Design of Reactor Containment Systems for Nuclear Power Plants ...

  • Published on
    10-Feb-2017

  • View
    215

  • Download
    1

Transcript

  • IAEASAFETY

    STANDARDSSERIES

    Design of ReactorContainment Systemsfor Nuclear Power Plants

    SAFETY GUIDENo. NS-G-1.10

  • IAEA SAFETY RELATED PUBLICATIONS

    IAEA SAFETY STANDARDS

    Under the terms of Article III of its Statute, the IAEA is authorized to establish standardsof safety for protection against ionizing radiation and to provide for the application of thesestandards to peaceful nuclear activities.

    The regulatory related publications by means of which the IAEA establishes safetystandards and measures are issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series. This series coversnuclear safety, radiation safety, transport safety and waste safety, and also general safety (thatis, of relevance in two or more of the four areas), and the categories within it are SafetyFundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides.

    Safety Fundamentals (blue lettering) present basic objectives, concepts and principles ofsafety and protection in the development and application of nuclear energy for peacefulpurposes.

    Safety Requirements (red lettering) establish the requirements that must be met to ensuresafety. These requirements, which are expressed as shall statements, are governed bythe objectives and principles presented in the Safety Fundamentals.

    Safety Guides (green lettering) recommend actions, conditions or procedures for meetingsafety requirements. Recommendations in Safety Guides are expressed as should state-ments, with the implication that it is necessary to take the measures recommended orequivalent alternative measures to comply with the requirements.

    The IAEAs safety standards are not legally binding on Member States but may beadopted by them, at their own discretion, for use in national regulations in respect of their ownactivities. The standards are binding on the IAEA in relation to its own operations and on Statesin relation to operations assisted by the IAEA.

    Information on the IAEAs safety standards programme (including editions in languagesother than English) is available at the IAEA Internet site

    www-ns.iaea.org/standards/or on request to the Safety Co-ordination Section, IAEA, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna,Austria.

    OTHER SAFETY RELATED PUBLICATIONS

    Under the terms of Articles III and VIII.C of its Statute, the IAEA makes available andfosters the exchange of information relating to peaceful nuclear activities and serves as anintermediary among its Member States for this purpose.

    Reports on safety and protection in nuclear activities are issued in other series, inparticular the IAEA Safety Reports Series, as informational publications. Safety Reports maydescribe good practices and give practical examples and detailed methods that can be used tomeet safety requirements. They do not establish requirements or make recommendations.

    Other IAEA series that include safety related publications are the Technical ReportsSeries, the Radiological Assessment Reports Series, the INSAG Series, the TECDOCSeries, the Provisional Safety Standards Series, the Training Course Series, the IAEAServices Series and the Computer Manual Series, and Practical Radiation Safety Manualsand Practical Radiation Technical Manuals. The IAEA also issues reports on radiologicalaccidents and other special publications.

  • DESIGN OF REACTORCONTAINMENT SYSTEMS FOR

    NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

  • The following States are Members of the International Atomic Energy Agency:

    The Agencys Statute was approved on 23 October 1956 by the Conference on the Statute ofthe IAEA held at United Nations Headquarters, New York; it entered into force on 29 July 1957.The Headquarters of the Agency are situated in Vienna. Its principal objective is to accelerate andenlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.

    IAEA, 2004

    Permission to reproduce or translate the information contained in this publication may beobtained by writing to the International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100,A-1400 Vienna, Austria.

    Printed by the IAEA in AustriaSeptember 2004STI/PUB/1189

    AFGHANISTANALBANIAALGERIAANGOLAARGENTINAARMENIAAUSTRALIAAUSTRIAAZERBAIJANBANGLADESHBELARUSBELGIUMBENINBOLIVIABOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINABOTSWANABRAZILBULGARIABURKINA FASOCAMEROONCANADACENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLICCHILECHINACOLOMBIACOSTA RICACTE DIVOIRECROATIACUBACYPRUSCZECH REPUBLICDEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGODENMARKDOMINICAN REPUBLICECUADOREGYPTEL SALVADORERITREAESTONIAETHIOPIAFINLANDFRANCEGABONGEORGIAGERMANYGHANAGREECE

