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CONSTITUTIONAL LAWBy Dean Mariano F. Magsalin Jr.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONSConcept and Origin of the Bill of Rights Classification 1. Civil Rights 2. Political Rights 3. Social and Economic Rights Doctrine of Preferred Freedom (Hierarchy of Rights) PBM Employees Org. vs. PBM Co., Inc., 51 SCRA 189 (1973) The Fundamental Powers of the State Similarities, Differences and Limitations

POLICE POWERDefinition, Scope & Basis Characteristics Who exercises said power? Tests of Police Power Laws: Balacuit v. CFI, G.R. No. L-38429, June 30, 1988 Lozano vs. Matinez, 146 SCRA 323 (1986) Del Rosario vs. Bengzon, 180 SCRA 521 (1989) Tablarin vs. Judge Gutierrez, 152 SCRA 730 (1987) Zoning and Regulatory Ordinances Ermita Malate Hotel & Motel Operators v. City Mayor, 20 SCRA 849 (1967) Cruz vs. Paras, 123 SCRA 569 (1983) Velasco vs. Villegas, 120 SCRA 568 (1983) Magtajas vs. Pryce Properties, 234 SCRA 255 (1994) Tano v. Socrates, G.R. 110249, August 27, 1997 City of Manila v. Judge Laguio, G. R. No. 118127, april 12, 2005 Administrative Rules and Regulations Bautista vs. Junio, 127 SCRA 329 (1984) Taxicab Operators of Metro Manila vs. BOT, 119 SCRA 597 (1982) Mirasol v. DPWH, G.R. No. 158793, June 8, 2006 Anglo-Fil Trading vs. Lazaro, 124 SCRA 494 (1983) PPA v. Cipres Stevedoring, G.R. No. 145742, July 14, 2005 Chavez v. Romulo, G.R. No. 157036, June 9, 2004

EMINENT DOMAINDefinition Who exercises the power? City of Manila vs. Chinese Cemetery of Manila, 40 Phil 349 (1919) Moday v. Court of Appeals, 268 SCRA 368 (1997) Constitutional limitation Art. II. Sec. 9 Distinguished from destruction due to necessity Objects of Expropriation RP. v. PLDT, 26 SCRA 620 (1969) Where Expropriation Suit is Filed Barangay San Roque v. Heirs of Pastor, GR 13896, June 20, 2000 Taking Definition and Scope Requisites of Taking Republic vs. Castelvi, 58 SCRA 336 (1974)

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City Govt. of Quezon City vs. Ericta, 122 SCRA 759 (1983) Deprivation of Use Republic vs. Fajardo, 104 Phil. 443 (1958) Napocor vs. Gutierrez, 193 SCRA 1 (1991) Napocor v. San Pedro, G.R. No. 170945, September 26, 2006 U.S. v. Causby, 328 U.S. 256 (1946) PPI v. Comelec, 244 SCRA 272 (1995) Priority in Expropriation Filstream International v. CA, 284 SCRA 716 (1998) City of Mandaluyong v. Francisco, G.R. No. 137152, January 29, 2001 Lagcao v. Judge Labra, G.R. No. 155746, October 13, 2004 JIL. v. Mun. of Pasig, G.R. 152230, August 9, 2005 Public use Heirs of Juancho Ardona vs. Reyes, 125 SCRA 220 (1983) Sumulong vs. Guerrero, 154 SCRA (1987) Province of Camarines Sur vs. CA, 222 SCRA 170 (1993) Manosca v. Court of Appeals, 252 SCRA 412 (1996) Estate of Jimenez v. PEZA, G.R. No. 137285, January 16, 2001 Government Withdrawal NHA v. Heirs of Isidro Guivelondo, G.R. No. 154411, June 19, 2003 NPC & Pobre v. CA. G.R. No. 106804, August 12, 2004 Recovery of Expropriated Land ATO v. Gopuco, G.R. No. 158563, June 30, 2005 Republic v. Lim, G.R. 161656, June 29, 2005 Genuine Necessity Mun. of Meycayauan vs. IAC, 157 SCRA 640 (1988) De Knecht vs. Bautista, 100 SCRA 660 (1980) Republic vs. De Knecht, G.R. 87351, February 12, 1990 De la Paz Masikip v. Judge Legaspi, G.R. No. 136349, January 23, 2006 Just Compensation Defined Eslaban v. De Onorio, G.R. No. 146062, June 28, 2001 RP vs. IAC, et al., G.R. No. 71176, May 21, 1990 Determination of Just Compensation EPZA vs. Dulay, 149 SCRA 305 (1987) When Determined Ansaldo vs. Tantuico, G.R. 50147, August 3, 1990 NAPOCOR v. Tiangco, G>R> No. 170846, February 6, 2007 City of Cebu v. Spouses Dedamo, G.R. No. 142 971, May 07, 2002 Manner of Payment Assoc. of Small Landowners v. DAR, 175 SCRA 343 (1988) DAR v. CA, 249 SCRA 149 (1995) Trial with Commissioners Meralco v. Pineda, 206 SCRA 196 (1992) NPC v. Henson, G.R. No. 129998, December 29, 1998 Napocor v. Sps. De la Cruz, G.R. No. 156093, February 2, 2007 Leca Realty v. Republic, G.R. No. 155605, Sep tember 27, 2006 Legal Interest for Expropriation Cases NPC v. Angas, 208 SCRA 196 (1992) Wycoco v. Judge Caspillo, G.R. No. 146733, January 13, 2004 Writ of Possession City of Manila v. Oscar Serrano, G.R. No. 142304, June 20, 2001 Republic v. Gingoyon, G.R. No. 166429, December 19, 2005 Expropriation of Utilities, Landed Estate and Municipal Property Art. XII, Sec. 18 Art. XIII, Sec. 4 Art. XIII, Sec. 9 City of Baguio vs. Nawasa, 106 Phil. 144 (1959) Zamboanga del Norte vs. City of Zamboanga, 22 SCRA 1334 (1968)

