Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicist’s Labyrinth

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The Physical TouristDaedalus in Dublin: A Physicists LabyrinthThomas C. OConnor*I describe some of the rich physical and natural-philosophy heritage of the urban center ofthe Irish capital Dublin (first tour) and its environs (second tour), in a two-part excursionthat could take between two and eight hours in toto. In terms of history, both tours centeraround the nineteenth century. The first tour is located in and around Trinity College, andwe encounter such personages as William Rowan Hamilton, George Fitzgerald, ErnestWalton, and Erwin Schrodinger, among others. Moving away from Trinity College, thesecond tour explores some of the periphery of the city. I describe the role of politics, money,and religion in shaping the emergence and development of scientific talent among the Irishpeople, and consequently the footprint left by physics in the city today, with its numeroussites and names that put Irish physics in an honorable place among the nations.Key words: Dublin; nineteenth century; physics; university education; naturalPhilosophy; Trinity College; University of Dublin; Catholic University of Ireland.Historical SettingDublin is situated near the middle of the east coast of Ireland, where the riverLiffey empties into the Irish Sea. From the eighth to the eleventh century, it was asubstantial settlement and trading hub for the Norsemen (Vikings). In the twelfthcentury, it was the site of the invasion of Ireland by Normans from Britain andbecame the center for English rule in Ireland. This rule was gradually extendedfrom a small dominion or Pale around Dublin to other parts of the country, sothat by the end of the sixteenth century Dublin was the capital of Ireland. Foranother century the country was in turmoil during the campaigns of OliverCromwell and William III to secure military control of the whole island and set thelandlord classes on the ascendency to rule the country. This enabled Dublin todevelop in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to the extent that it became* Thomas C. OConnor joined the Department of Physics at what is now called the NationalUniversity of Ireland, Galway, in 1956. Upon his retirement in 1996, he continued to workon various projects including the history of science and preservation of instrumentation.When he died, aged 81, after a sudden illness on November 6, 2012, he had almost com-pleted this article, which has been finished for him in his memory.Phys. Perspect. 16 (2014) 98128 2014 Springer Basel1422-6944/14/010098-31DOI 10.1007/s00016-014-0131-y Physics in Perspective98second to London as the most important city in the growing British Empire. Thecity expanded outside its walls with wide streets, elegant Georgian terraced townhouses, pleasant squares, and gardens (figure 1). Some landlords built largeimposing homes such as Leinster House, now the seat of the Irish parliament, andthe government erected many fine public buildings.Dublin was mainly an administrative center without local energy sources and didnot develop large industries during the Industrial Revolution. It did have breweriesand distilleries, of which Guinness and Jameson were the best known. Throughoutthe twentieth century the suburbs expanded to incorporate many villages andtowns. Today, many industries can be found in industrial parks around the city,including Microsoft in Sandyford, IBM in Damestown, and Intel in Leixlip.Early HistorySophisticated science and technology have existed in Ireland from the earliesttimes. The Neolithic inhabitants of the Boyne valley circa 3000 BC constructedFig. 1. The area around Trinity College in Dublin. Source: http://www.tcd.ie/Maps/.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 99http://www.tcd.ie/Maps/large passage grave mounds involving remarkable skills in astronomy and engi-neering techniques. One of these, now called Newgrange, is 80 m in diameter andhas a small opening above the entrance to the 20 m passage that allows the risingsun at the winter solstice to penetrate into the central chamber for a few minutesevery year (figure 2). This predates the pyramids of Giza by about 500 years. TheTreasury of the National Museum contains prehistoric gold ornamentation andmetal work of a high order. During the Christian era, in the sixth to the ninthcenturies, monks produced ecclesiastical metalwork and illuminated manuscriptsof great quality, noteworthy examples being the Ardagh chalice and the Book ofKells. Monks from Irish monasteries were also noted throughout Europe for theirskills in astronomical calculations, such as in establishing the date of Easter.Toward the end of the sixteenth century, the civil authorities in Dublin becamemore secure and moves were made to establish a university. The land and buildingsof the former Augustinian Priory of All Hallows to the east of the city walls weregiven to the city at the dissolution of the monasteries and were designated as thesite for a university. On March 3, 1592, Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter tocreate the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, to become the mother of auniversity with the aim of providing education, training and instruction of youthsand students in the Arts and Faculties that they may be the better assisted in thestudy of the liberal arts and the cultivation of virtue and religion. Now knownformally as Dublin University, and informally as Trinity College, it was to followthe model of the great English universities of Oxford and Cambridge, though itFig. 2. The Neolithic monument Newgrange, in County Meath, Ireland. Credit: Tourism IrelandImagery.100 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.never developed a multiplicity of constituent Colleges. It has been referred to asthe last of the medieval and the first of the colonial universities.1 The earlycurriculum consisted mainly of philosophy and theology, while the natural scienceswere presented mainly in medieval dress with an emphasis on mathematics. In1724, the University established the Erasmus Smith Professorship of Natural Phi-losophy. The first holder of the chair, Richard Helsham (16821738, figure 3) heldcredentials in medicine, and wrote one of the first textbooks in English on physics.Lectures on Natural Philosophy (1739). The book, edited by Helshams formerstudent Bryan Robinson, remained a classic for more than a century and ranthrough eight editions in Dublin, London, and Philadelphia.Intellectual Life in DublinAn idea of the development of Dublins intellectual life may be gleaned from thehistory of some of its professional and intellectual discussion groups.2 As the maincenter of higher education in Dublin, Trinity College provided training for theprofessions and was the wellspring for most of the intellectual life in the city. In1684, William Molyneux (16561698), following the example of the Royal Societyin London, set up the Dublin Society for the Improving of Natural Knowledge,Mathematics, and Mechanics to encourage the interest in science in Ireland.Known as the Dublin Philosophical Society, it met with mixed success and wasabandoned in 1708. Others sought to set up a Fraternity of Physicians at Trinity toregulate the training of medical doctors, and in 1711 the University established amedical School of Physic, now known as the School of Medicine. Members of thisFig. 3. Richard Helsham (16821738). Credit: Professor Dennis Weaire, Department of Physics,Trinity College Dublin.