Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants ?· Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants Nuclear Development NUCLEAR•ENERGY•AGENCY…

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<ul><li><p>DecommissioningNuclear Power Plants</p><p>Nuclear Development</p><p>N U C L E A R E N E R G Y A G E N C Y</p><p>Policies, Strategies and Costs</p><p>Decom</p><p>missioning N</p><p>uclear Pow</p><p>er Plants</p><p>2003</p><p>Decommissioning Nuclear PowerPlants</p><p>The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a topic of increasing interest to governments andthe industry as many nuclear units approach retirement. It is important in this context to assessdecommissioning costs and to ensure that adequate funds are set aside to meet future financialliabilities arising after nuclear power plants are shut down. Furthermore, understanding how nationalpolicies and industrial strategies affect those costs is essential for ensuring the overall economiceffectiveness of the nuclear energy sector.</p><p>This report, based upon data provided by 26 countries and analysed by government and industryexperts, covers a variety of reactor types and sizes. The findings on decommissioning cost elementsand driving factors in their variance will be of interest to analysts and policy makers in the nuclearenergy field.</p><p>(66 2003 22 1 P) 40.00ISBN 92-64-10431-3</p><p>9:HSTCQE=VUYXVU:</p></li><li><p>Nuclear Development</p><p>Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants:Policies, Strategies and Costs</p><p> OECD 2003</p><p>NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCYORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT</p></li><li><p>ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT</p><p>Pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention signed in Paris on 14th December 1960, and which came into force on30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shall promote policiesdesigned:</p><p> to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living inMember countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of theworld economy;</p><p> to contribute to sound economic expansion in Member as well as non-member countries in the process ofeconomic development; and</p><p> to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance withinternational obligations.</p><p>The original Member countries of the OECD are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the UnitedKingdom and the United States. The following countries became Members subsequently through accession at the datesindicated hereafter: Japan (28th April 1964), Finland (28th January 1969), Australia (7th June 1971), New Zealand (29thMay 1973), Mexico (18th May 1994), the Czech Republic (21st December 1995), Hungary (7th May 1996), Poland (22ndNovember 1996), Korea (12th December 1996) and the Slovak Republic (14 December 2000). The Commission of theEuropean Communities takes part in the work of the OECD (Article 13 of the OECD Convention).</p><p>NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY</p><p>The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) was established on 1st February 1958 under the name of the OEECEuropean Nuclear Energy Agency. It received its present designation on 20th April 1972, when Japan became its firstnon-European full Member. NEA membership today consists of 28 OECD Member countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium,Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg,Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, theUnited Kingdom and the United States. The Commission of the European Communities also takes part in the work of theAgency.</p><p>The mission of the NEA is:</p><p> to assist its Member countries in maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, thescientific, technological and legal bases required for a safe, environmentally friendly and economical use ofnuclear energy for peaceful purposes, as well as</p><p> to provide authoritative assessments and to forge common understandings on key issues, as input togovernment decisions on nuclear energy policy and to broader OECD policy analyses in areas such as energyand sustainable development.</p><p>Specific areas of competence of the NEA include safety and regulation of nuclear activities, radioactive wastemanagement, radiological protection, nuclear science, economic and technical analyses of the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear lawand liability, and public information. The NEA Data Bank provides nuclear data and computer program services forparticipating countries.</p><p>In these and related tasks, the NEA works in close collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency inVienna, with which it has a Co-operation Agreement, as well as with other international organisations in the nuclear field.</p><p> OECD 2003Permission to reproduce a portion of this work for non-commercial purposes or classroom use should be obtained through theCentre franais dexploitation du droit de copie (CCF), 20, rue des Grands-Augustins, 75006 Paris, France, Tel. (33-1) 44 0747 70, Fax (33-1) 46 34 67 19, for every country except the United States. In the United States permission should be obtainedthrough the Copyright Clearance Center, Customer Service, (508)750-8400, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,USA, or CCC Online: http://www.copyright.com/. All other applications for permission to reproduce or translate all or partof this book should be made to OECD Publications, 2, rue Andr-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France.</p></li><li><p>3</p><p>FOREWORD</p><p>This publication is a contribution to NEA activities in the field of decommissioning. It focuseson issues relevant for policy makers in governments and the industry, complementing other documentsprepared and published by the Agency, which cover the technical and regulatory aspects ofdecommissioning.</p><p>The report gives insights into decommissioning policies, strategies and costs in the 26 countriesthat participated in the study. It presents decommissioning cost estimates provided by experts fromgovernment agencies and the industry involved in decommissioning activities. Cost estimates for alarge number of nuclear power plants, including a broad range of reactor types, sizes and sites, areanalysed with an emphasis on understanding the main reasons for their variability.</p><p>The study was carried out by a group of experts from member countries and internationalorganisations under the joint auspices of three NEA committees: the Committee for Technical andEconomic Studies on Nuclear Energy Development and the Fuel Cycle (NDC), the Committee onRadiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) and the Radioactive Waste Management Committee(RWMC). The RWMC Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling provided valuablecomments on the report. The study also benefited from the participation of representatives fromseveral non-member countries invited through, and supported by, the International Atomic EnergyAgency (IAEA).</p><p>This study reflects the collective views of the participating experts though not necessarily thoseof their parent organisations or of member country governments. The report is published under theresponsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.