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TAXATIONDefinition and Nature Purpose CIR vs. Algue, Inc., 158 SCRA 9 (1988) Commissioner vs. Makasiar, 177 SCRA 27 (1989) Scope (The power to tax is the power to destroy) Who exercises the power? Art. VI Sec. 28 Art. XIV, Sec 4 (3) Art. X, Sec. 5 Tax Exemptions YMCA vs. CIR, 33 Phil. 217 (1916) Bishop of Nueva Segovia vs. Provincial Board, 51 Phil. 352 (1927) Lladoc vs. CIR, 14 SCRA 292 (1965) Province of Abra vs. Hernando, 107 SCRA 104 (1981) Abra Valley College vs. Aquino, 162 SCRA 106 (1988) American Bible Society vs. City of Manila 101 Phil. 386 (1957) Double Taxation Punzalan vs. municipal Board of Manila, 95 Phil. 46 (1954) License Fees Physical Therapy Org. vs. Municipal Board, G.R. 10448, August 30, 1957

DUE PROCESSArt. III, Sec. 1 Art. III, Sec. 14 (1) Definition, Nature and Scope Purpose of the guaranty Hurtado v. California, 110 U.S. 516 (1884) Meaning of Life, Liberty, and Property Substantive Due Process Villegas vs. Hu Chong Tsai Pao Ho, 86 SCRA 275 (1978) Rubi vs. Prov. Board of Mindanao, 39 Phil. 660 (1919) Void for Vagueness/Over breadth Ople v. Torres, 292 SCRA 141. (1998) Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148560, November 19, 2001 David v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 171390, May 3, 2006 Ong v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 126858, September 16, 2005 Procedural Due Process Publication Requirement Tanada v. Tuvera, 146 SCRA 446 (1986) PITC v. Angeles, 263 SCRA 421 (1996) Republic v. Extelcom, G.R. 147096, January 15, 2002 Impartial Court or Tribunal Tanada vs. PAEC, 141 SCRA 307 (1986) Anzaldo vs. Clave, 119 SCRA 353 (1982) Tejano v. Ombudsman, G.R. No. 159190, June 30, 2005 Tumey vs. Ohio, 273 U.S. 510 (1997) People v. Court of Appeals, 262 SCRA 452 (1996) Tabuena v. Sandiganbayan, 268 SCRA 332 (1997) Prejudicial Publicity Sheppard v. Maxwell, 384 U.S. 333 (1966) Webb v. De Leon, 247 SCRA 652 (1995) People v. Sanchez, G.R. No. 121039, October 18, 2001 Notice and Hearing: Summary Dismissal Board v. Torcita, 330 SCRA 153 (2000) Secretary of Justice v. Lantion, G.R. No. 139466, October 17, 2000