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 101school participated in founding the Royal College of Physicians in Ireland under acharter of 1692 and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland in 1784, both ofwhich were independent of the University and continue to provide medicaltraining, qualifications, and research to the present day.In 1731, a group of landed gentry and professional men founded the DublinSociety for Improving Husbandry, Manufactures, and other Useful Arts, whichacquired the Royal prefix in 1820, when King George IV (17621830) becamepatron of the Society. It paid considerable attention to the applied sciences. TheRoyal Dublin Society was involved with the foundation of many cultural andscientific institutions in Ireland and continues to play a prominent role in thepromotion of science in Ireland. In 1785, the Irish Academy was founded torepresent more fundamental and academic scholarship and publish material inscience, antiquities, and polite literature. It received the Royal approval from KingGeorge III in 1786. The Royal Irish Academy continues to be very active today inmost aspects of the sciences and humanities.Developments in Higher EducationTrinity College was the only university in Ireland for over two hundred years andstill occupies its original site. It had a generally Protestant Anglican ethos. In 1785,it established an astronomical observatory at Dunsink on a low hill about fivemiles outside the north west of the city. This observatory is still operational today.In 1795 the Irish Parliamentknown as Grattans Parliamentin Dublin passedan Act to create an academy for the better education of persons professing thepopish or Roman Catholic religion at Maynooth, about 12 miles west of Dublin.This became Irelands national seminary and did not cater to non-clerical studentsuntil recently. It has always had a professor of natural and experimental philos-ophy or physics.In 1845, the Government in London set up the Queens University of Ireland(QUI) with constituent Colleges in Belfast, Cork, and Galway to provide non-denominational third (postsecondary) level education in the provinces of Irelandoutside Dublin. From the outset, each College had a chair of natural philosophywhose duties included teaching experimental physics and mathematical physics toadvanced classes. Apart from their medical schools, the number of graduatesproduced was small.The Catholic bishops of Ireland responded in 1854 by setting up the CatholicUniversity of Ireland with John Henry Newman (18011890), then a plain priestand recent convert, as rector. The government provided no official recognition orfinancial support for this University, which, apart from its medical school, lan-guished for want of students. In 1883, its operations, at 8486 St. Stephens Greenin Dublin, were placed in the care of the Jesuit Society and developed as Uni-versity College Dublin.3 Meanwhile, the Royal Dublin Society was active inencouraging applied science and industry in Ireland, sponsoring public lectures102 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.and providing laboratories for research. At the instigation of Robert Kane(18091890), it established a Museum of Irish Industry at 51 St. Stephens Green.In 1867, this was taken over by the government and incorporated into the RoyalCollege of Science for Ireland, which provided advanced instruction in the appliedsciences, engineering, mining, and agriculture.4To deal with the Irish University question, in 1880 the government in Londondecided to replace the Queens University of Ireland with the Royal University ofIreland (RUI), which had been only an examining and degree-awarding body. Ithad substantial premises on Earlsfort Terrace (figure 4) with extensive laborato-ries that were used only for practical examinations a few times each year. Fellowsof the University could obtain permission to use the laboratory facilities for per-sonal research at other times of the year. The three Queens Colleges and somedenominational educational establishments around the country could preparestudents to take the RUI examinations and obtain degrees. Among the latter wereMagee College in Derry, University College Dublin, St. Patricks College May-nooth, and some large schools and seminaries that were incorporated into theCatholic University of Ireland.Further reorganization of the universities took place in 1908 when the RoyalUniversity of Ireland was abolished. The Queens College in Belfast becameFig. 4. The central building at the Royal University of Ireland, now converted into the NationalConcert Hall. Credit: Failte Ireland Imagery.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 103independent as the Queens University Belfast (QUB), and the Queens Collegesin Cork and Galway were confederated with University College Dublin to formthe National University of Ireland (NUI). St. Patricks College in Maynooth alsobecame a recognized College of the NUI. In 1996, further developments retainedthe NUI, though the individual colleges at Dublin, Cork, Galway, and Maynoothwere given greater autonomy.Technical education and training were not widespread in Ireland during thenineteenth century because the country was not heavily industrialized. Mechanicsinstitutes existed in the larger urban areas. In 1887, the City of Dublin TechnicalInstitute was established in Kevin Street. Further colleges were established aroundthe city and developed into the Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) of today. In1980, a new National Institute of Higher Education (NIHE) was established toprovide training for new technological disciplines and in 1989 was given universitystatus as Dublin City University on a campus in the north of the city. EightRegional Technical Colleges were set up around the country in the 1960s, whichwere upgraded to degree-awarding Institutes of Technology in the 1990s.In 1940, the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS) was established toprovide advanced research and training in Celtic Studies and Theoretical Physics.It attracted such scholars as Erwin Schrodinger (18871961) and J. L. Synge(18971995). In 1947, a School of Cosmic Physics was established to cover theareas of Meteorology and Geophysics, Cosmic Rays, and Astrophysics andAstronomy. In recent decades, with vigorous support from the Government, allthese higher education establishments have increased their research activities,particularly in the broad areas of biotechnology, photonics, ICT, astrophysics, andenvironmental change studies. In addition, many multinational firms in the area ofbiopharmacology, computing systems, medical devices, and software have set upsuccessful manufacturing and research and development facilities in Ireland.John Tyndalls Apology and a Delayed ReplyJohn Tyndall (18201893, figure 5)5 is best remembered today as the discoverer ofthe greenhouse effect and as the debunker (with Louis Pasteur) of the theory ofspontaneous generation as the cause of epidemic disease. He was from Carlow,moving to England and Germany after his first education locally. Although he didnot live in Dublin or even in Ireland, after the age of twenty he was an influentialvoice on science education throughout the United Kingdom. Let me mention oneepisode involving Tyndall to convey some of the complexity surrounding thedevelopment of science in Ireland towards the end of the nineteenth century,putting as it were a little flesh onto the bare bones of buildings and names.On Wednesday, August 19, 1874, Tyndall addressed a meeting of the BritishAssociation for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) in Belfast and gave aninflammatory speech in which he appeared to espouse materialist values; hisspeech was angrily denounced by both Protestants and Catholics in Belfast. Some104 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.months later, Cardinal Paul Cullen of Dublin, through his nephew Bishop Moran,issued a pastoral address condemning Tyndall as professor of materialism. Inreply to his many religious opponents, Cullen in particular, Tyndall published athorough Apology for the Belfast Address, where among many other things hereplied to several criticisms and then passed to the attack in the following way:Before me lies a document bearing the date of November 1873, which, after appearing for amoment, unaccountably vanished from public view. It is a Memorial addressed, by Seventy ofthe Students and Ex-students of the Catholic University in Ireland, to the Episcopal Board ofthe University; and it constitutes the plainest and bravest remonstrance ever addressed by Irishlaymen to their spiritual pastors and masters. It expresses the profoundest dissatisfaction withthe curriculum marked out for the students of the University; setting forth the extraordinaryfact that the lecture-list for the faculty of Science, published a month before they wrote, did notcontain the name of a single Professor of the Physical or Natural Sciences.And further down: The memorialists point with bitterness to the fact, that thename of no Irish Catholic is known in connection with the physical and naturalsciences.To my knowledge, no direct reply was given to these observations at the time,but a reply can be simply mounted based on two facts that were no secret toTyndall. First, the allegation that no Irish Catholic (was) known in connectionwith physics and the natural sciences in or around 1874 was simply false, andTyndall knew better than going along with the memorialists on this point. Heknew Sir Robert John Kane (18091890), Professor of Chemistry in QueensCollege Cork; Henry Hennessy (18261901), physicist and mathematician, Pro-fessor of Natural Philosophy in the same college and earlier in the CatholicFig. 