Does the Camera Lie?: Notes on Hiroshima Mon Amour the Camera Lie?: Notes on Hiroshima Mon Amour 59 Kari Hanet Understanding how films are understood requires thinking the cinema as a language, that is ...
Does the Camera Lie?: Notes on Hiroshima Mon Amour 59Kari HanetUnderstanding how films are understood requires thinking thecinema as a language, that is as a structured communication be-tween individuals, in this case, usually in the form of entertain-ment. This social function of the cinema, however, is changing andthe cinema is becoming more and more openly an ideological tool.Recurrently, theories of the cinema revolve round the notion thatfilm is intrinsically a means of reproducing external reality. Thecamera's mechanism obeys the laws of optics and the realityreproduced in the image depends on these laws, on the choice ofobject at which the camera is pointed, and how the camera ispointed. Thus the techniques of film-making since they involve theconscious or unconscious direction of the camera's eye are bynature ideological.Since each film creates its own signs and system of signification,and as its aesthetic message is to some extent self-focussing, butalso since its pro-filmic event consists usually of elements takenfrom external reality (ie conventions of visual representation orsorio-cultural symbols), the ' realism ' of the images inevitably willbe transformed by their organisation into the fictional filmic text,1ie the narrative discourse. Realism therefore is partly determined bythe balance achieved between aesthetics and ideology, their inter-action constituting the structural form of the film, itself producedby how the technical apparatus alters the pro-filmic event. It isalso partly determined by the relationships the viewer establishesbetween the fictional world presented by the finished film and the' real ' world. In each case the frameworks of ideological andaesthetic reference fashion the analogical relation seen betweenthe visual message2 and reality. Thus the criteria defining realism3vary with the evolution of social organisation, economic, socialand cultural differences, the role of cinematic education, and withthe introduction of different cinematic techniques.It is therefore important to examine the type of pro-filmic eventchosen, and not only the cinematic treatment. Unlike a stage set ora piece of prose, a filmic image tends to be ambiguous and over-descriptive. Not all that enters the filmic event is essential to thefiction and its narrative structure, unless, of course, the film-makerconstructs his fiction, hence his images, according to the Brech-tian concept of realism. The pro-filmic event, in that case, is nottaken from external reality and the filmic discourse is not developedpurely within the realism allowed in the image by the technicalapparatus; instead the filmic event is constructed on the sameprinciples of economy as is a stage set. This can be seen in at Ohio University on January 15, 2014http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/Downloaded from http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/60 Oshima's Diary of a Shinjuku Thief (1968) and Ceremony (1971),or in Ichikawa's An Actor's Revenge (1963), where two policemenhold on to a tight rope, vibrating across a black empty screen,only to discover that the thief has attached the rope to a tree trunkand fled. All Ichikawa employs with constructive editing are anabstract space, three actors, a tree, and a rope. Usuajly though,the selection and subsequent arrangement of the elements of thepro-filmic event rely heavily on a relationship of analogy with the* real' world. The use of the cinematic language is then so discreteit seems non-existent. The mediation between the real world -cum - pro-filmic event and filmic reality is obscured and the planeof expression or substance of content seems unmodified, thus lead-ing to the ideological concept of realism, that film reflects reality' directly'.Most narrative films are realistic in the conventional sensethough, not only does the film-maker present his work as a ' truth-ful depiction of reality', but the viewer also makes the subjectivejudgement that the image is or is not a ' truthful depiction ofreality \4 The viewing situation then, is defined by the possibleconfrontations of different concepts of realism and by the viewer'sgeneral ideological, aesthetic, and cultural frameworks of reference.Moreover, the textual system of many narrative films displays aconsiderable amount of ' superfluous ' details and an accumulationof repetitive codes, partly in order to reduce the intrinsic ambiguityand polysemy of images, and partly in order to achieve an optimumrealistic effect. Thus the ' iconic context '5 within which the narra-tive discourse is finally organised requires as much attention asdoes the type of pro-filmic event selected. Recognising the formand the substance of content of the image in a visual messagecorresponds to the * intra-iconic' context, while the ' inter-iconic *context is defined by the process