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People vs. Estrada G.R. No. 130487, June 19, 2000 Lim v. Court of Appeals, G.R. 111397, August 12, 2002 Opportunity to be Heard Budiongan v. De la Cruz, G.R. No. 170288, September 22, 2006 Roxas v. Vasquez, G.R. 114944, June 19, 2001 Marohombsar v. Judge Adiong, A.M. RTJ-02-1674, January 22, 2004 Exceptions to notice and hearing requirements Philcomsat vs. Alcuaz, 180 SCRA 218 (1989) Suntay vs. People, 101 Phil. 833 (1957) De Bisshop vs. Galang, 8 SCRA 244 (1963) Var Orient Shipping Co., Inc. vs. Achacoso, 161 SCRA 232 (1988) Administrative Due Process Ang Tibay vs. CIR, 69 Phil. 635 (1940) Montemayor vs. Araneta University Foundation, 77 SCRA 321 (1977) Meralco vs. PSC, 11 SCRA 317 (1964) Ateneo vs. CA, 145 SCRA 100 (1986) Alcuaz vs. PSBA, 161 SCRA 7 (1988) Non vs. Hon. Dames, G.R. No. 89317, May 30, 1990

EQUAL PROTECTIONPolitical, Economic and Social Equality Art. XIII, Sec. 1 and 2 (social justice) Id., Sec. 3 (protection to labor) Art. XII, Sec. 10 (nationalization of business) ID., Sec. 2, par. 2 (reservation of marine resources) Art. II, Sec. 11 (free access to the courts) Art. VIII, Sec. 5(5) (legal aid to poor) Art. IX-C, Sec. 10 (protection of candidates) Art. II, Sec. 26 (public service) Art. II, Sec. 14 (equality of women and men) Sexual Discrimination Phil. Association of Service Exporters vs. Drilon, 163 SCRA 386 (1988) Administration of Justice People vs. Hernandez, 99 Phil. 515 (1956) People vs. Isinain, 85 Phil. 648 (1950) Chavez v. PCGG, G.R. 130716, December 9, 1998 Nunez vs. Sandiganbayan, 111 SCRA 433 (1982) Gallardo v. People, G.R. 142030, April 21, 2005 Public Policy Central Bank Employees Assoc. v. BSP, G.R. No. 148208, Dec. 15, 2004 PNB v. Palma, G.R. 157279, August 9, 2005 Unido vs. COMELEC, 104 SCRA 17 (1981) PJA vs. Prado, 227 SCRA 703 (1993) Olivarez v. Sandiganbayan, 248 SCRA 700 (1995) Tiu v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 127410, January 20, 1999 Coconut Oil Refiners v. Torres, G.R. 132527, July 29, 2005 ISAE v. Quisumbing, G.R. No. 128845, June 1, 2000 PHILRECA vs. DILG, G.R. No. 143076, June 10, 2003 Beltran v. Secretary of Health , G.R. No. 133640, November 25, 2005

THE NON-IMPAIRMENT CLAUSEArt. III, Sec. 10 Purpose When impairment occurs When Allowed

