    pedagogical integration of ICTs in Ghana is low (Yianda, 2010) Computers and mobile technologies are

    revolutionizing what we know and how we know it, and hence what we learn and how we can learn it we

    should however be careful not to obscure the nuances and differences between individual devices and

    technologies and the various ways in which different cultures and societies adopt and adapt them. (Traxler,

    2010, p.15) Traxler points out that ethics, behavior, fashion and language are expressions of identity,

    community and nature and the use of mobile devices has therewith an increasing impact with implications for

    the working of education institutions. (Traxler, 2010, p.9) The general idea of the study is to explore how secondary education in Ghana can benefit from new

    developments in mobile technologies together with new didactical approaches. (Huber, 2012) A research project was designed to help teachers at Senior High Technical School in Ghana to use ICT for professional development (1st workshop) and to develop content for mobile learning with teachers and students in a follow-up event (2nd workshop). The aim is to provide students a possibility to access learning material on their own mobile phones whenever they demand it and to produce content particular to local demands. Mobile phones use a small screen and are limited as an input medium. This makes structuring content even more important (Huber and Ebner, 2013). Delivering knowledge chunked means that content is structured and connected in very different ways from common lectures and books. (Traxler, 2010, p. 14)

    The project is designed on small scale, based on the environment and specific needs of the school in Keta. It runs without external funds, but has a strong focus on the practicability in the field. The overall research goal is to develop a model for integration of mobile devices at Keta Senior High Technical School in Ghana,to empower teachers to activate similar adoption in other schools.

    ISBN: 978-989-8704-02-3 2014 IADIS

    66

  • 2. METHODOLOGY

    Objectives of the research: The study tries to carry out on-site conditions for using mobile technologies for

    teaching and learning in Ghana. The major research questions are defined as following:

    1. How can mobile learning strategies be implemented in the field?

    2. How can this experiences help for further strategies on learning and teaching in Sub Sahara Africa

    (SSA)

    Therefore the study looks in particular to following areas:

    How can teachers contribute to implement mobile learning?

    Preconditions and necessities to be addressed to enable mobile learning.

    Can access to digital content be improved by using mobile phones?

    Research Methods: The research work was conducted as an on-site field study with qualitative interviews

    and quantitative questionnaires, carried out during two workshops (September 2012 and 2013) for teacher-

    training in Keta, Ghana, at Senior High Technical School (KETASCO, http://ketasco.com/). Data collection

    was executed in two cycles (anonymously).

    Online-surveys: In September 2012 only teachers from Keta region participated, in September 2013

    teachers and students from the school took part.

    Post-workshop-feedback (surveys after both workshops).

    3. RESEARCH STUDY

    The school is expelled in rankings for a high standard of education, looks back to a long tradition, and is

    participating in different competitions in the country (e.g. sports, robotics). The campus (boarding school) is

    situated close to the sea and Keta Lagoon in the south of Ghana, hosting a Junior and a Senior High

    Technical Secondary School (SHSS) with about 2.800 students and 101 teachers. Each class holds about 40-

    60 students. Most of the students of SHSS, aged 15-20 years, live at the campus, so do many of the teachers,

    which provides the chance of informal contact of students and teachers besides school time.

    From a technical perspective there is one computer-lab (about 15 PCs, WLAN and a projector) with MS

    Windows as operating system and MS-Office on board. Internet is only available in the computer lab and the

    bandwidth is low, which causes problems when more persons try to connect to the Internet at the same time;

    the connection is unstable.

    3.1 Research Study 1: Basic ICT-Skills for Teachers- Digital Literacy for 21st

    Century

    The 1st Workshop was scheduled for two weeks at the end of school vacation in September 2012 (10 days, 50

    hours). At that time final exams are finished, teachers are available without competing lectures. A

    government program was put into place just few months ago, where teachers were given laptops for free; the

    timing fit nicely with the project.