    GUATEMALAHAITIHOLY SEEHONDURASHUNGARYICELANDINDIAINDONESIAIRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAQIRELANDISRAELITALYJAMAICAJAPANJORDANKAZAKHSTANKENYAKOREA, REPUBLIC OFKUWAITKYRGYZSTANLATVIALEBANONLIBERIALIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYALIECHTENSTEINLITHUANIALUXEMBOURGMADAGASCARMALAYSIAMALIMALTAMARSHALL ISLANDSMAURITIUSMEXICOMONACOMONGOLIAMOROCCOMYANMARNAMIBIANETHERLANDSNEW ZEALANDNICARAGUANIGERNIGERIANORWAYPAKISTANPANAMAPARAGUAY

    PERUPHILIPPINESPOLANDPORTUGALQATARREPUBLIC OF MOLDOVAROMANIARUSSIAN FEDERATIONSAUDI ARABIASENEGALSERBIA AND MONTENEGROSEYCHELLESSIERRA LEONESINGAPORESLOVAKIASLOVENIASOUTH AFRICASPAINSRI LANKASUDANSWEDENSWITZERLANDSYRIAN ARAB REPUBLICTAJIKISTANTHAILANDTHE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIATUNISIATURKEYUGANDAUKRAINEUNITED ARAB EMIRATESUNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELANDUNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIAUNITED STATES OF AMERICAURUGUAYUZBEKISTANVENEZUELAVIETNAMYEMENZAMBIAZIMBABWE

  • SAFETY STANDARDS SERIES No. NS-G-1.10

    DESIGN OF REACTOR CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS FOR

    NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SAFETY GUIDE

    INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCYVIENNA, 2004

  • IAEA Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    Design of reactor containment systems for nuclear power plants. Vienna : International Atomic Energy Agency, 2004.

    p. ; 24 cm. (Safety standards series, ISSN 1020525X ; no.NS-G-1.10)

    STI/PUB/1189ISBN 9201036043Includes bibliographical references.

    1. Nuclear power plants Design and construction. 2. Nuclearreactors Containment. I. International Atomic Energy Agency.II. Series.

    IAEAL 0400378

  • FOREWORD

    by Mohamed ElBaradeiDirector General

    One of the statutory functions of the IAEA is to establish or adoptstandards of safety for the protection of health, life and property in thedevelopment and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and toprovide for the application of these standards to its own operations as well as toassisted operations and, at the request of the parties, to operations under anybilateral or multilateral arrangement, or, at the request of a State, to any of thatStates activities in the field of nuclear energy.

    The following bodies oversee the development of safety standards: theCommission on Safety Standards (CSS); the Nuclear Safety StandardsCommittee (NUSSC); the Radiation Safety Standards Committee (RASSC);the Transport Safety Standards Committee (TRANSSC); and the Waste SafetyStandards Committee (WASSC). Member States are widely represented onthese committees.

    In order to ensure the broadest international consensus, safety standardsare also submitted to all Member States for comment before approvalby the IAEA Board of Governors (for Safety Fundamentals and SafetyRequirements) or, on behalf of the Director General, by the PublicationsCommittee (for Safety Guides).

    The IAEAs safety standards are not legally binding on Member Statesbut may be adopted by them, at their own discretion, for use in nationalregulations in respect of their own activities. The standards are binding on theIAEA in relation to its own operations and on States in relation to operationsassisted by the IAEA. Any State wishing to enter into an agreement with theIAEA for its assistance in connection with the siting, design, construction,commissioning, operation or decommissioning of a nuclear facility or any otheractivities will be required to follow those parts of the safety standards thatpertain to the activities to be covered by the agreement. However, it should berecalled that the final decisions and legal responsibilities in any licensingprocedures rest with the States.

    Although the safety standards establish an essential basis for safety, theincorporation of more detailed requirements, in accordance with nationalpractice, may also be necessary. Moreover, there will generally be specialaspects that need to be assessed on a case by case basis.