5. John Tyndall (18201893). Source: http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/*irlcar2/John_Tyndall.htm.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 105http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~irlcar2/John_Tyndall.htmhttp://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~irlcar2/John_Tyndall.htmUniversity of Ireland (CUI) under Newman; astronomer John Birmingham(18221884), who drew the first catalogue of colored stars; as well as other IrishCatholic scholars. Second, the comparison between the CUI (as the memorialistsexperienced it in 1874) and the University of Dublin was unfair, as if comparingthe strengths of two creatures that were at very different stages in their devel-opmental histories. TCD had been founded in 1591, the CUI in 1851. The formerhad a large grant from the government in London, while the latter was supportedby an impoverished Catholic population. While at the time TCD had between1000 and 1500 students, the CUI had about twenty. Physics was among the mostexpensive subjects to teach, while the humanities were the most inexpensive, sothe choice of subjects for the curricula in the CUI was severely limited, even if theyhad had an eminent professor available to them. Throughout the nineteenthcentury in Ireland, Catholics in the sciences were indeed a minority, even ifdemographically they constituted the majority.First TourFirst we will take a walking tour in central Dublin. The Liffey flows from west toeast through the center of the city and divides it into the Northside and theSouthside. The principal bridge, OConnell Bridge, is named after the patriot andparliamentarian Daniel OConnell (17751848) and has the distinction of beingwider than it is long. Looking along the main thoroughfare, OConnell Street, wenote Dublins Spire, which was erected to mark the Millennium in 2000. It acts as apoint of reference when viewed from various parts of the city. A short walksouthwards along Westmoreland Street leads us to College Green, a busy openarea in front of Trinity College. On one side is the imposing building that func-tioned as the home of the Irish Parliament until 1800, when it was abolished bythe Act of Union, with Ireland becoming part of the United Kingdom of GreatBritain and Ireland. This building served as the seat of both chambers(the Lords and Commons) of the Irish Parliament of the Kingdom of Ireland, andwas the worlds first building designed as a two-chamber parliament house; it iscurrently a branch of the Bank of Ireland. Behind us, Dame Street leads westtowards City Hall and Dublin Castle in the heart of the ancient city, once thefinancial center of Dublin. To the south, Grafton Street leads to a fashionableshopping area and the main Dublin tourism center is close by in what was StAndrews Church in Suffolk Street.Let us now pass through the main gate of Trinity College through the frontbuilding erected in 1779 and enter the Front Square, which retains its old-worldappearance. One may pause to consider how these cobbled stones once felt thetread of such physicists and mathematicians as Richard Helsham (16721731;though in his case probably not these actual cobblestones), the first Erasmus SmithProfessor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy (as physics was then known)from 1724, William Rowan Hamilton (18051867), James McCullagh (18091847),106 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.Humphrey Lloyd (18801881), George Fitzgerald (18511901), John Joly(18571933), and Ernest Walton (19031995). The gowned and whiskered sons ofan elite have been replaced by a multinational student body more casually dressed,and with an increasing number of women since Trinity admitted its first womenstudents in 1904.Crossing Front or Parliament Square diagonally to the right brings us to the oldlibrary of the College, with its famous Long Room housing over 200,000 of itsolder books. As a copyright library, it is entitled to a copy of every publication inthe UK and Ireland after 1801. It now has over four million volumes and alsohouses many important ancient manuscripts, including a special exhibition of theworld-famous Book of Kells, a magnificently decorated illuminated copy of thefour Gospels dating from the eighth century. This exhibit is well worth a visit; planto spend at least thirty minutes to marvel at the skills of the ancient monks in theirscriptorium. The library also reminds us of the many books produced by Trinityacademics over the centuries, many of them textbooks written in English as abreak with the traditional Latin. Richard Helsham first produced Lectures inNatural Philosophy in 1739; an edited edition recently appeared in 1999. WilliamMolyneaux (16561698) wrote the Dioptrica Nova, the first optical treatise inEnglish in 1692, and many others followed. A bookstore makes available some ofthe newer ones. Now let us pass on by newer extensions to the Library named afterfamous College Fellows: the Berkeley Library, named after George Berkeley(16851753), a philosopher and don who also gave his name to a University inCalifornia; the Lecky library, recalling the noted historian William Lecky(18381903); and the Ussher Library in memory of Archbishop James Ussher(15811656), whose biblical studies led him to conclude that the world began in4004 BC.We now come to the Museum Building (1855), with a beautiful, recentlyrefurbished stone facade. It was designed according to the refined aestheticalprinciples of John Ruskin as a fitting home for engineering and science, signalingtheir growing importance in the university. It is worth a quick visit to see whereJohn Joly worked in mineralogy, devising a meldometer to observe the meltingand sublimation behavior of minerals and the use of radiohalos, discolorations dueto radiation damage that form in certain rocks, which can be used to estimate theirage. He also designed a well-known steam calorimeter, developed a process forcolor photography, and devised a method for treating cancers with hollow needlesfilled with the radioactive gas radon.Walking on, we enter the beautiful green expanse of College Park, an oasis forsport in the city center. At the far end, we see the cricket pavilion and its steps,from which George Francis Fitzgerald once tried to launch himself in flight with awinged contraption. On the left is the rugby pitch still used by the members of thesecond-oldest club in the sport, the Dublin University Rugby Football Club(DURFC), founded in 1879.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 107At its end stands the main objective of our visitthe Physics Building (fig-ure 6). This building opened in 1906 and is now named after G. F. Fitzgerald(18511901, figure 7), the fifteenth Erasmus Smith Professor of Natural Philoso-phy, who had campaigned strenuously for it but did not live to see it completed.For the history of the building, and of the subject of physics in the College, thereader is invited to read Professor Weaires recent paper.6 Fitzgerald contributedtwo of the three equations central to Einsteins theory of relativity. He was veryvocal in academic politics and in determined opposition to the second Home Rulemovement. On the wall near the door, we observe the blue commemorative pla-que to one of his successors, Nobel laureate Ernest T. S. Walton (19031995,figure 8), who shared the 1951 prize with John Cockcroft (18971967) as the first tosplit the atomic nucleus with artificially accelerated particles in 1932. Waltonsoriginal accelerator is now in Cambridge. Inside the department, above the elegantstaircase (figure 9), other venerable professors look down on visitors. Theseinclude J. H. Jellett (18171888), whose saccharimeter is on display in presses onthe landing, and Humphrey Lloyd (18001881), who demonstrated conicalrefraction in biaxial crystals and, by what is known as Lloyds mirror experiment,showed that light changes phase on reflection. He is also noted for the develop-ment of sensitive magnetometers that were used to map variations in terrestrialmagnetism around the world. He built a special magnetic observatory in theProvosts garden in 1838, where it stood until it was moved to the grounds ofFig. 