Cooperative & Collaborative Learning Ideas for Effective Classroom PracticeCooperative Learningin the Physics ClassroomThe presentation is based upon the model provided by Johnson, D., Johnson, R. & Holubec, E. (1988). Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.Several other models exist, but the above model is perhaps the most applicable to physics teaching.Cooperative Learning v. Other forms of LearningCooperative learning is just one form of classroom/student learning structure.Other forms include:Individualized (criterion-based grading system)Competitive (norm-based grading system)Cooperative learning is perhaps the most important of the three types of learning situations, yet it is the least used (Cooperative Learning:Definitions & TraitsCooperation -- working together to accomplish shared goalsCooperative Learning -- the instructional use of small groups wherein students work together to maximize their own and each others learningCommon Elements:shared learning goals -- desired future state in which the students demonstrate as a group and individually a mastery of the subject studiedgoal structure -- specifies the ways in which students will interact with each other and the teacher during the instructional sessionNot all group learning is cooperative learning.groups arguing over divisive conflicts and power strugglesa member sits quietly, too shy to participateone member does the work, while the other members talk about sportsno one does the work because the one who normally works the hardest doesnt want to be a suckera more talented member may come up with all the answers, dictate to the group, or work separately, ignoring other group membersEffective Cooperationdoes not occur by chance.occurs when the essential components structured within each cooperative lesson are ensured.can not be based on the assumption that all students possess good social and learning skills.Learning Together:Essential Components Positive InterdependenceStudents have two responsibilities:learn the assigned materialensure that all members of the group learn the materialEach student should see his or her work as benefiting each students effort is essentialeach student makes unique contributionInterdependence occurs when students cannot succeed unless their group members also succeed.Structuring interdependence: common goal, joint rewards, divided resources, complimentary rolesIndividual AccountabilityTeacher must assess how much effort each member is contributing to the groups work.Teacher must provide feedback to groups and individual students.Teacher must help groups avoid redundant efforts by members.Teacher must ensure that every member is responsible for the final outcome.Group Processingn.b: At the end of the process, students reflect to determine which member actions were helpful and which were harmful.Students then make decisions about which actions to continue, change, or delete.Such processing allows groups to:focus on maintaining good working relationships.learn cooperative skills.provide feedback on member participation.think at a metacognitive level as well as cognitive level.celebrate success of the group.Social SkillsStudents must get to know and trust one another.Students must communicate accurately and unambiguously.Students must accept and support each other.Students must resolve conflicts constructively.Face-to-Face InteractionInteraction occurs as a result of the positive interdependence.To maximize opportunity for success:keep groups small (2 - 6 students)keep groups heterogeneousassist students with guidelines for interaction:acceptance, support, trust, respectexchange of informationmotivationWhats the difference?Cooperative Group Traditional GroupPositive interdependence No interdependenceIndividual accountability No individual accountabilityHeterogeneous membership Homogeneous membershipShared leadership One appointed leaderResponsible to each other Responsibly only for selfTask & maintenance emphasized Only task emphasizedSocial skills directly taught Skills assumed or ignoredTeacher observes & intervenes Teacher ignores groupsGroup processing occurs No group processingMutual assistance CompetitiveThe Advisability of Using Cooperative & Collaborative LearningWorks well with inquiry and constructivist approaches.Supports multiculturalism efforts.Promotes social development.Assists with classroom discipline.Provides for more than one teacher.Cooperative & Collaborative LearningCooperative/collaborative learning has the best and largest empirical base of any educational innovation.Cooperative processes have been shown to advance higher-level conceptual learning.Cooperative/collaborative learning at the high school level is well worth exploring.A fad (top down) or a trend (bottom up)?A Working Example of C. L.View the UHS videotape relating to C. L. Read the article, Nondirected Research Projects in Physics Coursework, The Physics Teacher, Vol. 34, March 1996, pp. 158 - 161.Each student is free to write responses to questions provided under Cooperative Learning Lesson Analysis hyperlinked through Cooperative Learning in course syllabus.