DURABILITY STUDIES ON CONCRETE WITH FLY ASH, RICE HUSK ASH ... ??DURABILITY STUDIES ON CONCRETE WITH FLY ASH, RICE HUSK ASH AND QUARRY SAND A. R. Narde Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of ...
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 587 firstname.lastname@example.org International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 9, Issue 2, February 2018, pp. 587595, Article ID: IJCIET_09_02_057 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=9&IType=2 ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316 IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed DURABILITY STUDIES ON CONCRETE WITH FLY ASH, RICE HUSK ASH AND QUARRY SAND A. R. Narde Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering College, Nagpur, India Dr A. R. Gajbhiye Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering College, Nagpur, India ABSTRACT The durability of concrete is defined as its ability to with stand weathering action, chemical action, chemical attack or any progressive deterioration. A durable concrete requires little or no maintenance and retains its original form, quality and serviceability when exposed to its environmental expect harsh or aggressive environments. In this research the attempt have been made to examine the suitability of replacing cement by rice husk ash and fly ash and natural sand by with various percentage of quarry sand for M25 grade concrete and examine characteristic such as compressive strength and critical mix was determined and compared with the conventional concrete(controlled mix)and durability characteristic such as acid attack test for 30 days 60days, 90 days ,120days were analyzed also effect of carbonation was studied and micro structural analysis was carried by XRF Analysis. The controlled mix with 100% Natural sand and 100% cement and critical mixes with 22.5% fly ash, 7.5 % Rice husk ash and 30% quarry sand with replacement cement and natural sand respectively and mix was examined for durability. The use rice husk ash and fly ash in concrete has been found to improve the resistance of concrete sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid attack because of reduced presence of calcium hydroxide which is more vulnerable to acid attack. The use of fly ash and rice husk ash as partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement was found to more effective in reduction of acid attack. And it has been observed that carbonation not effect of compressive strength of concrete. Keywords: Quarry sand(QS), fly ash (FA), Natural sand (NS), rice husk ash (RHA), Coarse aggregate (CA). XRF analysis A. R. Narde and Dr A. R. Gajbhiye http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 588 email@example.com Cite this Article: A. R. Narde and Dr A. R. Gajbhiye, Durability Studies on Concrete with Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash and Quarry Sand, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(2), 2018, pp. 587595. http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=9&IType=2 1. INTRODUCTION Concrete is the most widely used construction material in civil Engineering industry because of its high structural strength, stability The controlled concrete is produced by using Natural sand from river bed as fine aggregate. Dwindling sand resources poses the environmental problem and hence government restriction on sand quarrying resulted in scarcity and significant increase in it cost and The concrete industry is constantly looking for supplementary cementations material with the objective of reducing the solid waste disposal problem of Fly Ash and Rice husk ash and cost savings can result when industrial by-products are used as partial replacements for the energy - intensive Portland cement. Thus an increasing demand for cement and concrete can be met by partially replacing cement with Fly ash and Rice husk ash and natural sand with Quarry sand. This investigation was carried to study the feasibility of using locally available rice husk ash, Fly ash and Quarry sand as partial replacements for cement and sand in concrete. In present investigation cement was replaced by rice husk ash and Fly ash by weight of the cement as ingredient in concrete and Quarry sand was used as an alternative fine aggregate material to it which is obtained during quarrying process. This paper describes the effects of atmosphere on the concrete mixes. 2. MATERIALS 2.1. Coarse Aggregate The specific gravity and water absorption are 2.67 and 0.8% respectively. The tests were conducted as per IS: 383 1970. 