6. The Physics Building at Trinity College. Credit: Professor Denis Weaire.108 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.University College Dublin in Belfield in 1974. Erwin Schrodinger (figure 10), whoworked here for a period of the Second World War, also looks kindly on us.The glass cases contain many interesting classical instruments and demonstra-tion apparatus, including a Wilson cloud chamber. There is a copy of Helshamsoriginal lecture notes on physics and a translation of it into Latin, dedicated toQueen Mary. In a study room is an elaborate wall clock, presented to Fitzgerald byhis students on the occasion of his marriage to Harriette Jellett in 1885. Some ofthe laboratories are now devoted to nanotechnology research. On the top floor,the large physics theater retains many of the original features from 1906. On theroof, a small observatory was added in 2008 and named after William Monck, anamateur astronomer who made the first photoelectric measurements of starlight inhis garden at 16 Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin in 1896.Behind the Physics Building is the Sami Nasr Institute of Advanced Materials(SNIAM) building, which houses modern teaching and research facilities in theFig. 7. G. F. Fitzgerald (18511901). Credit: Professor Denis Weaire.Fig. 8. T. S. Walton (19031995). Credit: Professor Denis Weaire.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 109physical and chemical aspects of material science. In the foyer are photographs ofG. F. Fitzgeralds attempts to fly in College Park during the 1880s. There is also amodel of the Weaire-Phelan tightly packed foam (figure 11) that was used toconstruct the roof of the aquatic center for the Olympic Games in Beijing. Tolearn more about the historical treasures in the School of Physics and the moderncutting-edge research in the areas of magnetic, electronic and photonic materials,nanoscience, foams, surface physics, etc. a visitor must make arrangements inadvance through the school executive officer (see www.tcd.ie/physics).Emerging from SNIAM, we are surrounded by many new science laboratoriesand research institutes, mainly concerned with the life sciences. Crossing under theelevated railway line, we come to the Science Gallery, where temporaryFig. 9. The staircase in Trinity Colleges physics department. Credit: Professor Denis Weaire.110 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.http://www.tcd.ie/physicsexhibitions, aimed at presenting science to the public, are regularly mounted(www.sciencegallery.ie). We exit on to Pearse Street, turn right at the traffic lights,and walk under the railway line up to the top of Westland Row, passing a terraceof Georgian houses that now serve as offices for Trinity College personnel.Alternatively, we can retrace our steps to the east end of College Park and makeour way to the Parsons Building, named after Charles Parsons (18541931),developer of the steam turbine, and now home to the Department of MechanicalFig. 10. Erwin Schrodinger (18871961). Source: http://philosophyofscienceportal.blogspot.ie/2012/11/.Fig. 11. Model of Weaire-Phelan tightly packed foam. Credit: Professor Denis Weaire.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 111http://www.sciencegallery.iehttp://philosophyofscienceportal.blogspot.ie/2012/11/http://philosophyofscienceportal.blogspot.ie/2012/11/and Manufacturing Engineering (see figure 1). We can then exit Trinity throughthe Lincoln Place gate and turn left to the top of Westland Row.Crossing the road to Swenys pharmacy, we find that it retains many of thefeatures described in James Joyces (18821941) novel Ulysses. Passing around thecorner brings us into Merrion Square, one of Dublins finest Georgian Squares,where almost every house has an interesting history. Crossing the street, we findNo. 5, once home to William Stokes (18041878), a famous nineteenth-centuryphysician and member of a very distinguished family. Since 1947, it has been thehome of the School of Cosmic Physics, a part of the Dublin Institute for AdvancedStudies (DIAS). Originally it housed the Cosmic Ray section, where CormacOCeallaigh (19121996) and others studied the primary and secondary particles,and the Meteorological and Geophysics section, where Leo Pollak (18881964)developed condensation nucleus counters and Thomas Murphy conducted gravi-metric and magnetic surveys in Ireland. Today it is mainly devoted to seismicstudies and has a small exhibition in memory of Robert Mallet (18101881), whopioneered the measurement of shock waves through the earth and the epicenter ofearthquakes. His name is also displayed in Dublin at the base of the pillars in theiron railings along the Nassau Street boundary of Trinity College, which were castin his family iron foundry on Ryders Row. The Cosmic Ray section of the Schoolhas moved to Fitzwilliam Lane, and currently deals more with fundamentalquestions in Astrophysics. The Astronomy section of the School has alwaysoperated from Dunsink Observatory, where it studies solar physics and the for-mation of stars.Going back to 1 Merrion Square, we notice a plaque marking the home of SirWilliam Wilde (18151876). The plaque lists his many accomplishments, amongthem having been an eye surgeon famous in the city for his charitable work and thedeveloper of an effective ophthalmoscope. He was the father of Oscar Wilde(18541900), the playwright and poet whose statue across the road in the corner ofthe park is worth a visit to see its artistic use of multicolored stone from around theworld. A stroll across the gardens leads to 65 Merrion Square, where the DIASSchools of Celtic Studies and of Theoretical Physics were located from 1940 until1971, when they both moved to their present location at 10 Burlington Road.Erwin Schrodinger was a senior professor there from 19401956 and WalterHeitler (19041981) also worked there from 19411949.On the West side of Merrion Square is the National Gallery of Ireland, whichexhibits many masterpieces. Behind the lawn stands Leinster House, built as atown house by the Dukes of Leinster in 1745 and later the home of the RoyalDublin Society from 1815 to 1924 and the site of the worlds second GreatIndustrial Exhibition in 1853. It is now the seat of the Irish parliament (or Dail).Next is the Natural History Museum, known colloquially as the Dead Zoo,which retains many of its original Victorian display cases. Next to that are gov-ernment buildings housing the offices of the Prime Minister (or Taoiseach) and theMinister for Finance. Within this complex, behind the gates and under the clock112 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.tower, is the former Royal College of Science for Ireland, which moved therewhen it opened in 1911 and provided much of the facilities for science and engi-neering in University College Dublin, which took it over in 1926. These facilitieshave moved to the new suburban campus at Belfield to make way for Governmentoffices. The only remaining indication of its scientific past are the statues outsidethe main entrance of Robert Boyle (16271691) and William Rowan Hamilton(18051865).Passing on though the traffic lights, we enter Ely Place; the plaque on No. 7 tothe left marks the home of G. F. Fitzgerald, whom we encountered at TrinityCollege. His home now houses part of the governments Parks and Wildlife Ser-vices offices. Turning into Hume Street, we pass the former Dublin Skin andCancer Hospital and come to St. Stephens Green, another fine square with a parkin the center. Turning left, we arrive at No. 51, built in 1760 as the town house ofMonck family, and from 1848 the site of the Museum of Irish Industry and theMuseum of Economic Geology, established by Robert Kane (18091890) to pro-mote the economic development of Ireland. In 1867, it was transformed into theRoyal College of Science for Ireland, to provide instruction in matters relating toIrish industry. Here Walter Hartley (18461913) conducted his pioneeringresearch in spectroscopy, and William Barrett (18441925) had what was probablythe first purpose built laboratory for teaching physics in Dublin. When the Collegeof Science moved to its splendid new premises on Merrion Street in 1911, thehouse was taken over by the Commissioners of Public Works; more recently, it hasbecome part of the Government Department of Justice and Equality. In theentrance hall are