Early Buddhist Architecture in Japan

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Early Buddhist Architecture in Japan. I. Some basic values in East Asian urbanism influence the design of many Buddhist monasteries. East Asian Imperial Capitals. Xian, China 6 th cen. . Nara, Japan, 8 th century. Kyoto, Japan, 9 th cen . A.D. II. A. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Slide 1

Early Buddhist Architecture in Japan

Kyoto, Japan, 9th cen. A.D.II. A.Xian, China 6th cen.

Nara, Japan, 8th centuryEast Asian Imperial CapitalsI. Some basic values in East Asian urbanism influence the design of many Buddhist monasteries

Xian, China 6th cen. I. A. An ideal city: Confucian geomancy in city plans (Nara, Japan, inspired by the city of Xian, China)I. A. 1. How did Chinese cosmology picture the earth?

Ideal Chinese capital cityCosmic diagram in Four Deities tile, 200 bc

East Green DragonWest: White TigerSouth: Red BirdII. A. 2. What meaning does Confucian geomancy attribute to the four cardinal directions?Xian, China, 6th cen.North: Dark Turtle & SnakeII. A. 3. What position would the virtuous ruler occupy in a Confucian city?

Confucius (551-449 B.C.)

II. Context: Buddhism enters Japan in ad552 from China (through Korea) as a quality of higher civilization, including the ideal of the centralized stateThe Horyuji, near Nara, Japan, 7th cen. ad (670-714)II. A. Parts of the Horyuji Gakumonju (its full name, meaning Learning Temple) as reflection of the fact that temples at this time were more intent on studying the faith than disseminating it

The Horyuji

II. B. What is the orientation of East Asian monasteries like Horyuji?

Cosmic diagram in Four Deities tile, 200 bcIII. A pantheistic world view (the divine is everywhere) in the pagoda and the image hall

The HoryujiIII. A. The pagoda (the stupa of East Asian Buddhist monasteries)

III. A. 1. What was the purpose of the pagoda in East Asian Buddhist monasteries?

Pagoda of the Horyuji, ad 670

Brick Pagoda, Dengfeng, China, ad 523III. A. 2. Like stupas, pagodas presented an image of clarity of Buddhism. How did pagodas come to look so different from the Indian stupa?

The Yungang Caves, Buddhist sanctuary, China, 5th-6th century adIII. A. 3. How was the pagoda filled with the divinity of the Buddha, becoming an autonomous entity within the monastic complex?

Pagoda of the HoryujiIII. A. 4. What was the eventual destiny of the pagoda in future Buddhist temple designs?

The Shitennoji, Osaka, Japan, 592-628The Horyuji, Nara, 670

The Asuka-dera, Nara, Japan, 588

The Yakushiji, Nara, Japan, 688

The Great Stupa at Sanchi

II. B. A deified Buddha: the purpose of the image hall (kondo or golden hall) in East Asian BuddhismThe Image Hall at Horyuji

Borobudur terrace with sculpted friezeII. B. 1. How was the image hall filled with the divinity of the Buddha, becoming an autonomous entity within the monastery like the pagoda?

The Image Hall (Kondo) of the HoryujiIII. B. 2. Monumentality: Creating the grandeur of the temple with wood a. How do the posts at Horyuji contribute to the sense of imposing dignity?The Image Hall (Kondo) of the Horyuji

entasis - swelling

Image hall of Horyuji Buddhist templeIII. B. 2. b. Why is the bracketing system key to the structure and ornament of the Buddhist temple in East Asia?

Deity hall of the Shinto shrine at Ise

two basic parts of East Asian bracketing system = bearing block + bracket armIII. B. 2. b.

higher: three-block bracket

simple bracket systemIII. B. 2. b.

higher

simple bracket systemthree-block bracket

farther outwardprojecting three-blockIII. B. 2. b.

higher

simple bracket systemthree-block bracket

farther outwardprojecting three-blockIII. B. 2. b.

farther outwardprojecting three-block

one-step two-step still higher and farther outwardone-step projecting complexortwo-step projecting complexsteeper, higher, fartherIII. B. 2. b.

Cloud brackets of the Nara style in the Image Hall (Kondo) of the HoryujiIII. B. 2. b.

Cloud brackets of the Nara style in the Image Hall (Kondo) of the Horyuji

III. B. 2. c. How does the massive roof appear to be effortlessly buoyant? III. C. Eliades sacred and profane space in the East Asian monastery

Xian, China Shinto Shrine at Ise The HoryujiIII. C. 1. What were two functions the enveloping corridor (kairo) around the temple? The Horyuji

III. C. 2. How does the enveloping kairo also strengthen the sense of the divine Buddha as the subject filling the monastery with his presence?

the HoryujiIII. C. 3. Why was the inner or middle gate threshold in south side of enclosure not simply an entrance?

The HoryujiIII. C. 3. The Horyuji

outer gateinner gate

III. D. Spaces where human beings are the autonomous subject: What monastery buildings were outside the most sacred boundary of the kairo?

the Horyuji

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