    Aims of the workshop: The main objective of the workshop was to equip teachers with computer and

    Internet-skills to integrate digital media in teaching and therewith to support the learning and teaching

    process. New didactical approaches and methods should be developed, adequate to environment and culture

    of the region, as well as learning material for this purpose. The workshop addressed the use of digital

    technology and communication tools in teaching, pedagogical aspects, and to enhance personal skills in

    digital literacy. The course focused on motivating teachers to explore new methods in using office-tools, e.g.

    presentations: structuring text, visualization by integration of images, diagrams and tables, to explain facts

    offered otherwise mainly in textbooks and photocopies, or even only available in one book on the table of the

    teacher.

    Topics of the workshop:

    Pedagogy and didactics: How to enhance teaching and learning by using ICT for preparation and in class

    teaching. Integration of collaborative learning by using digital devices in subject-teaching.

    Computer- and Internet-skills to develop learning materials, presentations, assessments.

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  • Integration of presentations in class-teaching: layout of worksheets and posters (structure, integration of

    tables and images), spreadsheets (visualizing data in diagrams).

    Evaluation of open online resources (OER)

    Link-lists for self-conducted learning

    Development of a digital portfolio as an example to recap learning outcomes.

    Participants: The workshop was designed to take 15 teachers who are encouraged to pass their learned

    skills on to students and colleagues afterwards. For registration the teachers completed a pre-training survey

    (basic computer-skills, subject of teaching, expectations of the training). Teachers of KETASCO were

    addressed as the main target audience, finally few teachers from other schools participated. Two thirds of the

    teachers used their personal laptops, half of them were the donations of the above mentioned free laptop for

    teachers project.

    3.2 Research Study 2: Teach to Learn Learn to Teach. Integration of

    Mobile Devices to Improve Learning Outcomes

    The outcome of the first workshop together with the discussions at the ministry of education for further

    developments in education in Ghana ended up in the decision to continue the project with a follow-up

    workshop. For the second workshop a better infrastructure was proposed. An extension of the course should

    allow more time for individual projects and practice. The 2nd

    Workshop was scheduled with duration of three

    weeks in September 2013, 60 hours course-lessons and additional guided practice: 10 days teacher training, 5

    days (third week) students and teachers work together; practical issues.

    The workshop focused on learning and teaching with integration of mobile devices, addressing the

    development of digital content and guidelines for best practice. Mobile devices affect many aspects of the

    process by which knowledge, ideas, images, information and hence learning are produced, stored, distributed,

    delivered and consumed. (Traxler, 2010, p.13) Low cost and affordable mobile phones in Africa are

    developing a new conduit for learning. Instructional design suitable for desktop computers does not transfer

    well to mobile phones. (Batchelor, Botha, 2009) To elaborate on a topic a deeper insight may be gained by

    creation of micro-content, e.g. adjusting material which is available online or in books for local demands,

    integrating images, figures and graphs. Ethics and cultural aspects gained during the first workshops were

    considered.

    Aims of the workshop: Teachers integrate learning with mobile devices at Senior Technical High School

    to improve learning outcomes. With regard to the didactic and pedagogical potential the creation of digital

    portfolios, presentations and content-chunks leads to self-directed learning, learning by doing and by

    experiences. Teachers are encouraged to transfer their new didactic/pedagogic insights to students and

    colleagues. This can shift teaching methods to more efficiency in knowledge-achievement and learning.

    Topics of the workshop:

    Didactical methods: Evaluation of digital learning material e.g. Open Content, OER; Licenses; Creative

    Commons; Simple English Wikipedia, etc. and possibilities for integration in teaching.

    Creation of locally relevant digitized content for subject-teaching; upload of micro-content (epub, pdf) to

    mobile phones.

    Integration of collaborative mobile learning methods: Cloud (drop-box) for micro-content development,

    feedback and reviews.

    Hands on: Development of a personal digital portfolio; specific tools, e.g. ABC platform for

    transformation of content into eBooks: https://ebook.tugraz.at/ (Nagler et al., 2012), test of output with

    mobile phones (NOKIA E5-00) and eReader; peer-review.