governing how the images arelinked together into sequences of one or several images, accord-ing to the meaning conferred to them. Hence particularly relevantis the type of editing chosen for establishing spatio-temporal con-tiguity and different types of transitions between images (eitherthe substance or the form of content), but also the transitions andrelationships between the constituent codes of the visual message.'Finally, the ' extra-iconic' context, or general framework ofreference (ideological, cultural, aesthetic) of the viewer is of para-mount importance to film. Because images are not arbitrary signs,they bear some relation to the reality a film uses as its pro-filmicevent, hence the influence of, and, in some cases, the real need forthe cultural knowledge and experience of the spectator, plays anessential part in the reading of a film. Ceremony (1971) or RedPsalm (Jancs6, 1971), for instance, become difficult to understandwithout some knowledge of Japanese or Hungarian history, whileCeremony presents the added complexity of a cultural and aestheticiconography unfamiliar to a Western viewer. at Ohio University on January 15, 2014http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/Downloaded from http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/To exemplify these aspects, part one of Hiroshima Mon Amour 61(Resnais, 1958-9) will be discussed at some length. The. organisa-tion of the film shows a remarkable possibility of combining visual,verbal and non-verbal codes to produce a narrative text that minglestraditional realism with a more creative form of cinematic dis-course; thus the filmic text has a more complex (and at the timequite rare) concept, of the visual message.7 There is much lessredundancy between the verbal and visual codes constituting thevisual message and between the visual codes themselves, whilethe non-verbal codes are integrated purposefully into the overallstructure of the narrative.The opening sequence combines several types of pro-filmicelements: newsreel material, shot after 6th August 1945, fictitiousnewsreel documentary made by the Japanese,8 and museum docu-ments (mainly photographs and specimen). Some of this pro-filmicmaterial is therefore already a filmic event; moreover its arrange-ment is generally thought to conform to what was consideredreality at that time. The audience receives these images as genuinerecordings and faithful reconstructions of that historical event, yetwithin the narrative structure their presence is not necessarilyintended to truthfully depict that reality. Rather this visualinformation forms one element of the visual message, which inturn may or may not refer back to the form of content of thatconstituent visual image (code). In other words, the effect ofreality produced by some of the pro-filmic material is sometimesreinvested into the visual message apparently unmodified, and theother codes, verbal and non-verbal, only reinforce that effect,which is then the signified, or meaning, of that particular visualmessage.Without the knowledge provided by the ' extra-iconic' contextthat " Hiroshima * means the first city in history to have beendestroyed by an atomic explosion, the opening sequence of Hiro-shima Mon Amour suddenly becomes meaningless since therelationship between the Hiroshima sequence and the Neverssequence is lost, and the fundamental conflict between opposingvalues upon which the film is constructed (ie substance of con-tent) disappears. Moreover, the notion of extra-iconic context, notonly encompasses Metz's distinction of extra-cinematic codes, italso includes the cinematic codes that organise different types offilmic texts (newsreel, documentary, fiction, commercial), hencethe ability to distinguish between different types of cinematic treat-ment of the pro-filmic event. The ' extra-iconic * context thereforelargely determines the kind of realism a film is thought to present.For instance, the newsreel footage Resnais uses as pro-filmic eventis read as newsreel, ie unmodified, ' real', because the content ofthose images corresponds to those other visual and non-visualsources established as true documentation of that historical event(the film's commentary only corroborates this judgment, it does at Ohio University on January 15, 2014http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/Downloaded from http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/62 not command it), and uses the different grain and at times wobblycamera peculiar to newsreel techniques. Thus the viewer's sub-jective judgement is founded on the form of content of the pro-filmic event, on a mimetic or ' direct' correspondence set-upbetween the filmic event and external reality.On the other hand, the realism presented by the first hospitalsequence or the exterior shots of the museum is induced primarilythrough a specific use of the cinematic language and arrangementof the pro-filmic event, ie internal coherence of the fictional realityof the filmic text. Elsewhere, however, the transformation of