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Emergency Powers Rutter vs. Esteban, 93 Phil. 68 (1953) Zoning and Regulatory Ordinances Villanueva vs. Castaneda, 154 SCRA 142 (1987) Sangalang vs. IAC, 168 SCRA 634 (1988) Ortigas & Co. v. CA, G.R. No. 126102, December 4, 2000 Administration Regulations Tiro vs. Hontanosas, 125 SCRA 697 (1983) Rental Laws Caleon vs. Agus Development Corp., 207 SCRA 748 (1992) Tax Exemptions Meralco v. Province of Laguna, 306 SCRA 750 (1999) ARRESTS, SEARCHES AND SEIZURES Art. III, Sec. 2 and 3 Purpose and Importance of the guaranty Alvero v. Dizon, 76 Phil. 637 (1946) To Whom Directed People vs. Andre Marti, 193 SCRA 57 (1991) Who May Invoke the Right? Bache and Co., vs. Ruiz, 37 SCRA 323 (1971) Stonehill v. Diokno, 20 SCRA 383 (1967) Zurcher vs. Stanford Daily, 436 U.S. 54 (1978) Wilson v. Layne, 98-0083, May 24, 1999 Conditions for a valid warrant Existence of Probable Cause Burgos vs. Chief of Staff, 133 SCRA 800 (1984) Chandler v. Miller, April 15, 1997, D-96-126 People v. Chua Ho San, 308 SCRA 432 (1999) People v. Molina, G.R. No. 133917, February 19, 2001 Partially Valid Warrant People v. Salanguit, G.R. 133254, April 18, 2001 Microsoft Corp. v. Maxicorp., G.R. 140946, September 13, 2004 Personal determination by judge Sta. Rosa Mining Co., vs. Fiscal Zabala, 153 SCRA 367 (1987) Paderanga vs. Drilon, G.R. 96080, April 19, 1991 Pita vs. CA, 178 SCRA 362 (1987) Abdula v. Guiani, 326 SCRA 1 (2000) People v. Mamaril, G.R. 147607, January 22, 2004 Examination of witnesses Pasion Vda. De Garcia vs. Locsin, 65 Phil 68 (1938) Yee Sue kuy vs. Almeda, 70 Phil. 141, (1940) Alvarez vs. CFI, 64 Phil. 33 (1937) Mata vs. Bayona, 128 SCRA 388 (1984) Particularity of description Olaes vs. People, 155 SCRA 486 (1987) Prudente vs. Judge Dayrit, 180 SCRA 69 (1989) Chia vs. Coll. Of Customs, 177 SCRA 755 (1989) 20th Century Fox Film Corp. vs. CA, 164 SCRA 655 (1988) People v. Choi, G.R. No. 152950, August 3, 2006 Nolasco vs. Cruz Pano, 132 SCRA 152 (1985) PICOP v. Asuncion, 307 SCRA 253 (1999) Yousef Al Ghoul vs. CA, G.R. No. 126859, September 4, 2009 Del Rosario V. People, G.R. No. 142295, May 31, 2001 Objects of Seizure Rule 126, Sec. 3, Rules of Court (ROC) Unilab vs. Isip, G.R. No. 163858, June 28, 2005 Warrantless searches Valid Waiver

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People vs. Omaweng, 213 SCRA 462 (1992) People v. Correa, 285 SCRA 679 (1998) People vs. Ramos, G.R. 85401-02, June 4, 1990 People v. Barros, 231 SCRA 557 (1994) Veroy vs. Layague, 210 SCRA 97 (1992) People vs. Damaso, 212 SCRA 457 (1992) Lopez vs. Comm. of Customs, 68 SCRA 320 (1975) Caballes v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 136292, January 5, 2002 People vs. Asis, et. al., G.R. No. 142531, October 15, 2002 People vs. Tudtud, et. al., G.R. No. 144037, September 26, 2003 Incident to lawful arrest Rule 126, Section 13, Rules of Court Chimel vs. California, 395 U.S. 752 (1964) People vs. de la Cruz, G.R. 83988, April 18, 1990 People v. Kalubiran, 196 SCRA 645 (1991) People v. Malmstedt, 198 SCRA 401 (1991) Espano v. Court of Appeals, 288 SCRA 558 (1998) People vs. Tangliben, 184 SCRA 220 (1990) People v. Che Chun Ting, 328 SCRA 592 (2000) People vs. Estrella, G.R. Nos. 138539-40, January 21, 2003 People vs. Libnao, et. al., G.R. No. 136860, January 20, 2003 Plain view doctrine People v. Musa, 217 SCRA 597 (1993) Padilla v. CA, 269 SCRA 402 (1997) People v. Valdez, G.R. No. 129296, September 25, 2000 Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321 (1987) People v. Compacion, G.R. No. 124442, July 20, 2001 People v. Huang Zhen Hua, G.R. 139301, September 9, 2004 Enforcement of fishing, customs and immigration laws Roldan vs. Area, 65 SCRA 320 (1975) People v. Gatward, 267 SCRA 785 (1997) People v. Johnson, G.R. No. 138881, December 18, 2000 People vs. Suzuki, G.R. No. 120670, October 23, 2003 Stop and frisk Terry vs. Ohio, 392 US 1 (1968) People v. Solayao, 262 SCRA 255 (1996) Manalili v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 113447, October 7, 1997 Malacat v. Court of Appeals, 283 SCRA 159 (1997) Florida v. J.L., 98-1993, March 28, 2000 Search of moving vehicles Papa vs. Mago, 22 SCRA 857 (1968) People vs. CFI of Rizal, 101 SCRA 86 (1980) Salvador v. People, G.R. No. 146706, July 15, 2005 Whren v. United States, 95-5841, January 10, 1996 Emergency circumstances People vs. De Gracia, 233 SCRA 716 (1994) Checkpoints Gen. De Villa vs. Valmonte, G.R. No. 83988, May 24, 1990 Aniag vs. Comelec, 237 SCRA 424 (1994) People v. Usana, 323 SCRA 754 (2000) People v. Vinecario, G.R. No. 141137, January 20, 2004 Inspection of building Camara vs. Municipal Court, 387 U.S. 523 (1967) Warrantless arrests Rule 113, Sec. 5 Art. 125, Revised Penal Code Rebellion as Continuing Offense Umil vs. Ramos, G.R. 81567, July 9, 1990 Committed in the Presence of Police Officers