    Guidelines: Best practice mobile devices for learning.

    Participants: 20 teachers from KETASCO registered for the course (basic computer and MS-Office-skills

    were requested, a personal laptop appreciated), in the third week additional 13 students participated fulltime,

    while 5 teachers had left the course. A student of KETASCO assisted in technical and organizational aspects,

    his support was highly appreciated and contributed to the success of the workshop.

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  • 4. RESULTS

    4.1 General Results

    Pedagogy: Different methods of pedagogy in class teaching (Ghana / Europe) were figured out. In Ghana

    methods of teaching are dominantly frontal; memorization of text is common practice. Even in SHSS ICT is

    only taught in specific ICT-classes, tests in ICT are carried out in paper writing. The results of the online-

    surveys during the two workshops indicated that mobile technologies and digital devices are rarely used in

    educational context so far.

    It can be pointed out that teachers highly appreciated methods of group work and cooperation, which they

    experienced during the workshops (see feedback of the workshops in 4.2 and 4.3). Peer-review and different

    modes of interaction were also introduced in the courses.

    Infrastructure: Frequent power outage impairs the work in the computer-lab (PCs and router).

    Online Survey: With regard to the online-surveys it has to be mentioned that in September 2012 only

    teachers participated in the survey, while in 2013 teachers and students were encouraged to participate.

    Although the numbers are low the percentage is given in addition, to allow easier comparison of the results in

    the specific groups. In table 1 and table 2 data of ownership and types of different devices are figured out.

    Table 1. Which of these devices do you own?

    Teachers 2012 Teachers 2013 Students 2013

    Ownership n =36 n=18 n=43

    Mobile phone 31 86% 17 94% 40 93%

    Computer (desktop or tower) 20 56% 9 50% 13 30%

    Laptop or Netbook 27 70% 12 67% 15 35%

    Tablet 5 14% 2 11% 2 5%

    Digital Camera/Video 14 39% 4 22% 5 12%

    Other (Kindle, iPod) 2 6% 3 17% 4 9%

    Table 2. Which type of mobile phone do you have?

    Teachers 2012 Teachers 2013 Students 2013

    Type of mobile phone n =31 n=17 n=40

    Smart-phone 15 48% 8 47% 15 38%

    Feature-phone 4 13% 2 12% 9 23%

    Common (basic) mobile phone 12 39% 7 41% 13 33%

    Dont know 0 0% 0 0% 3 8%

    As it is seen in table 1 and 2 there is only a slight difference in the data of teachers in year 2012 and 2013.

    While ownership of mobile phones of teachers and students show nearly similar high rates there is a

    considerable difference with regard to the ownership of computers and laptops or notebooks. Furthermore it

    is from interest that only seven teachers (56 in total) do not own a computer or laptop, compared to another

    ten having at least more than one. In contrast only about one third of the students own a computer, another

    third a laptop. It is definitely possible for the majority of teachers to develop content with a computer or

    laptop, while most of the students have access to it when it is available on mobile phones. Mobile devices

    allow to access content even during power-outages. Table 3 shows teachers and students possibilities of

    Internet access with mobile phones.

    Table 3. Do you have Internet access with your mobile phone?

    Teachers 2012 Teachers 2013 Teachers total Students 2013

    Availability of Internet-asccess n =31 n=17 n =48 n=40

    Yes, always 24 77% 11 65% 35 73% 31 77%

    Yes, but only when Wi-Fi is available 4 13% 2 12% 6 12% 4 10%

    No, cant access the Internet 3 10% 4 24% 7 15% 5 13%

    In table 3 a difference to access the Internet with mobile phones can be pointed out only in the small

    group of teachers in September 2013. This may be due to the small number of the sample, but looking at the

    total numbers of teachers and students no significant difference can be figured out: 85 % of teachers and 87

    % of students can access online content at least when Wi-Fi is available.