2.2. Cement Ordinary Portland cement of 43-grade was used in this study conforming to IS: 12269-1987. The physical properties are: Specific gravity is 3.15gm/cc Normal consistency is 28.3% 2.3. Rice husk ash RHA was obtained from YASH AGRO, Chimur, Chandrapur. Sieving was carried out by passing it through 90 micron sieve and then it is use for research purpose. RHA was considered in the present study as a replacement of cement. The specific gravity of RHA used is 2.1gm/cc 2.4. Fly ash Fly ash used was obtained from Koradi Power Plant Nagpur. The fly ash, also known as pulverized fuel ash, It is produced from burning pulverized coal in electric power generating plants. Specific gravity of fly ash is 2.29gm/cc. 2.5. Quarry sand Quarry Sand was obtained from Sidheshwar quarry, Pachgaon. Plant: 360, Surgaon, Nagpur. The cheapest and the easiest way of getting substitute for natural sand is by crushing natural stone to get artificial sand of desired size and grade which would be free from all impurities is known as Quarry Sand. Specific gravity of quarry sand is 3.09gm/cc. Durability Studies on Concrete with Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash and Quarry Sand http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 589 firstname.lastname@example.org 2.6. Chemical admixture In this project, super-plasticizer is used as high range water reducer.AC-PLAST-BV 430.Apple Chemie India Private Limited Company, Nagpur as a high range water reducing admixture for obtaining a workability 3. MIX DESIGN The concrete mix M25 were designed in accordance with IS 10262-2009. The Three mixes of three different grades of M25 have been selected for the investigation of durability tests like acid attack, carbonation, permeability. It is indicated in Table 1. Table 1 Durability Test on Selected Samples of Concrete Mix Cement % Fly ash % Rice husk ash % Natural Sand % Quarry sand % Coarse aggregate % Mix 1(controlled mix) M25-A 100 00 00 100 00 100 Mix 2 M25-A4 100 22.5 7.5 100 00 100 Mix3(critical mix) M25-B6 70 22.5 7.5 70 30 100 4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 4.1. Testing Tests on hardened concrete carried out includes compressive test on concrete cube for size 150mm X 150mm X 150mm (IS: 5161959). Acid resistance test for hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) were carried out as per ACTM C-267 and Rapid chloride permeability test in accordance with ASTM C1202. The chemical composition of cement concrete is determined using XRF analysis, before and after immersion in acidic water solution. 4.2. Acid attack testing of concrete The initial mass and compressive strength of the cubic specimens of 150x150x150 mm was determined after 28 days of curing before immersing into the acid solutions. Sulphuric and hydrochloric acid solutions with initial concentrations of 2% by volume were prepared in acid-resistant tanks. The 2% H2SO4 water solution (98.5% concentration-11.2 ml/liter water) and 2% HCl water solution (36.46% concentration-48.8 ml/liter water) were prepared. The Replicates of specimens from each mixture were kept continuously immersed in the sulphuric and hydrochloric acid solutions for 30, 60, 90 & 120 days as recommended by ASTM C 267. During the test period, the cubic specimens were removed after 30, 60, 90 & 120 days from solutions, rinsed with tap water and left to dry for 30 min before weighing and visual inspection. The solution was replaced at regular intervals to maintain pH 6 constant throughout. After 30, 60, 90 & 120 days, the specimens were tested for compressive strength based on the original cross-sectional area. The percentage of strength change were calculated, percentage weight loss were calculated. A. R. Narde and Dr A. R. Gajbhiye http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 590 email@example.com 4.3. Chemical analysis of acid affected concrete The chemical composition of an inorganic material was determined by XRay Fluorescence Analysis (XRF). It provides highly accurate information about elemental mineral composition 4.4. Rapid Chloride Ion Permeability Test The rapid chloride ion permeability test (RCPT) is performed as per provisions of ASTM C1202. This standard specifies the rating of chloride permeability of concrete based on the charge passed through the specimen during six hours of testing period. RCPT has been used to evaluate the chloride permeability of hardened cement concretes. The Rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT) is performed by monitoring the amount of electrical current that passes through a sample 50 mm thick by 100 mm in diameter in 6 hours this sample is typically cut as a slice of a core or cylinder. A voltage of 60V DC is maintained across the ends of the sample throughout the test. One lead is immersed in a 3.0% salt (NaCl) solution and the other in a 0.3 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Based on the charge that passes through the sample, a qualitative rating is made of the concretes permeability. RCPT has been used to evaluate the chloride permeability of hardened concrete. It is indicated in figure 1 Figure 1 Rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT) Testing 4.5. Carbonation of concrete The carbonation chamber apparatus consists of a chamber as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3. The chamber is the environmental supply chamber where air is conditioned to a CO2 content of 5%, as per European standard EN 13295-2004 and relative humidity of 60% to 70% and temperature of 27C to 30 C. The chambers are easily constructed using aluminium sheet and Gaskets and sealing clamps can be used to make an air tight system. Relative humidity was controlled with multiple pans of saturate salt solution composed of lime, NaCl and water. The cover for steel reinforcement for beam sample was 5 mm. Periodic checks need to be made to make sure the solution is not under-saturated or dried out. The CO2 gas atmosphere was inducted using compressed CO2 gas regulator. The humidity and temperature was measured by hygrometer. In this experiment a 5% CO2 and 95% oxygen atmosphere was chosen to shorten the test period to suit project requirements. An industrial gas mixture of 5%CO2 in air was tried. The gas regulator was useful in keeping the flow rate and gas pressure 15 to 20 kg /cm2. It is indicated in Figure 2 and Figure 3. Durability Studies on Concrete with Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash and Quarry Sand http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 591 firstname.lastname@example.org Figure 2 Carbonation chamber Figure 3 Schematic diagram for Carbonation process Table 2 Effect of 2% H2SO4 on compressive strength of M 25 grade concrete. Mix Proportions MIX 1 (M25A) MIX 2 (M25-A4) MIX 3 (M25-B6) No. of Days C1 N/mm2 C2 N/mm2 % C.S. Loss C1 N/mm2 C2 N/mm2 % C.S. Loss C1 N/mm2 C2 N/mm2 % C.S. Loss 30 32.74 30.93 5.5 27.9 26.78 4.0 35,8 34.54 3.5 60 32.74 30.28 7.4 27.9 26.10 6.5 35.8 34.08 4.8 90 32.74 30.25 7.6 27.9 26.10 6.7 35.8 34.08 4.8 120 32.74 30.25 7.6 27.90 26.00 6.7 35.8 34,10 4.95 Table 3 Effect of 2% HCl on compressive strength of M 25 grade concrete Mix proportions MIX 1(M25-A) MIX 2 (M25-A4) MIX 3 (M25-B6) No. of Days C1 N/mm2 C2 N/mm2 % C.S. Loss C1 N/mm2 C2 N/mm2 % C.S. Loss C1 N/mm2 C2 N/mm2 % C.S. Loss 30 32.74 27.40 3.25 27.90 27.0 3.25 35.8 34.76 3.0 60 32.74 27.00 4.6 27.90 26.64 4.5 35.8 34.40 4.0 90 32.74 27.00 4.6 27.90 26.61 4.6 35.8 34.33 4.2 120 32.74 27.0 4.6 27.90 26.61 4.6 35.8 34.33 4.2 Abbreviations- C1- compressive strength of concrete before immersion in acidic water solution (28 days curing), C2-compressive strength of concrete after immersion in acidic Water solution C.S- % compressive strength loss Figure 4 Strength loss in M25grade concrete after immersion in H2SO4solution 0246830 60 90 120% Strength lossNo. of days immerssion in 2%H2SO4 solution Percentage Strength Loss in M25 grade concrete after immerssion in 2%H2SO4Solution M25-A4 M25-A M25-B6A. R. Narde and Dr A. R. Gajbhiye http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 592 email@example.com Figure 5 Strength loss in M25 grade concrete after immersion in HCl solution Table 4 Variation of compressive strength (C.S.) on of concrete after 120 days carbonation Mix Proportions MIX ( controlled mix) MIX (critical mix) Grade of concrete C1 N/mm2 C2 N/mm2 % variation of C.S. C.D. mm C1 N/mm2 C2 N/mm2 % variation of C.S. C. D. mm M25 32.74 34.64 5.82 2.0 35.80 37.75 5.45 1.0 Abbreviations C1 - compressive strength of concrete before carbonation(after 28 days curing) C2 - compressive strength of concrete after carbonation C.S - % compressive strength increases Or decreases (variation of strength) C.D - carbonation depth Table 5 Chemical Composition of M25 Concrete by XRF analysis Concrete M25- A(controlled mix) M25 (critical mix) 22.5%FA+7.5% RHA+30%QS Un affected H2SO4 affected-120 days HCl affected-120days