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People v. Sucro, 195 SCRA 388 (1991) People v. Luisito Go, G.R. No. 116001, March 14, 2001 Personal Knowledge of the Offense People vs. Gerente, 219 SCRA 756 (1993) People v. Sinoc, 275 SCRA 357 (1997) People v. Baula, G.R. No. 132671, November 15, 2000 People v. Cubcubin, G.R. No. 136267, July 10, 2001 Time of Arrest People vs. Rodrigueza, 205 SCRA 791 (1992) Go vs. Court of Appeals, 206 SCRA 586 (1992) People v. Calimlim, G.R. No. 123980, August 30, 2001 Marked Money People vs. Enrile, 222 SCRA 586 (1993) Lack of Urgency People v. Pasudag, G.R. No. 128822, May 4, 2001 People vs. Aminnudin, 163 SCRA 402 (1988) Effect of Bail Rule 114, Section 26 Effect of Entry of Plea People v. Plana G.R. No. 128285, November 27, 2001 Validity of Conviction People v. Conde, G.R. No. 113269, April 10, 2001

PRIVACY OF COMMUNICATION AND CORRESPONDENCER.A. No. 4200 (Anti-Wire Tapping Law) (1965) Arts, 290, 291, 292 and 299. Revised Penal Code. Gaanan vs. IAC, 145 SCRA 113 (1986) Katz vs. U.S., 389 U.S. 347 (1967) Ramirez vs. Ca, G.R. No. 93833, September 28, 1995 Salcedo-Ortanez v. CA, 235 SCRA 111 (1994) Alejano v. Cabuay, G.R. No. 160792, August 25, 2005 Privileged Communications In Re Laureta, 148 SCRA 382 (1987) People vs. Albofera, 152 SCRA 123 (1987) Zulueta v. Court of Appeals, 253 SCRA 699 (1996) Deano v. Godinez, 12 SCRA 483 (1964) Waterhouse Drug Corporation v. NLRC, G.R. No. 113271. October 16, 1997 Exclusionary Rule Art. III, Sec. 3(2) Silverthorne Lumber vs. US, 251 US 385 (1920) People v. Aruta, G.R. 120915, April 3, 1998 People v. Rondero, G.R. 125687, December 9, 1999 Liability for damages Aberca vs. Ver, 160 SCRA 590 (1989)

RIGHTS OF PERSONS UNDER CUSTODIAL INVESTIGATIONArt. III, Sec. 12 Miranda vs. Arizona, 384 US 436 (1966) Custodial Investigation People v. Lugod, G.R. 136253, February 21, 2001 People v. Del Rosario G.R. 127755, April 14, 1999 People v. Bolanos, 211 SCRA 262 (1992) Rhode Island v. Innis, 446 U.S. 291 (1980) People v. Mahinay, 302 SCRA 455 (1999) Administrative Investigations