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  • 4.2 Research Study Workshop 1

    Outcome: The first workshop addressed basic ICT literacy with a focus on pedagogy. Although the

    participants had answered a pre-questionnaire with regard to ICT skills it turned out that this ranged from

    difficulties in saving a file to basic skills in video-editing; most common was text-processing and use of

    Facebook. Few teachers expressed the use of www for preparation of their lessons to some extent. All

    teachers used mobile phones for phone-calls, although most of them could access mobile Internet only few

    used it. As a possible reason was figured out that less than a third were familiar with basic Internet skills. It

    was difficult for them to create a portfolio, to extract keywords from a presentation or to formulate short

    statements on ICT related topics with own words. Finally 14 teachers fulfilled the requirements (course-

    attendance, portfolio, worksheets and presentations) and received a certificate for successful completion.

    The course-feedback was targeted to how the workshop changed teachers views of teaching in

    classroom practice. They were asked to review on how they have benefited by improving ICT-skills and

    didactical methods. Unfortunately a virus-attack followed by power-outage did not allow saving the

    feedbacks on pen-drives, only three of private laptops could be received. Some statements with regard on

    teaching are given as examples: can offer better guidance to my students and on how to use search

    engines and ICT tools more effectively, integrate the new skills in subsequent teaching: how to produce

    better documents in Word, Powerpoint and Excel to meet professional standards and to improve learning

    outcomes, the use of digital literacy methods in teaching would have positive impact on the cognitive and

    affective domains of the learners.

    In a follow-up online survey concerns of teachers perceptions towards future developments for learning

    with integration of mobile devices were requested. A five-point Likert-Scale is preferred for the reactions of

    the perception in the research. For each of the statements there is an obligation to be classified with one of

    the five categories: I strongly agree / I agree / neutral / I do not agree / I strongly disagree. The answers

    gathered were graded between 1 and 5 points, giving five points to category I strongly agree and one point

    to the category I strongly disagree. The average gives an overall perception of the item specified.

    In table 4 teachers perception of having material available on an own mobile device are given, on similar

    questions for teachers (T) and students (St): Would you agree that having course material available on your

    mobile device would be beneficial for teaching? (T) ..would be beneficial for the learning process?(St)

    Table 4. Comparison: Teachers and students perceptions of course material available on mobile devices.

    I strongly disagree I disagree neutral I agree I strongly agree Answers total Course material

    Average

    T St T St T St T St T St T St T St

    1 0 0 2 1 3 8 14 19 12 29 31 Slides 4.52 4.16

    1 0 0 0 3 2 5 16 19 13 28 31 Lecture Notes 4.46 4.35

    1 1 0 3 3 3 9 11 15 11 28 29 Quizzes 4.32 3.97

    1 0 0 1 2 1 9 16 15 10 27 28 Link-List 4,37 4,25

    1 0 0 1 4 2 8 14 16 13 29 30 eBooks 4.31 4.30

    The findings can be interpreted that both, teachers perceptions (average 4.4 points) as well as students

    (average 4.2 points) towards availability of different course material on mobile devices are highly positive.

    The result shows clearly that banning mobiles at school which is common state cannot be a realistic long-

    term solution.

    Challenges: Infrastructure and equipment in the computer-lab did not meet the expected requirements:

    Frequent power-outages and lack of Internet-connection heavily affected the workshop. This was also the

    mostly complained issue by the participants. The PCs were not well maintained and full of viruses; due to

    disconnection of the Internet no updates were possible. Hence the proposed topic Basic Internet-skills and

    best-practice Internet for learning and teaching could not be performed to the extent as planned: It was not

    possible to address main topics of the course-curriculum without Internet, thus some of the proposed

    activities had to be cancelled (evaluation of OER with regard to local demands; upload of micro-content;

    installation of free software).

    After the workshop a meeting was held at the Ministry of Education in Accra with a delegate of the

    ministry, the headmaster and two teachers. The outcome of the workshop was discussed and a continuation of

    the project was proposed. Support of service and substantial improvements with Internet-connectivity were

    promised for the follow-up workshop, installation of solar-power and improvement of Wi-Fi-connectivity

    were discussed.