still displayed forty examples of Irish stone such as marble,including Galway green, Kilkenny black and Cork red, but little else remains of itsscientific past.Walking up St. Stephens Green through the traffic lights, we come to EarlsfortTerrace. The right-hand side was the site of the Great Industrial Exhibitions of1865 and 1872. Some of the buildings for these were given to the Royal Universityof Ireland (RUI) on its establishment in 1880. The curricula and examinationswere drawn up by senior Fellows of the University who were members of theteaching staff of some of the third-level educational institutions in Ireland and whocould get permission to use the laboratory facilities for personal research, whenavailable. This arrangement allowed Thomas Preston (18601900) in 1896 to dis-cover the anomalous Zeeman effect in spectra excited in a magnetic field. It alsoenabled John A. McClelland (18701920) to carry out his groundbreaking studieson radioactivity and the scattering of beta rays while a professor of physics atUniversity College Dublin (UCD). When the RUI was dissolved in 1909 andreplaced by the federal National University of Ireland (NUI), the premises weregiven to UCD. These were partially demolished and replaced by the presentbuilding in 1914. McClelland conducted research on atmospheric aerosols andfriction until his death in 1920. His successor John J. Nolan (18871952) and hisbrother Patrick J. Nolan (18941984) carried on research on atmosphericVol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 113electricity. Thomas E. Nevin (19061986) led research on molecular spectroscopyand cosmic rays from the 1930s. As mentioned above, in the 1960s UCD sciencedepartments moved out to a new suburban campus at Belfield. Remaining sectionsof UCD moved out to Belfield in 2002. The building is now the National ConcertHall (figure 4) and little remains of its scientific past except a commemorativeplaque.Another site in the history of physics and astronomy was 16 Earlsfort Terrace,the home of the amateur astronomer William Monck (18391915). In the gardenbehind the house, the first absolute measurement of light from heavenly bodieswere made using a telescope supplied by Monck, a selenium cell invented by anIrishman George Minchin (18451914) in London, together with a sensitivedetector from G. F. Fitzgerald. They were able to show, for instance, that Venuswas 2.5 times brighter than Jupiter. This was the start of stellar photometry. Aplaque on No. 16 commemorates this historic experiment.We can now return to St. Stephens Green and turn left, making our way toNos. 8486, which were the premises used by the Catholic bishops in 1854 to setup the Catholic University of Ireland (CUI) with John Henry Newman(18011890), who served as Rector until 1858. Having returned to England, hebecame a cardinal in 1879 and was beatified by the Roman Catholic Church in2010. These buildings were also used by University College Dublin, whose firstprofessor of natural philosophy was Henry Hennessy (18261901), a Fellow ofthe Royal Society (FRS). He was succeeded by Monsignor Gerard Molloy(18341906), who built up a substantial collection of demonstration apparatus heused to give popular public lectures on scientific topics. Much of this collection ispreserved in UCD at its new campus in Belfield. At the time, the facilities forphysics laboratories were confined to tin sheds at the rear of No. 85. Molloybecame Rector of the CUI and was followed in 1891 by Thomas Preston, FRS(18601900) as professor of physics. When he died in 1900 he was succeeded byJohn A. McClelland, FRS (18701920), who, like Preston, did his personalresearch in the laboratories of the RUI on Earlsfort Terrace and supervised thetransfer of UCD there in 1909, as well as the building of a new physicsdepartment in 1914. A connection between these premises at the back throughthe Iveagh Gardens, now a public park, once belonged to the Earl of Iveagh, amember of the Guinness family. There is little left of the history of physics, but avisit next door to the recently restored Byzantine-style chapel built by Newmanis worthwhile.Crossing the street at the traffic lights, we leave St. Stephens Green behind andenter Cuffe Street. This takes us to Kevin Street Lower, at the end of which is thesite of Dublins first Technical Institute. The plaque commemorates ArnoldGraves (18471930), who founded this Institute and was known as the father oftechnical education in Ireland. The current building houses part of the Colleges ofScience and Engineering & Built Environment, within the greatly expandedDublin Institute of Technology (DIT).114 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.Crossing Bride Street into Kevin Street Upper, we can then make a right intoSt. Patricks Close. Here Irelands first public library was founded in 1701, byNarcissus Marsh (16361713), for all graduates and gentlemen. It contains apriceless collection of early books and maps. Marsh was a man with a wide rangeof interests, a founding member of the Dublin Philosophical Society, Provost ofTrinity, and Archbishop of Dublin. He is credited with coining the wordsacoustics and microphone for sound to correspond to optics and micro-scope for light. Shortly beyond the Marsh Library is St. Patricks Church ofIreland Cathedral, where Dean Jonathan Swift (16671745) served, whose politicalsatire Gullivers Travels predicted the existence of two moons of Mars 150 yearsbefore they were discovered. He also suggested to his flock that they move to thesuburbs from the city center to avoid the air pollution.In this part of Dublin, we are close to where many important developments inthe practice of medicine took place in the nineteenth century. The Meath Hospital,which stood in nearby Heytesbury Street before it moved out to the suburb ofTallaght in 1998, was a center for innovation in medicine. Here in 1844, FrancisRynd (18011861) performed the worlds first subcutaneous injection and thusinvented the hypodermic syringe. Here too William Stokes (18041878) pioneeredthe use of the stethoscope in medicine particularly for heart conditions such asStokes-Adams syndrome and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Robert Graves(17961853), Robert Adams (17911875), and John Houston (18021845) wereothers who contributed with Stokes to raise levels of patient care and medicaltraining that brought international renown to the Dublin School of Medicine intheir time.Adjacent to the Cathedral, we can walk through historic St. Patricks Park andturn right back on to Bride Street. Taking a left on to Bishop Street brings us pastthe National Archive and the DIT campus in Aungier Street. This is a large newfacility on the site of the old Jacobs biscuit factory. In the nearby Church of theCarmelite Fathers (in Whitefriars Street) one can find a shrine for the ancientstatue of Our Lady of Dublin and also the relics of Saint Valentine, a Romanmartyr, whose feast day on February 14 has acquired romantic connections inmore recent times.Across the street is York Street, from which one can enter the newly expandedmedical campus of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland (RCSI), founded in1784 and moved to this location in 1810. A tour of its fine reception rooms underthe gaze of many distinguished past Presidents can be arranged, but a virtual touris available on the website www.RCSI.ie in a video entitled 200 years on St.Stephens Green. Much of the substantial collection of surgical instruments,including the first practical endoscope invented in 1865 by a physician FrancisCruise (18341912) to look inside a patients body, is now on public display in thenew hospital in Beaumount in North Dublin. The library of the College is nowhoused nearby in the former Mercers Hospital building. Back on St. StephensGreen, we can see the fine facade of the RCSI.