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People vs. Judge Ayson, 175 SCRA 216 (1989) Office of the Court Administrator v. Sumiling, 271 SCRA 316 (1997) People v. Uy, G.R. No. 157399, November 17, 2005 Police Lineup Gamboa vs. Cruz, 162 SCRA 642 (1988) United States v. Wade, 388 U.A. 218 (1967) People v. Escordial, G.R. 138934, January 16, 2002 People vs. Piedad, et al., G.R. No. 131923, December 5, 2002 Cases before January 17, 1973 not applicable Magtoto vs. Manguera, 63 SCRA 4 (1975) Rule under the 1973 Constitution (Voluntary, knowing & intelligent waiver) People vs. Caguioa, 95 SCRA 2 (1980) People vs. Tampus, 90 SCRA 624 (1980) People v. Sayaboc, G.R. 147201, January 15, 2004 The Galit Rule People vs. Galit, 135 SCRA 465 (1985) Rule under the 1987 Constitution Requirement of Competent and Independent Counsel People vs. Bandula, 232 SCRA 566 (1994) People v. Quidato, G.R. 117401, October 1, 1998 People v. Januario, 267 SCRA 608 (1997) People v. Labtan, G.R. No. 12793, December 8, 1999 People vs. Samus, G.R. 135957-58, September 17, 2002 People v. Tomaquin, G.R. No. 133138, July 23, 2004 People v. Bagnate, G.R. No. 133685-68 May 20, 2004 Counsel of Choice People vs. Gallardo, G.R. No. 113684, January 25, 2000 People vs. Barasina, 229 SCRA 450 (1994) Counsels presence required in entire proceedings People v. Morial, G.R. 129295, August 15, 2001 Seized Articles People v. Castro, 274 SCRA 115 (1997) People v. Wong Chuen Ming, 256 SCRA 182 (1996) Marcelo v. Sandiganbayan, 302 SCRA 102 (1999) People v. Macabalang, G.R. 168694, November 27, 2006 Confession to Newsmen People v. Andan, 269 SCRA 95 (1997) People v. Endino, G.R. 133026, February 20, 2001 People vs. Ordono, G.R. No. 132154, June 29, 2000 People vs. Guillermo, G.R. No. 147786, January 20, 2004 Other Confessions People v. Malngan, G.R. No. 170470, September 26, 2006 People v. Gomez, 270 SCRA 432 (1997) Illinois v. Perkins, 496 U.S. 292 (1990) People v. Lugod, G.R. 136253, February 21, 2001 Re-enactment People v. Luvendino, 211 SCRA 36 (1992) Exclusionary rule Art. III, Sec. 12 (3) Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine People v. Alicano 251 SCRA 293 (1995) Harris vs. New York, 401 U.S. 222 (1971) New York vs. Quaries, 104 U.S. 2626 (1984)

RIGHT TO BAILArt. III, Sec. 13 Bail Defined Rule 114, Section 1, ROC

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Kinds of Bail Rule 114, Sections 10, 11, 14 & 15 When right may be invoked Herras Teehankee vs. Rovira, 75 Phil. 634 (1945) People vs. San Diego, 26 SCRA 522 (1968) Cortes v. Judge Catral, A.M. No. RTJ-97-1387, September 10, 1997 Lavides v. CA, G.R. No. 129670, February 1, 2000 Government v. Judge Puruganan, G.R. 148571, December 17, 2002 Procedure for bail Paderanga v. Drilon, 247 SCRA 741, (1995) Go v. Bongolan, A.M. 99-1464, July 26, 1999 People v. Gako, G.R. 135045, December 15, 2000 Bail and Habeas Corpus Enrile vs. Salazar, 186 SCRA 217 (1990) People vs. Judge Donato, 198 SCRA 130 (1991) Bail on appeal People vs. Fortes, 223 SCRA 619 (1993) Maguddatu v. CA, G.R. No. 139599, February 23, 2000 Obosa v. Court of Appeals, G.R. 114350, January 16, 1997 Standards for fixing bail Rule 114, Sec. 9 Villasenor vs. Abano, 21 SCRA 312 (1967) De la Camara vs. Enage, 41 SCRA 1 (1971) Almeda vs. Villaluz, 66 SCRA 38 (1975) Yap v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 141529, June 6, 2001 Cabaero v. Caon, A.M. No. MTJ-01-369, September 20, 2001 Victory Liner v. Belosillo, G.R. 425 SCRA 79 (2004) Bail and the Right to Travel Abroad Manotoc vs. Court of Appeals, 142 SCRA 149 (1980)

RIGHTS OF AN ACCUSEDArt. III, Sec. 14

Presumption of InnocenceProof beyond reasonable doubt People vs. Dramayo, 42 SCRA 59 (1971) Order of Trial Alejandro vs. Pepito, 96 SCRA 322 (1988) (modified by Rule 119 Sec. 3 (e) Presumption of Guilt Dumlao vs. Comelec, 95 SCRA 392 (1980) People vs. Mingoa, 92 Phil. 857 (1953) Applicability to Juridical Persons Feeder Intl Line vs. Ca CR 942 62, May 31, 1991 Official Duty People vs. Martos, 211 SCRA 805 (1992) Equipoise Rule Corpuz vs. People, 194 SCRA 73 (1991) Dizon Paminatuan v. People, July 11, 1994 Right to be heard personally or by counsel Importance of Counsel People vs. Holgado, 85 Phil. 752 (1950) Delgado vs. CA, 145 SCRA 357 (1986) Improvident Plea of guilt People vs. Baluyot, 75 SCRA 148 (1977) People vs. Magsi, 124 SCRA 69 (1983) People v. Besonia, G.R. No. 151284-85, February 5, 2004 People v. Murillo, G.R. No. 134583, July 14, 2004