carbonated-120 days Un affected H2SO4 affected-120 days HCl affected-120days Carbonated-120 days Minerals % by mass % by mass % by mass % by mass % by mass % by mass % by mass % by mass Na2 O Sodium oxide 2.28 1.040 0.900 0.728 3.27 0.962 1.198 0.897 MgO Magnesium oxide 2.54 2.343 2.23 2.48 3.37 2.439 2.956 2.243 SiO2 Silicon dioxide 50.10 49.96 49.31 40.79 50.29 45.98 43.36 44.05 Al2O3 Aluminum trioxide 11.13 8.489 8.048 7.621 12.67 9.904 10.70 9.758 012345630 60 90 120% Strength loss No. of days immerssion in2% HCL Percentage Steength Loss in M25 concrete after immerssion in 2% HCL solution M25-A4 M25-A M25-B6Durability Studies on Concrete with Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash and Quarry Sand http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 593 firstname.lastname@example.org Concrete M25- A(controlled mix) M25 (critical mix) 22.5%FA+7.5% RHA+30%QS Fe O3 Iron trioxide 6.36 6.481 6.188 6.068 10.05 7.355 8.692 7.049 TiO2 Titanium oxide 0.90 0.814 0.738 0.750 1.38 1.057 1.179 1.015 CaO Calcium oxide 16.79 17.51 19.04 24.91 17.41 15.70 14.66 19.64 K2O Potassium oxide 1.20 1.417 1.588 1.264 0.56 1.105 1.122 1.156 Table 6 Result of Rapid chloride penetration test ( RCPT test) Mix Charge passed Charge passed (Coulombs) (28 Days) (Coulombs) (90Days) M25-A 1285 1195 M25-A4 1260 1152 M25-B6 1164 1100 5. OBSERVATIONS AND DISCUSSION 5.1. Acid resistance of concrete It has been observed that controlled mix is more affected by action of hydrochloric acid and Sulfuric acid. The resistances against acid get reduce due to presence of more amount internal voids and this draw back can be rectified by use of fly ash, and rice husk ash which fill up voids and it will increases resistance against acid. It has been that is observed that percentage compressive strength loss in case of H2SO4 attack is significantly more than HCl attack as indicated Table 2 and Table 3 and Fig.4 and Fig 5. It is also observed that action of acid is more at initial stage and once reaction between acid and concrete takes place it results into maximum deterioration of concrete and there after deterioration of concrete will not be significant though concentration of acidic water solution maintained at same as that of initial stage. 5.2. Hydrochloric Acid Attack (HCl) During the test, it is observed that the colour of the external surface of the sample is yellow whereas the colour of their inner surface is brown, and more damage occurred controlled concrete as compare to concrete composed of fly ash, rice husk ash and quarry sand and it has been observed that fly ash, rice husk ash concrete has better resistance to acid medium. The Ca(OH2) calcium hydroxide react with HCl hydrochloric acid and produce CaCl2. Calcium chloride and concrete loses strength and increases porosity. So acid penetration becomes easy and hydrochloric acid penetrates inwards the concrete by interval of porosity. The concrete mixture with fly ash and rice husk ash reduces capillary pores and increases the resistance. 5.3. Sulphuric Acid Attack (H2SO4) The sulfuric acid reacts with calcium hydroxide of cement hydrates to produce calcium sulfate salt. (White powder).These salts are expanding salts and the pressure that is created during their production which develops cracks and collapse the concrete. The fly ash and rice husk ash in concrete has been found to improve the resistance to sulfuric acid because of less A. R. Narde and Dr A. R. Gajbhiye http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 594 email@example.com presence of calcium hydroxide which is most vulnerable to acid attack. It is observed that due to sulfuric acid attack calcium sulfate (white powder) is formed and edges of aggregates get damaged. 5.5. Carbonation test on concrete Carbonation of concrete is a process by which carbon dioxide from the air penetrates into concrete through pores and reacts with calcium hydroxide to form calcium carbonates. Carbonation leads to a reduction in porosity of the exposed concrete surface because the volume of the reaction product (CaCO3) exceeds that of the original reactants. It is observed that compressive strength of carbonated concrete is slightly increases and it is due to CaCO3 occupies a greater volume than Ca(OH)2.Carbonation improve surface hardness, strength due pore refinement of cement concrete. It is indicated in table 4 Carbonation can be helpful in non-reinforced cement based products but as pH of carbonated cement paste reduces due to