thepro-filmic event is determined less by cinematic treatment than bythe structure of the narrative text. The relation between the ' intra-iconic' context and the visual message is a metaphorical one. Thesubstance of content of the image is a constituent of the visualmessage, here completed by the verbal code. Images of the streetsof contemporary Hiroshima combine with expressions of physicallove to form a visual message that relies on the choice of frontalshot angle and tracking forward of the camera, emphasised by thecomposition of the images. The relation, then, between image andvisual message is not defined by the analogical representation ofreality the image offers, but by the rhythm and mood created bythe combination of a particular cinematic code and spatial con-figuration, interacting with the verbal code, and thus determinedby the narrative context.Crucial then to the discussion is an analysis of what constitutesthe narrative context of a particular, film. In determining this forHiroshima Mon Amour, several distinctions concerning the struc-ture of narrative discourse proved fruitful.9 These are: diegesis,narration, and narrative discourse. ' Narrative discourse' is thetelling, the narrative signifier, the film in toto. It includes what isbeing told, that is the narrative content or narrative signified, iethe ' diegesis *, and how the diegesis is told, the creative act itselfwhich is ' narration \ encompassing all the techniques that go intoproducing the diegesis. The narrative discourse, however, is theonly one of these distinctions immediately accessible to textualanalysis, since, narration and diegesis exist only by virtue of theexistence of a narrative text; on the other hand, narrative discourseonly exists by virtue of a twofold relation, as narrative, with thediegesis it tells, as discourse, with the narration producing it.The diegesis of Hiroshima Mon Amour might be summarised asfollows. A Frenchwoman is in Hiroshima working on a propagandafilm for peace in the world. She meets a Japanese man and theymake love in Hiroshima. During their brief encounter, she tellstwo stories: the first concerns her view of what happened in Hiro-shima some fifteen years ago; the second is the story of heryouthful wartime love affair in Nevers. The diegesis includes thesetwo stories, each a metadiegesis,10 ie a story within the diegesistold by one of its protagonists. In the opening section of Hiroshima at Ohio University on January 15, 2014http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/Downloaded from http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/Mon Amour, transition from one narrative situation to another is 63never made explicit. Images of lovers embracing intermingle withimages that tell the history of Hiroshima. Only later, during thenext scene, is any kind of causal relation suggested to explain thenarrative context of that first part of the film.11The transition then, is achieved by the narration, itself the v.eryprocess by which knowledge of a new situation is introducedwithin another situation already known. In other words, narrationrefers to the selection of the pro-filmic event and to its chosencinematic treatment at any one point in the narrative discourse.By acting upon the pro-filmic event, ie action on the image asanalogical representation of reality, narration defines the iconiccontext of the visual message and the type of realism presented inthe filmic text by establishing the relations between the filmicevent and the points of reference (filmic and/or in reality).Hiroshima Mon Amour is not a documentary film about the fateHiroshima met in 1945, but a fiction, and Hiroshima's history isas much part of the narrative as Nevers and the two lovers. Yet,this fate is a true historical event, whose ' image', documentedby various media (newspapers, photographs, books, films), con-stitutes part of the cultural knowledge (ie extra-iconic context) theviewer refers to when reading this sequence. This extra-iconiccontext, moreover, enables the viewer to establish that the* imagesshowing the after-effects of the bomb are not realistic, bu t ' real'.The filmic event carries an effect of reality already provided by thepro-filmic event, itself a filmic event believed to be a truthfulrecording of reality.12 As form of content of the visual code, how-ever, the effect of reality of this filmic event is sometimes modifiedby the specific narrative situation. Thus the effect of reality pro-duced or intended to be produced by the visual codes of visualmessages in the metadiegesis is often undermined by the counter-effect achieved by the simultaneous presence of diegetic codes.Sometimes, the effect (an effect of narration) is achieved by usingthe verbal code alone as when the man says: ' What museum atHiroshima? ' over an exterior shot of the museum building, one ofa series of single static shots cemented by quick montage.13 Some-times though, verbal code and treatment of the pro-filmic event arecombined as presence of the diegesis interacting with the meta-diegesis