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Right to Lawyer of Choice People vs. Malunsing, 63 SCRA 493 (1975) Libuit v. People, G.R. No. 154363, September 13, 2005 Deprivation of Right to be Heard Moslares v. CA, 291 SCRA 440 (1998)

Right to be informed of nature and cause of accusationLack of Arraignment Borja vs. Mendoza, 77 SCRA 422 (1977) People v. Alcalde, G.R. 139225, May 29, 2002 People v. Dy, G.R. No. 154363, September 13, 2005 Sufficiency of the Information People v. Sadiosa, 290 SCRA 82 (1998) People v. Perez, G.R. No. 122764, September 24, 1998 People v. Lozano, G.R. 125080, September 25, 1998 People v. Ladrillo, G.R. No. 124342, December 8, 1999 People v. Valdesancho, G.R. 137051, May 30, 2001 People v. Alcaide, G.R. Nos. 139225-28, May 29, 2002 People vs. Ostia, G.R. No. 131804. February 26, 2003 People vs. Flores Jr., G.R. No. 128823-24, December 27, 2002 People v. Cachapero, G.R. No. 153008, May 20, 2004

Right to speedy, impartial and public trialSpeedy trial Acevedo vs. Sarmiento, 36 SCRA 247 (1970) People vs. Judge Laya, 161 SCRA 327 (1988) Conde vs. Rivera, 45 Phil. 650 (1924) Dacanay vs. People, 240 SCRA 490 (1995) People v. Rivera, G.R. No. 139180, July 31, 2001 Solar Team Entertainment v. How, G.R. No. 140863, August 22, 2000 Valencia v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 165996, October 17, 229, 2005 Domondon v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 166606, November 29, 2005 Public trial Garcia vs. Domingo, 52 SCRA 143 (1970) Perez v. Estrada, A.M. No. 01-4-03-SC, June 29, 2001 Impartial trial Tumey vs. Ohio, 273 U.S. 510 (1927) Soriano vs. Angeles, G.R. No. 109920, August 31, 2000

Right to confront witnesses

U.S. v. Javier, 37 Phil. 449 (1918)

Right to secure attendance of witnessesU.S. vs. Garcia, 10 Phil. 384 (1908) People vs. Sandal, 54 Phil. 883 (1938) People vs. De Luna, 174 SCRA 204 (1989)

Right to be present during trialTrial in absentia Rule 115, Sec. 1 (c) People vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 140285, September 27, 2006 When presence of the accused is a duty: Arraignment and plea Rule 116, Sec. 1 (b) During trial for identification Aquino vs. Military Commission No. 63 SCRA 546 (1975) People vs. Salas, 143 SCRA 163 (1986)

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Promulgation of sentence Rule 120, Sec. 6 Exception: Light offenses

PRIVILEGE AGAINST SELF-INCRIMINATIONArt. III, Sec. 17 Scope covers compulsory testimonial incrimination United States vs. Tan Teh, 23 Phil. 145 (1912) United States vs. Ong Siu Hong, 36 Phil. 735 (1917) People vs. Otadura, 86 Phil. 244 (1950) Villaflor vs. Summers, 41 Phil. 62 (1920) Bermudez vs. Castillo, 64 Phil. 485 (1937) Beltran v. Samson, 53 Phil. 570 (1929) People vs. Tranca, 235 SCRA 455 (1994) South Dakota v. Neville, 459 U.S. 553 (1983) Schemerber v. California, 384 U.S. 757 (1966) People v. Rondero, G.R. No. 125687, December 9, 1999 People vs. Gallarde, G.R. No. 133025, February 17, 2000 In what proceedings available Pascual vs. Board of Medical Examiners, 28 SCRA 344 (1969) Galman vs. Pamaran, 138 SCRA 274 (1985) Use Immunity v. Transactional Immunity. Art. XIII, Sec. 18 (8) R.A. No. 1379, Section 8 Galman vs. Pamaran, 138 SCRA 274 (1985) Brown v. Walker, 161 U.S. 591 Exclusionary rule Art. II, Sec. 12 (3) Effect of denial of privilege by court Chavez vs. Court of Appeals, 24 SCRA 663 (1968)

