Do teachers teach or learn?
Jai Raj AwasthiDepartment of English EducationTribhuvan UniversityFebruary 21,2010
Jim Scrivener (2005): Its not just students who do the learning, but you do as well. You teach you learn- and the two things are intertwined. Out side and inside the class, you live and learn. You learn throughout your teaching career.
Head and Taylor (1994)What is being taught is being learned?Underhill (1988) Keeping myself on the same side of learning fence as my students. Learner perception of a teacher and vice versa
Pasternak and Bailey (2004)Teachers need to know three key areas;knowing about how to use the target languageknowing about and how to teach in culturally appropriate ways,knowing about how to behave appropriately in the target culture
Lawe (2002)The most surprising thing to me was how contradictory I was as a learner. I couldnt say Well, I know that I want a particular approach or methodology
We learn from our teaching also:Richards and Farrell (2008)Why do teachers learn for their teaching:To become more informed about their field of studyTo learn more about learning strategies and to explore ways incorporating a focus on strategies into their teachingTo develop more effective ways of assessing students
To improve aspects of their teaching that are in need of reviewTo develop better understanding of English aspects and skills and how to teach themTo ask on collaborating materials development projects with colleaguesTo learn how to plan and evaluate a language course
What did we learn during these three days?
World Englishes and why need of English Techniques: play, drama, songs, stories, movies, theatre and other activitiesDealing with physically challenged childrenCritical pedagogyICT in the language classLanguage and cultureTeaching various aspects and skills
Various language teaching methods and their success or failureCreative writingAttitudes, anxiety and motivationUse of mother tongue in foreign language classSociolinguistics: language and politics, borrowing and code switching and even seven wonders of ELT
Teaching young learnersEnglish for sustainabilityCorporal punishmentLanguage testing; designing test papers etc
Teacher learning is concerned with exploring questions (Freeman & Richards, 1996), such as:What is the nature of the teacher knowledge and how it is acquired?What cognitive processes do we employ while teaching and while learning to teach?How do experienced and novice teachers differ?
The answer to these questions requires conceptualizing teacher learning (Richards 2008):Teacher learning as skill learning: as the development of a range of different skills and competencies which help to conduct successful teaching.Teacher learning as a cognitive process: Teaching as a complex cognitive activity and focuses on the nature of teachers beliefs and thinking and how these influence their teaching and learning.
Borg (2003: 81) teachers are active, thinking decision-makers who make instructional choices by drawing on complex practically-oriented, personalized, and context- sensitive networks of knowledge, thought and beliefs.
c. Teacher learning as personal construction: an emphasis on teachers individual and personal contributions to learning and to understanding of their classrooms, and it uses activities that focus on the development of self awareness and personal interpretation through such activities as journal writing and self monitoring
d. Teacher learning as reflective practice Teachers learn from experience through focused reflection on the nature and meaning of teaching experiences.Novices and experts: DifferenceExperienced teachers approach their work differently from novices because they know what typical classroom activities and expected problems and solutions are like.Novice teachers are less familiar with subject matter, teaching strategies, and teaching contexts.
PD traditionally viewed as improving effectiveness of delivery. PDL is not viewed as translating knowledge and theories into practice but rather as constructing new knowledge and theory through participating in specific social contexts and engaging in particular types of activities and processes which is also called practitioners knowledge.-Burns and Richards(2009)PD should be a permanent process of change and growth, no denting painting works
PD means many things:Tomlinson(2003): In PD, teachers are given new experiences to reflect and learn from.Templer ( 2004) We need to hold up mirrors to our own practice, making more conscious of what is beneath the surface.
Davies (1999) as development becomes more powerful, the role of the trainer will become less important.Piai (2005) you can train me, and you can evaluate me, but you cant develop me- I develop.Unlearning old habits and recovering a childlike interest in experimentation and discovery.Recognizing ones own ghost.
PD is the professional growth a teacher achieves as a result of gaining increased experience and examining his or her teaching systematically.Two types of experience:Formal: attending workshops and professional meetings, mentoring, attending university classes, participating training sessions, etc.Informal: Reading professional publications, watching TV documentaries, etc.
What do teachers need to know?General pedagogical knowledge: learning environment and instructional strategies, classroom management, knowledge of learners and learning.Subject matter knowledge: knowledge of contents to be taught Pedagogical- content knowledge: conceptual knowledge of how to teach a subject using instructional strategies , understanding of students and knowledge of curriculum and curricular materials
d. Knowledge of student contexts and a disposition to find out more about students and their families.e. Knowledge of bridging theory and practice.f. External evaluation of learning.
h. Knowledge of strategies, techniques and tools to create and sustain a learning environment and the ability to use them effectively.i. Knowledge and attitudes that support political and social justice( teachers are agents of social change)j. Knowledge and skills as to how to implement technology in the classroom.
Two models of TD/PD:Organizational partnership model:i. Professional development schoolsii. University Collegesiii. Schools net worksiv. Teachers networksv. Distance education
Two models of TD/PD:Organizational partnership model:i. Professional development schoolsii. University school partnershipiii. Inter-institutional partnershipiv. Schools net worksv. Teachers networksvi. Distance education
vii. Coaching/mentoring/team teachingviii. Use of teachers narrativesix. Generational or cascade modelx. Keep a teaching journalxi. Analyze critical incidentsxii. Join Teachers Associations
Translation StudiesEnglish for Mass mediaAcademic WritingEnglish Grammar for TeachersPhonetics phonologySecond Language AcquisitionSociolinguisticsDirections in Applied linguistics
Courses at Faculty of Education at TU to enhance learning and teachingFoundation of Language and LinguisticsEnglish for CommunicationReading Writing and Critical ThinkingExpanding Horizons in EnglishELT methodsLiterature for Language Teaching
Advance ELT MethodsDiscourse and PragmaticsAdvanced Reading and WritingLanguage TestingResearch Methods in English EducationThesis Writing etc.
Scrivener (2005) Any teacher who stopped leaning--- has probably also stopped being useful as a teacher. Learning about teaching does not stop whenever your training course finish. In fact, this is where your development as a teacher begins.
A professional teacher makes the personal resolution like this:I promise myself that I am going to spend more time with teachers discussing educational issues and finding out about the realities of their teaching situations, their particular concerns, solutions, innovations, and strengths. I am going to read more and reflect on the implications of my reading. I am going to find time to work with more students, trying out ideas I have been exploring, honing new techniques, and learning more, always more about adult language learners and second language acquisition ( Pettis,2003).