</p></li><li><p>5</p><p>TABLE OF CONTENTS</p><p>Foreword .........................................................................................................................................3</p><p>Executive Summary .......................................................................................................................9</p><p>1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................13</p><p>Definitions............................................................................................................................14</p><p>Objectives of the study.........................................................................................................15</p><p>Scope of the study ................................................................................................................15</p><p>Working method...................................................................................................................16</p><p>Other relevant international activities ..................................................................................17</p><p>2. Decommissioning policies and strategies..........................................................................21</p><p>Decommissioning policy......................................................................................................21</p><p>Decommissioning strategies.................................................................................................31</p><p>3. Decommissioning cost estimating and funding approaches ...........................................45</p><p>Elements of decommissioning cost estimates ......................................................................46</p><p>Approaches for estimating costs ..........................................................................................48</p><p>Funding aspects....................................................................................................................49</p><p>4. Decommissioning cost data................................................................................................53</p><p>Reactor types and sizes ........................................................................................................54</p><p>Reactor history and decommissioning schedule ..................................................................54</p><p>Cost data reporting and conversion......................................................................................57</p><p>Summary presentation of cost data ......................................................................................58</p><p>5. Analysis of cost drivers ......................................................................................................67</p><p>Type of reactor .....................................................................................................................67</p><p>Size of reactor ......................................................................................................................68</p><p>Number of units on the site ..................................................................................................68</p><p>Operating history .................................................................................................................69</p><p>Scope of decommissioning activities ..................................................................................69</p><p>Decommissioning strategy options .....................................................................................70</p></li><li><p>6</p><p>Site re-use ............................................................................................................................70</p><p>Clearance and classification levels ......................................................................................71</p><p>Regulatory standards............................................................................................................71</p><p>Amount of waste .................................................................................................................71</p><p>Availability of radioactive waste repositories .....................................................................72</p><p>Uncertainties and uncertainty treatment ..............................................................................72</p><p>Labour costs ........................................................................................................................73</p><p>Social and political factors ..................................................................................................73</p><p>6. Conclusions .........................................................................................................................75</p><p>Decommissioning policy and strategy ................................................................................75</p><p>Cost variability ....................................................................................................................76</p><p>Effect of decommissioning strategy on cost .......................................................................78</p><p>Waste volumes, management and disposal .........................................................................79</p><p>Overall concluding remarks .................................................................................................79</p><p>Annex 1. Members of the Expert Group, contributors to the reportand respondents to the questionnaire .........................................................................81</p><p>Annex 2. Questionnaire ............................................................................................................89</p><p>Annex 3. Exchange rates and adjustment factors ....................................................................105</p><p>List of Tables</p><p>Table 2.1 Summary of existing repositories that accept radioactivedecommissioning waste .............................................................................................29</p><p>Table 4.1 Distribution by reactor type and size of the cost data sets provided and analysed ....55</p><p>Table 4.2 Starting and shutdown dates of plants included in the study ....................................56</p><p>Table 4.3 Format of the cost data requested in the questionnaire .............................................58</p><p>Table 4.4 Decommissioning cost estimates for PWRs .............................................................59</p><p>Table 4.5 Decommissioning cost estimates for VVERs ...........................................................60</p><p>Table 4.6 Decommissioning cost estimates for BWRs .............................................................61</p><p>Table 4.7 Decommissioning cost estimates for PHWRs/Candus deferred dismantling ........61</p><p>Table 4.8 Decommissioning cost estimates for GCRs and others ............................................62</p><p>Table 4.9 Average contributions of major cost items to total decommissioning costsfor each reactor type...................................................................................................65</p><p>Table 6.1 Average decommissioning costs and standard deviations ........................................77</p></li><li><p>7</p><p>List of Figures</p><p>Figure 2.1 Reactor types for which decommissioning strategy information was provided .......32</p><p>Figure 2.2 Capacity of the reactors for which decommissioning strategy informationwas provided .............................................................................................................33</p><p>Figure 2.3 Cumulated number of shutdown reactors .................................................................33</p><p>Figure 2.4 Weight of radioactive materials from the reactor .....................................................34</p><p>Figure 2.5 Total weight of radioactive materials ........................................................................35</p><p>Figure 2.6 Weight of radioactive reactor materials per MWe ....................................................35</p><p>Figure 2.7 Weight of total radioactive materials per MWe ...................</p></li></ul>

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