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  • 4.3 Research Study Workshop 2

    The second workshop focused on preparing teachers to understand how mobile technologies can be

    incorporated effectively into teaching and support students learning. To overcome the challenges recognized

    in the first workshop the second workshop was developed to focus on learning and teaching strongly by

    integration of mobile devices. In the second workshop it was recognized that a lot had changed in teaching

    after the first workshop: Teachers were more open-minded to new teaching methods.

    For testing 20 mobile phones (second hand Nokia E5-00 smart-phones, 256k display colours, 10 days

    standby, Micro-SDHC 2GB included inbox) and 5 eReader (TrekSTor E-Book Reader Pyrus mini, 4,3

    Digital Ink) were brought from Europe, together with an additional WLAN router to support mobile Internet

    access.

    Outcome: Based on the experience (power-outages) during the first phase of the workshop the need of

    flexibility in planning lessons was clearly recognized. Teachers were open-minded to learn about benefits

    and practiced new didactical approaches by using mobile devices.

    In order to rethink methods of learning and teaching the following thesis was proposed: In five years all

    textbooks in Ghanaian Senior High Secondary Schools (SHSS) are provided as eBooks. Discuss in groups

    (2-3 teachers) possible consequences for a) teaching, b) learning, c) schools! The outcome was presented as

    posters on paper, due to power-outage at the time.

    Students were introduced by teachers in creating a digital portfolio and use of a drop-box. The importance

    of development of guidelines by teachers together with students was clearly identified.

    A final (anonymous) evaluation on three main issues, executed by four external examiners (teachers from

    other SHSS), approved the success of the course, the quality of the material developed, and gave positive

    feedback to the participants.

    Teachers portfolios: Assessment on the quality of reports, structure, achieved learning outcomes,

    keywords, take-home-statements and summary.

    Course-units developed by teachers and students (small groups, 1-2 teachers+ 1-2 students); specific

    topics, available on mobile devices. Assessment of course-structure, -design, appropriate for small

    screens, patterns of visualization, e.g. images.

    Guidelines Best Practice-Posters. Assessment checked on completeness.

    Courses were developed on the topics Classification of Computer Hardware, Adolescence Pregnancy,

    Atomic Bonds, Adolescence Chastity, Projectiles, Projectiles, English Nouns, Law of Agency, Elements of

    Design, Demand, SET Theory, just to name some. The screenshots below can give an idea of the eBooks.

    Image 1 illustrates the structure of a course-unit on the topic Classification of Computer Hardware and

    shows the associated task. In image 2 the learning objectives of the course-topic Atom Physics are

    displayed.

    Image 1.

    eBook :Classification of

    Computer Hardware.

    Image 2. eBook: Basics of

    Atom Physics.

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  • The course-feed-back to included 13 items for students and 15 for teachers. It was planned as online-

    survey, but due to power-outage it was conducted on paper. In table 5 examples of answers to open questions

    are given.

    Table 5. Specific issues were questioned, answers of students and teachers.

    Teachers (n=12) Students (n=13)

    Comments: Benefits

    Ten teachers reported new ideas for teaching; appreciate the practical part

    and activities, teamwork; appreciated working together with students;

    benefits for learning by integrating what I have learned in the workshop.

    learnt that I can use my mobile phone for more than just for gaming;

    realized that I can do much more with my mobile; makes learning easier;

    can get more information on my own without having to contact my

    teacher; easier sharing information with friends and teachers; read

    eBooks. aids my study-plan, getting information quick.

    Comments: Challenges

    poor Wi-Fi availability, devices and Internet-connectivity costs; lack

    of mobile devices and infrastructure ; students are not allowed to bring

    mobile phones to class.

    mobile devices at school are not allowed (5 x), disruptive attention in

    class, rules need to be changed.