to affect the filmic reality of the images in the sequence.Thus, the effect of reality offered by the visual codes of the firsthospital sequence is undermined by what the man says and bythe correlation between cinematic treatment and intra-iconicarrangement of the pro-filmic event. To the constant tracking for-ward movement of the hand-held camera, itself occasionally slightlytilted (inter-iconic context), corresponds the movement - at asimilar pace - of the patients who turn away as the cameraapproaches them (intra-iconic context).14Therefore, whereas the ' reality' of Hiroshima's history, as at Ohio University on January 15, 2014http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/Downloaded from http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/64 present in this particular filmic discourse, can be a matter fordispute within a diegetic context (the subject of the conflict: between the two characters), within a metadiegetic context, andthis applies to the viewer as well (a Western viewer at any rate),15i the images are indeed believed to be truthful recordings, ie ' real'.The effect of reality already produced by the pro-filmic event (ienewsreel footage) is reinvested into the filmic event - the form ofcontent of the visual message in a metadiegetic sequence - as inthe previously discussed newsreel sequence showing images of thefirst survivors among the ruins,16 or in the sequence showingwomen and children in a hospital, the mutilated survivors of thecatastrophe.17 Thus the form of content of the metadiegetic visualmessage is founded on the relation (on a syntagmatic plane only)between the signifieds of visual and verbal codes. The verbal codemight almost be said to be redundant since it only confirms thereading given the visual code by the perceptual code and the extra-iconic context.Nevertheless, the metadiegetic visual messages do not alwaysreproduce the effect of reality provided by the pro-filmic event.' Instead, this effect of reality, the form of content of the visualcode, is played against a verbal code, whose relation with it isneither relay nor anchorage, but incompatibility. Images of woundsand mutilations are juxtaposed with words that tell of the extra-ordinary vitality of flowers springing up from under the ashes andof the illusionary belief that memory is everlasting.18 Here, theform of content of the visual message is constituted by the com-plimentary relation between opposite signifieds - ie a paradigmaticand a syntagmatic discrepancy between visual and verbal mean-ings - hence a mental metamorphosis producing an emotionalmeaning, rather than a notional meaning.19 Therefore, the effectof reality of the visual code is not the signified of the visualmessage at that particular moment in the narrative discourse.Instead, it functions as one of two connotators, constituent of themetadiegetic visual message.In another sequence,20 the metadiegetic visual message is formedby the complimentary relation between word and image. The verbalcode tells how oblivion is unavoidable, despite the universallyrecognised necessity to remember, while the visual code acts asrelay by ' illustrating' remembrance with images of souvenir gift-shops, memorials, ruins, and tourists visiting them, - an objectiveanalogy between the codes on a syntagmatic plane. On twooccasions,21 however, the analogy is a subjective one since therelationship between word and image is a metaphorical one, whilethe emotional meaning produced concerns oblivion. In the firstI instance, the word ' oblivion' heard over the previous image is immediately followed in the next shot by the image of a memorialin the background and a cat strolling by, whose conspicuous pre-sence in the foreground draws attention to the empty open space at Ohio University on January 15, 2014http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/Downloaded from http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/in the middle distance. The last image of the sequence repeats in 65closer shot the spider-like framework of the glass roofed domeof a ruined building and is held for four seconds instead of theone second in the previous shot, while finally are spoken the words' Listen to m e ' (no verbal code over the previous two shots).Cinematic treatment and arrangement of the pro-filmic event-andorganisation of the.codes within the narrative discourse producehere a visual message whose function is to induce a subjectiveeffect in the viewer. This emotional meaning might well be judged' realistic' by the viewer, though, unlike the realism produced bythe effect of reality provided by the visual code and deemed so bythe extra-iconic context, this type of subjective realism is con-ferred to the visual message essentially through the consistentfilmic structure peculiar to this narrative discourse.Therefore the narrative context determined by narration ieaction on the pro-filmic event chosen (cinematic and intra-iconic) -produces the iconic context of the visual code first, then of thevisual message, hence the