  • The physical protection of fissile and radioactive materials and of nuclearpower plants as a whole is mentioned where appropriate but is not treated indetail; obligations of States in this respect should be addressed on the basis ofthe relevant instruments and publications developed under the auspices of theIAEA. Non-radiological aspects of industrial safety and environmentalprotection are also not explicitly considered; it is recognized that States shouldfulfil their international undertakings and obligations in relation to these.

    The requirements and recommendations set forth in the IAEA safetystandards might not be fully satisfied by some facilities built to earlierstandards. Decisions on the way in which the safety standards are applied tosuch facilities will be taken by individual States.

    The attention of States is drawn to the fact that the safety standards of theIAEA, while not legally binding, are developed with the aim of ensuring thatthe peaceful uses of nuclear energy and of radioactive materials are undertakenin a manner that enables States to meet their obligations under generallyaccepted principles of international law and rules such as those relating toenvironmental protection. According to one such general principle, theterritory of a State must not be used in such a way as to cause damage inanother State. States thus have an obligation of diligence and standard of care.

    Civil nuclear activities conducted within the jurisdiction of States are, asany other activities, subject to obligations to which States may subscribe underinternational conventions, in addition to generally accepted principles ofinternational law. States are expected to adopt within their national legalsystems such legislation (including regulations) and other standards andmeasures as may be necessary to fulfil all of their international obligationseffectively.

    EDITORIAL NOTE

    An appendix, when included, is considered to form an integral part of the standardand to have the same status as the main text. Annexes, footnotes and bibliographies, ifincluded, are used to provide additional information or practical examples that might behelpful to the user.

    The safety standards use the form shall in making statements about requirements,responsibilities and obligations. Use of the form should denotes recommendations of adesired option.

    The English version of the text is the authoritative version.

  • CONTENTS

    1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    Background (1.11.3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Objective (1.41.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Scope (1.61.9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Structure (1.10). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    2. CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS AND THEIR SAFETY FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    General (2.12.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Confinement of radioactive material (2.32.14). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Protection against external events (2.15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Biological shielding (2.16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    3. GENERAL DESIGN BASIS OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    Derivation of the design basis (3.13.28) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    4. DESIGN OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS FOR OPERATIONAL STATES AND FOR DESIGN BASIS ACCIDENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    General (4.14.40) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Structural design of containment systems (4.414.81) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Energy management (4.824.120) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Management of radionuclides (4.1214.155) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Management of combustible gases (4.1564.166) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Mechanical features of the containment (4.1674.195) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Materials (4.1964.214) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Instrumentation and control systems (4.2154.234). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60Support systems (4.2354.238) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

    5. TESTS AND INSPECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    Commissioning tests (5.15.14) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65In-service tests and inspections (5.155.31) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

  • 6. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SEVERE ACCIDENTS . . . 70

    General (6.16.7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70Structural behaviour of the containment (6.86.12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73Energy management (6.136.17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74Management of radionuclides (6.186.21) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75Management of combustible gases (6.226.27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Instrumentation (6.286.33) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77Guidelines for severe accident management (6.34) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

    APPENDIX: INSTRUMENTATION FOR MONITORINGOF THE CONTAINMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

    REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

    ANNEX I: EXAMPLES OF CONTAINMENT DESIGNS . . . . . . . . 89

    ANNEX II: ILLUSTRATION OF CATEGORIES OF ISOLATION FEATURES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

    ANNEX III: SEVERE ACCIDENT PHENOMENA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

    CONTRIBUTORS TO DRAFTING AND REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113BODIES FOR THE ENDORSEMENT OF SAFETY STANDARDS . . 115

  • 1. INTRODUCTION

    BACKGROUND

    1.1. This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safetystandards for nuclear power plants. It is a revision of the Safety Guide onDesign of the Reactor Containment Systems in Nuclear Power Plants (SafetySeries No. 50-SG-D12) issued in 1985 and supplements the Safety Require-ments publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design [1]. The presentSafety Guide was prepared on the basis of a systematic review of the relevantpublications, including the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design [1], theSafety Fundamentals publication on The Safety of Nuclear...

Recommended

View more >