    Individual knowledge of how can mobile devices benefit in teaching and support students learning

    Before / after workshop: poor 4/ 0, fair 4/ 0, good 4/ 8, excellent 0/ 4. Before / after workshop: poor 3/ 0, fair 9/ 0, good 1/ 4, excellent 0/ 9.

    Comments: Like best

    practical aspect, hands on; new methods of learning and teaching;

    interactive nature of the workshop/ group work.

    built new student-teacher- relationship; practical aspects; creating own

    content and presentations.

    Free comments

    program should keep running; opened my eyes to new ideas of teaching;

    enhances teaching; teachers need regularly continued professional

    development; necessary for 21st century teachers, need more of it.

    Students expressed high appreciation of co-working with their teachers and

    creation of content and presentations together.

    Comments to like least, teachers and students: frequent power outages, Internet disconnection

    Teachers were asked about their knowledge of pedagogical and didactical methods to integrate mobile

    devices in teaching and learning before and after the workshop: Results: poor 2/ 0, fair 6/ 1, good 3/ 6,

    excellent 1/ 5.

    In the online survey (September 2013) concerns of teachers and students awareness and perception of

    learning and teaching with mobile devices were questioned. Two teachers and six students reported the use of

    free mobile content available on mobile devices, while 13 (72%) teachers and 25(58%) students havent

    used it, but would like to do so. A similar question as in workshop 1 (Table 4) addressed preferences for

    different types of material for mobile devices: Do you agree that having course material available on your

    mobile device would be beneficial for teaching? (teachers, T), .for learning? (students, St). The outcome

    is similar to the results of the previous year and indicates that all items are highly appreciated (all >4 points,

    max. 5): Slides are rated with 4.6 points (T) and 4.2 (St); Lecture Notes: 4.6 (T), 4.3 (St); Quizzes: 4.2 (T and

    St), Link-List: 4.3 (T), 4.2 (St); eBooks: 4.4 (T and St). For details of the evaluation-method see online-

    survey in workshop 1.

    The requirements for the final certificate of the workshop included fulltime participation in the workshop,

    a digital portfolio and course-content on a topic of the curriculum of the subject taught at school, available on

    a mobile-phone and eBook. Finally 14 certificates were handed over to teachers by the headmaster in the

    general assembly during the opening ceremony, together with awards for the best three in each category:

    course-content, portfolio, guidelines for best-practice.

    Challenges: The most unpleasant experience was the frequent power-outages and the restricted

    bandwidth (Wi-Fi). It caused timeouts and uncountable restarts, e.g. uploads to the ABC-system (online-

    system for developing courses and convert them to eBooks). Although mobile Internet was installed the

    connection did not supply sufficient performance necessary for working in parallel groups (Huber et al.,

    2008).

    5. DISCUSSION

    While computer-labs and desktop-computers are scarce in schools in developing countries mobile networks,

    mobile phones and now smart-phones have the potential to question new approaches to learning and teaching

    (Traxler, 2011). Mobile penetration compensates the lack of infrastructure, which offers the chance to

    provide on- and off-line content for learning and knowledge-creation, accessible with mobile devices.

    Infrastructure: In contrast to Europe ownership of a laptop or computer is not common with students in

    Higher Secondary Schools, while mobile-phones are predominant (chapter 4.1, table 1). Frequent power-

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  • outages challenge learning-activities with computers. Internet in public schools is not usual, and if, it is only

    accessible in the computer-lab. Low bandwidth challenges teamwork in groups with timeouts in addition to

    power-outages. To avoid the problems by converting content to eBooks online, offline tools need to be

    installed.

    Benefits: Incorporating students to create digital content together with their teachers has shown positive

    aspects with creative ideas in structuring content in chunks for mobile devices. A drop-box was appreciated

    and frequently used as a tool for exchange and feedback. It is recommended to download content to inbox-

    SD Cards; Micro SD Cards in eBooks and smart-phones can hold a lot of content, hence learning material is

    available on mobile devices anytime. Mobile phones and eReader provide the opportunity to access content

    with mobile Internet or Wi-Fi in times of power off for a couple of days, while laptops have limitations due

    to the battery-life. It allows learning in the evenings, when students come together in their classes, without

    teachers, for individual learning in peer groups. A local mobile network could help with downloads to

    students devices.