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 115http://www.RCSI.ieContinuing a walk along St. Stephens Green to its north side, we turn downDawson Street. On the right hand side is the Mansion House, the official residenceof the Lord Mayor of Dublin. Next door in No. 19 is the Royal Irish Academy,founded in 1785 to promote the study of science, polite literature, and antiquities.It has served these ideals well for over two centuries. It has established NationalCommittees in many branches of knowledge, and acts as the channel to facilitateIrelands adherence to many international bodies, such as the International Unionof Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). It organizes conferences, public lectures,debates, and study groups on a wide variety of topics. The antiquities that it col-lected were given to the nation in 1890 for the National Museum of Ireland. TheAcademy Library contains a valuable collection of books, pamphlets, and ancientIrish manuscripts. It is open to the public during normal office hours.Turning right from Dawson Street into Molesworth Street, one approachesLeinster House, home of the Parliament of Ireland (an Oireachtas). From 1815 to1922, this was the headquarters of the Royal Dublin Society, which establishedmany national cultural institutes nearby. On the right is the archaeological andhistorical section of the National Museum, which contains the Treasury, a col-lection of outstanding examples of metal-workers skills from 200 BC to 1100 AD.Adjacent to the entrance to Leinster House on Kildare Street is the NationalLibrary, a fine building holding many archives and treasures drawn from Irelandsliterary and historical heritage, but little of specific interest to physicists. Nearby isthe elegant headquarters of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (built in1864), which has tributes to many outstanding Dublin physicians. Making onesway back along Nassau Street to the front of Trinity College, we might make ashort excursion up to 5658 Dawson Street to Hodges Figgis, Irelands leadingspecialist book shop since 1768. Further on at the corner of Nassau and GraftonStreet was for many years the site of the Yeates family business which manufac-tured and supplied a variety of scientific instruments. Returning back to TrinityCollege, one passes the Provosts House, built in the eighteenth century by ProvostFrancis Andrews, who also founded the Andrews chair of astronomy that exists tothis day. William Rowan Hamilton (figure 12), of quaternion fame, occupied thischair from 1827, at the tender age of 21, to 1865. This completes Tour 1.Second TourStarting at the main entrance with our backs toward Trinity College and facingDame Street, we now move away from the center of the city of Dublin into itsmore peripheral areas, which are also rich in scientific culture and history. Weenter College Green, where we face the edifice of the Old Irish ParliamentBuilding (figure 13), built in the neo-classical style, which housed from the early1780s what was called Grattans Parliament. The flowering of Dublin as a leadingcity of arts and culture came to an end after the 1798 rebellion and the intro-duction of the Act of Union of 1800. Rule for Ireland was thereby centralized to116 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.London for over 120 years. The Irish Parliament had housed both a House ofCommons and Lords. Many Irish landowning aristocrats had palatial town housesin the city to allow them take up their seats in the House of Lords. These residentaristocrats brought elegance and a spirit of civic pride to the city. After the Act ofUnion, they decamped to London and the development of arts and sciences whichhad marked the second half of the eighteenth century in Dublin came to an end.The building is now home to the Bank of Ireland, and has been since the Bankbought the magnificent Parliament building in the early 1800s. The House of Lordsis open to the public and provides an insight into the splendor of the age.Leaving the Parliament Building and proceeding up Dame Street, we reachCity Hall (figure 14), once the Royal Exchange and now the home of Dublin CityCouncil, the center of Dublins local administration. The Dublin City Council wasfor many years referred to as Dublin Corporation, or by Dubliners as the Corpo,and is housed in a neoclassical building, the preferred architectural style of eigh-teenth-century Dublin. The Corporation was responsible for the orderlyadministration of the Capitals local government, making by-laws for the benefit ofthe citizens. The Corporation fostered the development of the practical use ofscience in the city. It appointed a Public Analyst in 1862one of the first threesuch positions in the UK and Ireland, the others being London and Birmingham.The first Public Analyst was Sir Charles Cameron (18301921). In the late nine-teenth century, Dublin had the distinction of having the highest death rate inEurope. The death rate from infectious diseases was nine per 1000 in 1879. ByFig. 12. William Rowan Hamilton (18051865). Credit: Professor Denis Weaire.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 1171900, this had dropped to one per 1000. The slums of the city of Dublin wereamong the worst in Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Thedrop in the death rate has been credited to Sir Charles Cameron and advances inpublic hygiene. He was a true polymath, a medical doctor, a professor of chemistryand natural philosophy at various Dublin medical colleges, and a father of the useof chemistry in agriculture; he was also a statistician and a founding member of theRoyal Institute of Public Health. Concurrent with his medical work, he also per-formed chemical experiments; in 1857, he proved that the nitrogen from plantscould be wholly derived from urea.Just across the cobbles from Dublin City Hall is the pristine whiteness of theNewcomen Bank. This building was designed by the famous Irish architect Tho-mas Ivory (17321786) and now houses the Rates section of Dublin City Council.Born in Cork and apprenticed initially to a carpenter, Ivory completed hisapprenticeship in Dublin. There he was drawn to architecture, his master in thissubject being a certain Jonas Blaymire (d. 1763), a surveyor, measurer, andtechnical draftsman. After his training, Ivory was recognized as the preeminentdraftsman in Dublin. Such was his skill that he was selected by the Dublin Societyas the headmaster of the Societys drawing school, where twenty indigent boyswere trained in the principles of geometry, rules of perspective, and elements ofarchitecture. His most notable pupil was James Hoban (c. 17581831), whobecame apprenticed to Ivory between approximately 1779 and 1785 and was laterrenowned as the architect of the White House in Washington, DC.We now reach Dublin Castle (figure 15), sequestered in its own grounds, thecenter of the English administration of Ireland until Irish independence. This wasthe royal residence in Ireland, where a court attended on the Viceroy of Ireland.This was a center of intrigue, espionage, rebellion, establishment, power, andFig. 13. The Old Irish Parliament Building. Source: http://www.politics.ie/forum/culture-community/213215-move-dail-grattans-parliament-building.html.118 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.http://www.politics.ie/forum/culture-community/213215-move-dail-grattans-parliament-building.htmlhttp://www.politics.ie/forum/culture-community/213215-move-dail-grattans-parliament-building.htmltreason, whose roots are ancient, beginning in Norman times (1204) as part of thefortification of the city of Dublin. Today these public buildings house the StateApartments, including St. Patricks Hall, where the Irish President is inaugurated.Conference facilities established here are used particularly when Ireland has thepresidency of the EU. Many international science conferences have been hostedhere.Fig. 14. Dublin City Hall. Credit: Failte Ireland Imagery.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 119Dublin Castle is currently home to three museums: An Garda Siochana (Police)Museum, the Revenue Museum, and the Chester Beatty Library. The RevenueMuseum is interesting for its exposition of the scientific method employed byexcise officials in ascertaining the volume present in alcohol from early times. ThisFig. 