interplay between real and objectiveinformation and metaphoric description (which are fundamentallyopposed) and how these factors lead to the total depiction of afilmic reality, hence the type of realism presented by the narrativediscourse, The ' real \ then, is metaphorically used to crjeate thefilmic reality, which in turn induces potential reality for the spec-tator so that the specific ideology arising out of the film is theninfused back into the culture.Realism therefore involves ideology on the part of the film-maker in his ehoice of material (what he films), ideology in theeffect (of reality) he wants to produce (how he films), and in theviewer - what he sees and interprets. Realism is thus the productof conscious and unconscious manipulation and ultimately relieson the fact that the viewer (for whom the film is made) erron-eously believes the ' camera does not lie '.Notes1. Not only is the textual system of a film a connoted system (an alreadyexisting system of signification forms the plane of expression), butits plane of expression is itself constituted by several systems,themselves connoted systems, since as soon as they form the pro-filmic event, they are transformed by their interaction on the planeof expression of the filmic system.2. Following the practice of Umberto Eco, ' visual message' refers towhat in fact are composite texts; strictly speaking, ' visual message'should only refer to the image, in this article, the 'visual code'.It seems reasonable to continue to refer to the composite text as' visual message', since, as in the image where not everythingstructuring it is ' visual', a filmic message is structured by a com-bination of words, images, and sounds, and moreover its image isparticularly composed of non-visual codes. Cf Metz's introductionto Communications 15 (1970), ' Au-deli de l'analogie, Fimage', andUmberto Eco in 'Towards a Semiotic Equiry into the TelevisionMessage', Working Papers in Cultural Studies no 3 (1972 Autumn), at Ohio University on January 15, 2014http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/Downloaded from http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/66 P HI ff-3. Cf Paul Willemen, 'On Realism in the Cinema', Screen v 13 n 1.4. Cf Willemen, ibid p 37.5. In Langage de Vintage, A M Thibault-Laulan makes the helpfuldistinction of three types of iconic contexts characterising images:extra-iconic, intra-iconic, and inter-iconic. Cf Introduction, Chapter2, pp 25-30, Editions Universitaires, 1971.6. Particularly helpful here are Barthes* notions of ' relay' and' anchorage', in ' Rhetoric of the Image', translated in WorkingPapers in Cultural Studies no 1 (Spring 1971).7. ' Sound seen as a new element of mise-en-scene, as a factor inde-pendent of the visual image, will necessarily introduce new andamazingly powerful means for expressing and solving the mostcomplex problems.' Eisenstein, Pudovkin, and Alexandroff in theirManifesto on the Coming of Sound, July 1928, translated fromTu n'a rien vu a Hiroshima, Seminaire du Film et du Cinema, edby R Ravar, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1962, p 199; quotedby Paul Davay, ' L'Expression du souvenir et le contrepoint sono-visuel: quelques etapes qui ont conduit a Hiroshima'.8. Evidence by Resnais given in an interview: 'There are newsreelextracts and extracts from films. I wished to make as it were aquotation. They come from a film called Hiroshima'. Ibid p 210.9. G Genette, Figures III, Discours du Recit, Seuil, Paris 1972, p 72and pp 255-6.10. Meta- here indicates that the narrative discourse has switched to adifferent narrative plane. Unlike its logico-linguistic model (meta-language) metadiegesis refers to the world of another story con-tained within the world of the first one, the diegesis. Ibid pp 238-9.11. Lid: Et pourquoi voulais-tu tout voir a Hiroshima?Elle: Ca m'interessait, J'ai mon idee la-dessus. Par exemple, tuvois, de bien regarder, je crois que ca s'apprend. Script by M. Duras,Gallimard, Paris I960, p 30.12. Cf. supra p 4.13. Shots No 14-19. The numbers refer to those given to the shots inthe shot description published with the findings of the BruxellesSeminar on Hiroshima (pp cit) which proved a useful and usuallyreliable transcription of the film.14. Shots No 6-12; Lui: Tu n'as pas vu d'hopital a Hiroshima. Tun'as rien vu a Hiroshima'. (12); script p 17.15. Cf the twofold role of the extra-iconic context.16. Shots No 46-52; cf supra pp 4 and 5.17. Shots No 63-73.18. Shots No 53-61.19. Or ' cognitive ' and ' emotive' as these different modes of meaningare also called; cf J Lyons, Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics,Cambridge University Press, 1968, pp 448-9, p 489 note; also C KOgden and I A Richards, The Meaning of Meaning, 8th edition,London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1946.20. Shots No 88-105.21. Shots No 94 and 105. at Ohio University on January 15, 2014http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/Downloaded from http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/