Cooperative LearningDesigning group experiences so as to maximize learning opportunities.What cooperative learning isntI bet its just another new age, feel good, reform tool that diverts your kids from real learning.Cooperative learning is simply a way to organize group work to maximize opportunities for learning in that setting.I just got the hang of GANAGing. Am I supposed to throw that out and change to cooperative learning now?Cooperative learning will fit nicely with any approach you have to designing your class.I already have all the materials and techniques I can possibly fit into my class now!! How can I add some other approach?You dont need to make extra time or give up material to do cooperative learning. You can use cooperative learning whenever you would normally have kids working in small groups.
A Humanities assignmentOK class, divide up into groups of three and be ready to do some kind of presentation on some aspect of the Civil War next Friday.What do you hope will happen during group work?Students expressing opinions to each other and discussing ideas.Students brainstorming on solutions to a problem.Students answering each others questions and coaching each other.Students using their collective knowledge to produce an even better product than they could produce as individuals.Students learning how to work effectively as part of a team.Oral learning style facilitated as students are asked to communicate with peers, explain concepts, produce questions, etc.Weak students forced to push themselves harder.Strong students helping weaker students and thereby reinforcing their own understanding.Groups of strong students combining to produce a superior product.the reality great educational experiences dont happen by accident
Assignments like papers, projects, and presentations are only as good as the structure and directions you frontload for students, the support you provide during the process, and the way you evaluate them, all of which needs to be clear from the start.
Similarly the experience of working in a group will only be as effective as the structure and directions you frontload for students, the support you provide during the process, and the way you evaluate them, all of which needs to be clear from the start.
Benefits of Cooperative Learning1. Positive Interdependence (sink or swim together) Each group member's efforts are required and indispensable for group success Each group member has a unique contribution to make to the joint effort because of his or her resources and/or role and task responsibilities
2. Face-to-Face Interaction (promote each other's success) Orally explaining how to solve problems Teaching one's knowledge to othersChecking for understanding Discussing concepts being learned Connecting present with past learning
Getting them ready.. Interpersonal, Small-Group Skills &Group Interdependence -Social skills must be modeled: Leadership Decision-making Trust-building Communication Conflict-management skills
-Group members should discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationships .-Describe and put in writing what member actions are helpful and not helpful and make decisions about what behaviors to continue or change.
Front-loading expectations..____ What is Mr. M looking for when we do group work such as labs and projects?There will typically be a group plan for most group activities which we will go over before beginning work. Read carefully, ask clarifying questions, and follow the parameters as given.Each member of the group should be actively involved in completing the task. You will usually have a specific part to complete as part of the group plan. No one should take over all parts of the task and no one should check out and expect others to do their work. There will be individual and group grades for most group projects!!! Please talk softly enough that other groups dont have to shout to hear each other.I will expect the group to stay on task and not hear you saying things like did you see that game last night?..............The group doesnt move ahead until everyone understands what has been done, what is being done, and what you are going to do next. I shouldnt here things like I have no idea what we are doing, you guys dont tell me anything!!.........There is no place for sarcasm. Everyone should be able to express an opinion, make suggestions, or ask a question and be listened to and responded to fairly.The task should be completed with quality. The group must reach consensus about the when the product is completed satisfactorily.EACH GROUP PROJECT WILL BE ASSESSED IN TWO WAYS:An individual assessment of your work and effort. Your group will have input on this assessment.An assessment of the product the group has produced and the quality of the group interaction.
Cooperative Learning lets break it downThe Group Structure You choose the groups based on the criteria you want to emphasize.Choose a structure that: 1) provides a clear role for each student during each part of the process; 2) promotes individual responsibility as well as collaboration; 3) ensures the group will support each other.Ongoing SupportMonitor the group to make sure they are staying on task and following the group plan and consider a process evaluation which could take the form of a simple checklist.EvaluationMake sure the product is evaluated as a whole (for the group) and for the individual.Consider allowing students to evaluate other group members.