15. Dublin Castle. Source: http://www.travelsinireland.com/dublin/castle.htm.120 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.http://www.travelsinireland.com/dublin/castle.htmmuseum also shows audiovisual displays of scientific testing for the presence ofdrugs and adulterated diesel. The museum outlines the development of the col-lection of taxes in Ireland from Viking times to the present day, where one of themost successful online tax collection systems in the world is in existence. Themuseum emphasizes the mathematical abilities of the Revenue officials of the latenineteenth and early twentieth century, who were required to have great facilitywith mathematics and an ability to rapidly compute quite complex calculations.Some of the measuring and scientific equipment utilized by Revenue is on display.Leaving the museum, we are reminded of Benjamin Franklins comment that inthis world nothing can be said to be certain except death and taxes.The Chester Beatty Library (figure 16) is one of the most important manuscriptcollections in the world. The eponymous donor (18751968), an Irish Americanmining engineer and copper magnate, gave a spectacular collection of Arabic andOriental manuscripts, as well as early European works, to Ireland. The Arabiccollection contains manuscripts of Arabic science, some dating back as far as theninth century AD. These ancient texts are important in that they provide a bridgebetween the Renaissance and the science of the classical world. These textsinclude a treatise on surgery by Al Zahrawi, the greatest medieval surgeon of theIslamic world, and an encyclopedia of medicine by Ibn Sina that provides acomplete system of medicine according to the principles of Hippocrates andGalen. There are texts from the House of Wisdom in Baghdad which collected,Fig. 16. The Chester Beatty Library. Source: http://www.geograph.ie/photo/1839693.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 121http://www.geograph.ie/photo/1839693translated, and interpreted Greek, Persian, and Indian texts. The collection alsoincludes early European printed books of scientific interest, for example, OnMilitary Matters by Roberto Valtarion (14131489), the first printed book withtechnical or scientific illustrations. In addition, the collection houses very earlyfragments of the Bible.Leaving Dublin Castle by the gate we entered, we progress up Dame Street tobe greeted by the sight of Christ Church Cathedral (figure 17). We are now in theheart of the medieval capital of Dublin, first populated as a Viking stronghold.Beside the ecclesiastical buildings of Christchurch are the Dublin Civic Officesmodern buildings built over Wood Quay, the center of Viking Dublin. Thetechnology of the Vikings reached its apex in their seafaring ability and one of thelargest Viking Longships in existence was recovered in Denmark near Roskilde in1962. Named Skuldelev 2, it was built of Irish oak somewhere near Dublin and hasbeen dated to 1042. The way the ship was built and shaped allowed for speeds ofup to 28 km/hr and had a crew of 60. The shipwrights of Dublin were greatlyskilled in this era, possessing a great understanding of the dynamics of sea traveland able to design oceangoing ships to cope with the harsh climatic conditions ofthe northern seas.We are now in a supremely historic part of Dublin. The Cathedral was foundedby Dunan, the first Bishop of Dublin, and King Sitric Silkbeard around 1030 AD.Fig. 17. Christ Church Cathedral. Source: http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_Church_Cathedral,_Dublin.122 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_Church_Cathedral,_Dublinhttp://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_Church_Cathedral,_DublinIt contains the tomb of Strongbow, the Norman conquerer of part of Ireland. Herethe pretender Lambert Simnel was crowned and Mass was said for King James IIof England before the battle of the Boyne. In 1742, just around the corner onFishamble Street, Handels Messiah was performed for the first time by thecathedral choir. The Cathedral is linked to the Dublinia exhibition, which bringsViking and medieval Dublin to life.Past Christ Church on the left is the Tailors Hall, the last of the medieval guildhalls left in the city of Dublin. Established in 1706, the hall was the meeting placeof the Guild of Merchant Tailors from 1706 to 1841. It is now the headquarters ofAn Taisce, the National Trust for Ireland. An Taisce was founded in 1948 byRobert Lloyd Praeger, one of Irelands preeminent naturalists. By profession anengineer, by inclination a naturalist, he was responsible for the organization of theClare Island Survey in 1909, whose multidisciplinary approach was the first of itskind in the world, linking the local geology and archeology to the biology of thearea. An Taisce helps support the protection of Irelands scientific heritage.Also in this area is the oldest church in Dublin, St. Audoens, which is on thesame side as Christ Church Cathedral and was the medieval parish church ofDublin, today a museum. Cornmarket, just adjacent, was once the location of thePublic Analysts Laboratory. Beside St Audeons Church lie the remains of themedieval walls of Dublin. Proceeding down Thomas Street from Cornmarket wecome to the Liberties, an area of Dublin once populated by the artisan class,including weavers. Dublin was indeed once renowned for its craftspersons andartisans. In the eighteenth century it was well known for clockmaking, and thistradition branched out into the development of world-class scientific instruments.Families involved in this trade included the Lynches, the Masons, and the Yeates.About 2.8 km from where we are now was the factory of Thomas Grubb(18001878) and his son Howard Grubb (18441931), Irelands most importantscientific instrument makers. The company was at the cutting edge of the devel-opment of optical instruments. Innovations for large telescopes devised byThomas Grubb included clock-driven polar mounts. In 1845, the company assistedin the construction of a 72-inch Leviathan telescope for the third Earl of Rosse(18001867) at Birr Castle in County Offaly, then called Kings County. It was thelargest telescope in the world until 1917 and assisted Lord Rosses discovery of theWhirlpool Nebula.Walking down Thomas Street, we pass the Johns Lane Church on the right andSt. Catherines Church on the left before arriving at the Guinness brewery. Forgenerations, Guinness has been a symbol of Dublin; indeed, the black pint with thefoamy head could be classified as the national beverage. The brewery was foundedhere at St. James Gate in 1759 by Arthur Guinness, a brewer from County Kildare,The brewery became one of the largest industrial premises in Ireland, with its owninterior tram line. By the early twentieth century, Guinness also had a scientificteam in its employ. Perhaps the most famous scientist to work in the Guinnessfactory was William S. Gosset (18761937), who earned a degree in chemistry atVol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 123Oxford and joined the factory in 1889. His work for Guinness led him to investigatethe statistical value of results obtained from small samples, and he went on todevelop the Student-t test or distribution. His work fostered the concept ofquality control. He also independently discovered the Poisson distribution whiledealing with yeast cells, showing its application to biological processes.At the bottom of Thomas Street we turn right, following the tram lines of theLuas, Dublins light rail system, past the gates of St Patricks Hospital. Thisinstitution was founded by Jonathan Swift, who left a bequest in his will for itsestablishment. It was one of the first hospitals specifically built to house psychiatricpatients in the world. In Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift, the Irish satiristforetastes his own death:He gave the little Wealth he had,To build a House for Fools and Mad:And shewd by one satyric Touch,No Nation wanted it so muchToday it is still in use as a teaching hospital, attached to Trinity College. One of itsmost eminent Professors was Dr. Anthony Clare, the voice for many years of theBBC scientific program QED.At the bottom of the hill is Dr. Steevens Hospital, another edifice of theGolden Age of Irish Medicine, from 1750 to 1850. The physicist John Joly, agovernor of the Hospital, pioneered the method of extracting radium and using itto treat cancer. He was instrumental in using long hollow needles for deepradiotherapy, called the Dublin method, which was eventually used worldwide.The hospital was also the site of the first X-ray in Ireland, performed by RichardMcCausland in 1895.The hospitals Worth Library was donated by a prominent Irish physician, Dr.Edward Worth. Housed in Dr Steevens Hospital in a specially provided room, itcontains a magnificent collection of scientific books, including a first edition of theSceptical Chemist, Robert Boyles plea to early chemists to conduct experi-ments. The book outlined his hypotheses that matter consisted of atoms andclusters of atoms in motion. There are only thirty-five copies of this editionextant. Boyle, an Irishman and son of the Earl of Cork, is known