    Pedagogy: In his publication at the conference on digital future Traxler pointed out that mobile devices

    will soon support every pedagogic option including the didactic and the discursive, the individual learning

    and the social. (Traxler, 2010) Frequent power outages require high flexibility - to switch suddenly from

    online research to tasks without computer/ Internet-access. At the same time it offers chances for more

    interactivity and group-work, for discussions and alternative tasks, even to get out of a class, take a photo

    with the mobile phone, relevant for the topic discussed or with respect to the local environment, and present

    it later to the audience.

    To engage students in learning together with their teachers was experienced in the second workshop.

    Together they became familiar with creating digital portfolios and developing content for specific local

    demands, using a drop-box for cooperation and feedback. The courses created are contextualized and

    culturally sensitive. Students as well as teachers expressed high appreciation of co-working and inspiring

    interactions, which led to rethink the common tracks of learning and teaching.

    Guidelines - Best practice: Schools worldwide have traditionally banned mobile phones in the classroom.

    According to the findings in the surveys it can be concluded that teachers perceptions of integration of

    mobile devices for learning are positive. In the workshop they experienced benefits and challenges together

    with students and developed guidelines for good practice using mobile devices for learning. The second

    workshop led to a better understanding of the issue than theoretical statements. A similar acceptance was

    found in the interview with the headmaster. In the opening ceremony of the new term the headmaster

    reported to all students and teachers about new trends coming up in education. He pointed out that this could

    help to become more critical thinkers, referred to new didactical methods and benefits by integrating mobile

    devices in learning and teaching. He proposed a reform of guidelines for use of mobile devices (mobile

    phones and eBooks) at school.

    6. CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK

    The project in Ghana is on small scale and looks to develop a model for integration of new methods of

    learning and teaching with mobile devices. It was put in place to receive feedback on achievements and

    failures. The research provides first findings about teachers perceptions towards activities using mobile

    devices in Ghana. Infrastructure and organizational aspects, chances and challenges were experienced in real

    environment. Main issues of the research were infrastructure, topics and content of workshops on teachers

    professional development as a starting point for changes in education for the 21st century, where mobile

    devices play an important role in daily life and influence rethinking of methods and didactics of teaching.

    Content copied at school to Micro SD Cards integrated in mobile devices can help to avoid high costs for

    data access with mobile Internet. Although mobile Internet is slow and has low bandwidth mobile devices

    can be used to access content in clouds and during power outage.

    We can conclude that teachers and students want to use mobile devices for learning. The perceptions are

    positive. Digital skills as well as didactical methods, necessary for developing content, were addressed, and

    as reported in the feedback, it can be resumed that the strategies were successful. The results can help to

    improve delivery of teacher- training and implementation of similar strategies in other schools in the region.

    Teachers are highly motivated to continue and build up a trainee group at school. At the time of writing a

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  • group of students has started with development of micro-content for mobile devices. They are tutored by the

    assistant, who supported the 2nd

    workshop and who is in close online contact with the course-leader. Together

    we will try to close the gap between the course in 2013 and the follow-up course in 2014.

    The experiences from two workshops encourage us to propose this model as an example for integration in

    other regions of Sub Sahara Africa with similar environment and infrastructure, and where similar challenges

    can be determined. Teamwork with students offered new insights as well for teachers as for students and can

    be recognized as a basis for further developments in teaching and learning. We hope that the expertise gained

    in the workshops will affect further developments. To assure the continuation in the developments a further

    workshop is planned for 2014.

    It can be resumed that teachers are starting to take advantage of the opportunities of mobile phones for

    learning. In summary it takes time for fundamental changes and developing new insights to change

    traditional ways of teaching and learning towards learning with mobile devices, but it has already started.

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