Group Structure - Choosing GroupsGroups of 3 or maybe 4 are optimal- enough folks to share the work and express opinions, not so many that someone gets lost.
How do you choose groups?I like to have a different group for each unit (about every 2 weeks)I like to vary the composition of groups from unit to unitHomogeneous abilitiesAll strong or all weakAll girls or all boysetc.
Group Structure - How do you come up with a Group Plan?You can come up with a group plan for an activity you already do in groups (or one you are planning) Lab 1-1
You can use a pre-existing cooperative structure that makes sense for a group activity you already do (or one you are planning) Examples on following slidesJigsawGroups with four or five students are set up. Each group member is assigned some unique material to learn, practice, or research and then to teach to or share with his group members. To help in the learning process, students across the class working on the same sub-section get together to decide what is important and how to teach it. After practice in these "expert" groups the original groups reform and students teach each other. Think Pair - ShareTPS involves a three step cooperative structure. During the first step individuals think silently about a question posed by the instructor. Individuals pair up during the second step and exchange thoughts. In the third step, the pairs share their responses with other pairs, other teams, or the entire group.Numbered Heads TogetherA team of four is established. Each member is given numbers of 1, 2, 3, 4. Questions are asked of the group. Groups work together to answer the question so that all can verbally answer the question. The teacher calls out a number (two for example) and each two is asked to give the answer. Team Pair SoloStudents do problems first as a team, then with a partner, and finally on their own.
It is designed to motivate students to tackle and succeed at problems which initially are beyond their ability. It is based on a simple notion of mediated learning. Students can do more things with help (mediation) than they can do alone. By allowing them to work on problems they could not do alone, first as a team and then with a partner, they progress to a point they can do alone that which at first they could do only with helpThree stray one stayThis structure requires the identification of a team member who will become the groups spokesperson. A problem is posed and after problem solving discussions are complete and all team members indicate that they can give the team's report, you designate the student from each team who will "stray." That is, one student from each group leaves and rotates to an adjoining team to give the report. In large classes it is essential that the order of rotation is clear.
The designated student shares with this new team the results of his original group's discussion, giving proposed solutions to problems or summarizing discussions. A second rotation may be desirable if the topic prompted divergent thinking and solutions.
Three-Stay One-Stray offers a low-threat forum where students can exchange ideas and build social skills such as asking probing questions. It also offers students the opportunity to learn by teaching. Placing the report-out responsibility on the students reinforces the concept that knowledge resides within the learning community, not just with the instructor. Perhaps its greatest value lies in its efficiency. Instead of, for example, ten sequenced five-minute reports to the entire class (fifty minutes, plus transition time), individual students are simultaneously giving five-minute reports throughout the room.Peer EvaluationTeamwork 4-worked extremely well with others-stayed on task at all times- always tried to involve others and listened carefully 3-worked very well with others-stayed on task most of the time- usually tried to involve others and listened well 2- worked fairly well with others-stayed on task some of the time- sometimes tried to involve others or listen to them 1-didnt worked well with others- rarely stayed on task - never tried to involve others or listen to themCommunication 4-listened extremely well to others-tried to communicate ideas very often-asked and answered questions very frequently 3-listened very well to others-tried to communicate ideas often-asked and answered questions frequently 2 - sometimes listened well to others-sometimes tried to communicate ideas-asked and answered questions sometimes 1- never listened to others-never tried to communicate ideas-never asked and answered questions frequentlyActive Learning 4-thought extremely carefully about project-always tried to come up with ideas & solutions -tried to understand at all times 3thought very carefully about project- usually tried to come up with ideas & solutions -tried to understand at all times 2-sometimes thought carefully about project- sometimes tried to come up with ideas & solutions -sometimes tried to understand 1-never thought carefully about project- never tried to come up with ideas & solutions - never tried to understand Sources I also have several books in my office!!Social Skills and Community Buildinghttp://w4.nkcsd.k12.mo.us/~kcofer/social_cooperative_structures.htm
Cooperative Learning Structureshttp://connectingcurriculum.pbworks.com/f/Cooperative+Learning+Structures.pdf