as the father ofchemistry and was the originator of Boyles Law. Other books in the collectioninclude Isaac Newtons Principia. Worth collected not one but two copies of thisbook, a copy of the second edition printed at Cambridge in 1713 and a copy of thethird edition printed in London in 1726. The Worth collection highlights theinterest of Dubliners in the new scientific discoveries of the late seventeenth andearly eighteenth centuries. The library also contains copies of the first English andLatin editions of Opticks by Newton, a first edition of Newtons ArithmeticaUniversalis, commentaries on Newtons works, and works by Galileo.Opposite the eighteenth century building of Dr. Steevens Hospital is thenineteenth-century terminus of the Great Southern Railway, which links the citiesof Dublin and Cork and all places between, with branching lines to Limerick,124 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.Waterford, Killarney, and Tralee. The railway revolution in Ireland owes much toWilliam Dargan (figure 18, 17991867) the son of a small tenant farmer from theborders of County Carlow and County Laois who became a surveyor. He was thecontractor primarily responsible for the construction of the first commercial linebetween Dublins city center and Kingstown port (now Dun Laoghaire), whichcommenced in 1831. Having a great aptitude for mathematics, Dargon wasapprenticed to a surveyor and completed his education in England. He wasinvolved with George Stephensons pioneering Rocket project and worked withthe civil engineer Thomas Telford on developing the Holyhead Road. He becamean immensely successful railway contractor in Ireland, and by 1853 had beenresponsible for 600 miles of railway.Dargan was also a philanthropist who sought to develop an interest in sci-ence and technology in Ireland. He helped establish the National Gallery ofIreland and to fund the Dublin Industrial Exhibition of 1853 held at the RoyalDublin Society. This exhibition, Irelands response to the Great Exhibition of1851 in London, sought to showcase Irelands industrial development. Darganbecame a very wealthy man and was regarded as a generous and fair employer,though he eventually lost most of his wealth through poor investment and illhealth.We now progress across an iron bridge that carries the Luas light rail system.The bridge was designed by George Papworth and construction was completed in1828. The iron castings for the bridge were produced at the Royal Phoenix IronFig. 18. William Dargan (17991867). Source: http://rds-speaker-series-fergus-mulligan-heritage-william-/E0-001-060631847-0.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 125Works of nearby Parkgate Street. It was initially named Kingsbridge to com-memorate a visit of King George IV, but was renamed Heuston Bridge after anIrish patriot of the 1916 uprising. Heuston Station is now regarded as one of thecitys finest buildings.Phoenix Park is the headquarters of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, which issituated at Montague House, toward the Parkgate Street entrance to the Park.Phoenix Park is a magnificent public space that was once the Kings Deer Park. Itnow houses Aras an Uachtarain, the Irish Presidents residence, as well as a zoothat is the fifth oldest in the world, as well as numerous sports and leisure facilities.The office of Ordnance Survey, initially attached to the military, was created tosurvey the whole of Ireland to update land valuations. The survey was carried outat a scale of 6 inches to 1 mile, completed in 1846 under the direction of MajorGeneral Colby. Ireland thus became the first country in the world to be mapped atsuch a detailed scale. In the course of surveying the country, the Office wasresponsible for a number of advances in surveying practice.One early recruit to the Ordnance Survey was the aforementioned John Tyn-dall, but he appears to have worked not in Dublin but in Youghal and Kinsale inCork, then moved to Preston in England (18411842). There he studied at night atthe local mechanics institute. He completed his PhD in Marburg, Germany underRobert Bunsen. He returned to England and through his brilliance at lecturing andteaching was appointed to the professorship at the Royal Institution, succeeding tothe post held by Michael Faraday. His major scientific interest was the interactionof light with matter, particularly gases, and he explained why the sky is blue. Hedeveloped the first double beam spectrophotometer as well as a light pipe, aprecursor to optical fibers. Tyndall also made some of the first studies of atmo-spheric pollution in London, and developed with Louis Pasteur a form of foodpurification known as tyndallisation.While on this looped walk back to the city center, we will not have venturedinto the suburbs. Yet at the end of the Phoenix Park lies the suburb of Cas-tleknock, and some 5 km from Parkgate Street is the observatory at Dunsink(figure 19), the first building built exclusively for science in Ireland. This was theobservatory of Trinity College and the home of the Astronomer Royal forIreland; it houses a Grubb telescope now operated by the Dublin Institute ofAdvanced Studies (DIAS). The most famous professor of astronomy to be basedand live here was William Rowan Hamilton (18051864), who introduced theterms scalar and vector to mathematics and invented quaternions. OnOctober 16, 1843, while crossing Broom Bridge (figure 20) in the nearby suburbof Cabra, the idea for quaternions came to Hamilton, who carved the basicformula into the bridges stone foundations; the event is commemorated with aplaque on the bridge and an annual walk from Dunsink. This moment ofinspiration and bold inscription might serve as a fitting close to our walksthrough Dublin.126 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.Fig. 19. The observatory at Dunsink. Source: http://ingeniousireland.ie.Fig. 20. The Broom Bridge. Source: http://curvebank.calstatela.edu/hamilton/hamilton.htm.Vol. 16 (2014) Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists Labyrinth 127http://ingeniousireland.iehttp://curvebank.calstatela.edu/hamilton/hamilton.htmAcknowledgementsDr. Thomas C. OConnor died on November 6, 2012, leaving this manuscriptnearly complete. Some editing work was done by Martine OConnor, ChristopherNoonan, and Miguel DeArce. Professor Denis Weaire, of the Department ofPhysics, Trinity College Dublin, kindly provided many of the illustrations. We arealso grateful to Failte Ireland and Tourism Ireland Imagery for the illustrationsreferring to the city of Dublin. Finally, the editors are grateful to Edward Sweeneyof The National Institute for Transport & Logistics (NITL), who took the time notonly to read the manuscript with care, but also to follow out the routes, notingcorrections where necessary.References1 For the academic history of Trinity College, we recommend R. B. McDowell and D.A. Webb,Trinity College Dublin 1592-1952: An Academic History (Dublin: Trinity College Dublin Press,2004).2 For a new focus on the development of science in Ireland under the Union see Nicholas SmythScience, Colonialism, and Ireland (Cork: Cork University Press 1999).3 For the complex early development of the Catholic University of Ireland after John HenryNewman, see Thomas J. Morrissey. Towards a National University: William Delaney SJ (18351924) (Dublin: Wolfhound Press, 1988).4 For insight into the complex relationships between the Royal Dublin Society and Trinity Collegein the early 1830s, when both institutions were vying for support from the British Government fortechnical education in Ireland, see Norman MacMillan, ed., Prometheuss Fire: A History ofScientific and Technical Education in Ireland (Dublin: Tyndall Publications, 2000).5 A scholarly evaluation of John Tyndalls impact on natural philosophy and modern physics canbe found in William Brock, Norman MacMillan and Charles Mollan, ed., John Tyndall: Essays ona Natural Philosopher (Dublin: Royal Dublin Society, 1981).6 Denis Weaire, Experimental Physics at Trinity College. In H. Holland H., ed., Trinity CollegeDublin: The Idea of a University (Dublin: TCD Press, 1992).128 T. C. OConnor Phys. Perspect.Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicists LabyrinthAbstractHistorical SettingEarly HistoryIntellectual Life in DublinDevelopments in Higher EducationJohn Tyndalls Apology and a Delayed ReplyFirst TourSecond TourAcknowledgementsReferences

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