carbonation, reinforcing steel loses its passivity and becomes vulnerable to corrosion. When pH value of pore water in concrete reduces below 10 then carbonation gets started. The pH value of pore water in unaffected hardened concrete was 12.5 to 13.5 It has been observed that the use of fly ash and rice husk ash refine pore structure and reduces size of pores and reduces porosity of concrete and that reduces carbonation in case of critical mix concrete. During hydration process of concrete more amount of calcium hydroxide get consumed by higher percentage of silica present rice husk ash and balance calcium hydroxide is very less to react with carbon di oxide during carbonation. And micro fines present quarry sand reduces pores Therefore effect of carbonation is very less on critical concrete containing rice husk ash and quarry sand which prevent penetration of carbon dioxide into concrete. 5.6. Microscopic structural analysis observations (XRF Analysis) XRF analysis showed that chemical composition phases of controlled mix and critical mix it is found that critical mix contain high percentage of silicon di oxide and iron di oxide because of that concrete containing RHA and quarry sand gives more strength. X RF Analysis observed that due action of HCl, H2SO4 Acid and carbonation the controlled concrete get affected and altered the chemical composition, that observed from changes in percentage of mass of chemical compounds whereas critical concrete the get less affected by H2SO4, HCl acid and carbonation. The silicon dioxide gets reduced due to acid attack in case controlled mix and critical mix. It is indicated in Table 5. 5.7. Rapid chloride permeability test The Rapid chloride permeability test shows that Critical mix prevents the penetration. It has Lesser voids and lesser permeability. The more Charge passes through the controlled mix concrete, shows less penetration resistance as compare to critical mix. The concrete mix with fly ash and rice husk ash lowers the passage of charge which increases the penetration resistance. Quarry sand has micro fine particles and incorporation of quarry sand in concrete reduces the permeability of concrete in larger extend as compare only due to that of fly ash and rice husk ash and it is indicated in Table 6 6. CONCLUSION 1. The aggressiveness of 2% sulphuric acid medium and 2% hydrochloric acid medium is different and deterioration is different. The loss of strength is lower in the hydrochloric acid solutions. The concretes have more strength loss in the sulphuric acid than in the hydrochloric acid solutions. The degradation mechanisms due to H2SO4attack and HCl attack are different. Sulphuric acid leached the layers of the Durability Studies on Concrete with Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash and Quarry Sand http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 595 firstname.lastname@example.org paste in exposed surface, while hydrochloric acid penetrates inwards the concrete by the interval of porosity. 2. Controlled mix shows the least durability in acidic solution and mix with combination with rice husk ash, fly ash and quarry sand shows highest resistance to acid attack i.e. highest durability in H2SO4 solution and HCl solution. The effect of HCl and H2SO4 is more on controlled concrete. 3. The concrete mix with fly ash and rice husk ash lowers the passage of charge which increases the penetration resistance. Quarry sand has micro fine particles and incorporation of quarry sand in concrete reduces the permeability of concrete in larger extend. XRF Analysis shows that critical concrete the get less affected by H2SO4, HCl acid and carbonation. REFERENCES  Narde A. and Gajbhiye, A. R., Investigation and feasibility of fly ash, rice husk, quarry sand for M25 grade concrete. International research journal of Engineering and Technology, 3(12), 2016, pp. 262-265.  Narde A., Gajbhiye, A. R., Investigation and feasibility of fly ash, rice husk, quarry sand for M30 grade concrete. 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Siad et.al., (2010), Influence of natural pozzolana on the behavior of self-compacting concrete under sulphuric and hydrochloric acid attacks, comparative study, The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Volume 35, Issue No 1, pp183-195  R. S. Deotale and Dr. A. M.Pande, Durability Studies On M30 Grade Concrete Containing Quarry Sand and Fly Ash. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8(4), 2017, pp. 16951704.