RIGHT TO SPEEDY DISPOSITION OF CASESArt. III, Sec. 16 Art. VIII, Sec. 15 Art. VII, Sec. 19 par. 3 Art. IX, A, Sec. 17 Duterte v. Sandiganbayan, 289 SCRA 721 (1998) Tatad vs. Sandiganbayan, 159 SCRA 70 (1988) Licaros v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. 145851, November 22, 2001 Dimayacyac v. Judge Roxas, G.R. No. 136264, May 28, 2004 Bernat v. Sandiganbayan, G.R> No. 158018, May 20, 2004

PUNISHMENTSExcessive fines and cruel, degrading and inhuman punishments People vs. Dela Cruz, 92 Phil. 906 (1953) People vs. Borja, 91 SCRA 340 (1978) People vs. Dacuycuy, 173 SCRA 90 (1989) Loiusiana v. Resweber, 329 U.S. 459 (1974) Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986) Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002) The death penalty Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice, G.R. No. 132601 January 19, 1999

Involuntary servitudeArt. III, Sec. 18 Aclaracion vs. Gatmaitan, 64 SCRA 131 (1979)

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Imprisonment for debtArt. III, Sec. 20 Sura vs. Martin, 26 SCRA 286 (1969) People vs. Nitafan, 207 SCRA 726 (1992) In Re: Habeas Corpus of Benjamin Vergara, G.R. No. 154037, April 30, 2003

Ex post facto laws and bills of attainderArt. III, Sec. 22 Kay Villegas Kami, 35 SCRA 429 (1970) People vs. Ferrer, 48 SCRA 382 (1972) People vs. Sandiganbayan, 211 SCRA 241 (1992) Wright vs. CA, 235 SCRA 341 (1994)

Double JeopardyArt. III, Sec. 21 Rule 117, Sec. 7 Rule 120, Sec. 5 Elements People vs. Obsania, 23 SCRA 1249 (1968) Subsequent prosecution barred; Exceptions Melo vs. People, 85 Phil. 766 (1959) People vs. Yorac, 42 SCRA 230 (1971) (overruled) PSB v. Bermoy, G.R. No. 151912, September 26, 2005 Heirs of Rillorta vs. Firme, 157 SCRA 518 (1988) People vs. Miraflores, 115 SCRA 586 (1982) People vs. Judge Vergara, 221 SCRA 560 (1993) Tupaz v. Ulep, G.R. No. 127777, October 1, 1999 Argel v. Judge Pascua, A.M. No. RTJ-94-1131, August 20, 2001 Jurisdiction of Courts People v. Bocar , 138 SCRA 166 (1985) Galman vs. Sandiganbayan, 144 SCRA 43 (1986) People vs. Grospe, 157 SCRA 154 (1988) People vs. Judge Santiago, 174 SCRA 143 (1989) Identity of Acts People vs . Relova, 148 SCRA 292 (1987) Identity of Offenses People vs. City Court, 154 SCRA 175 (1987) Nierras vs. acuycuy, 181 SCRA 1 (1990) Military Court Proceedings Cruz vs. Enrile, 160 SCRA 702 (1988) Tan v. Barrios, October 18, 1990 Right to Speedy Trial Que vs. Cosico, 177 SCRA 410 (1989) Caes vs. IAC, 179 SCRA 54 (1989) Administrative & Criminal Proceedings Icasiano vs. Sandiganbayan, 209 SCRA 377 (1992) Vincoy v CA, G.R. No. 156558, June 14, 2004 People v. Larannaga, G.R. No. 138874, July 25, 2005 Plea of Guilt to Lesser Offense People vs. Judge Villarama, 210 SCRA 246 (1992)

PRIVILEGE OF THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS

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Art. II, Sec. 15 Art. VII, Sec. 18 Villavicencio vs. Lukban, 39 Phil. 778 (1919) Moncupa vs. Ponce Enrile, 141 SCRA 223 (1986) Lansang vs. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448 (1971) Chavez vs. Court of Appeals, 24 SCRA 420 (1971) Gumabon vs. Director of Prisons, 37 SCRA 663 (1968) In re Abadilla, 156 SCRA 92 (1987) Norberto Feria vs. CA, et al. G.R. 122954, Feb. 15, 2000 Illusorio v. Bildner, G.R. 139789, May 12, 2000

FREEDOM OF EXPRESSIONArt. III, Sec. 4 I d., Sec. 18 (1) Purpose United States vs. Bustos, 37 Phil. 731 (1918) Burgos vs. Chief Of Staff, 133 SCRA 800 (1984) New York Times vs. Sulliven, 380 U.S. 51 (1964) Restrictions Gonzales vs. COMELEC, 27 SCRA 835 (1969) Social Weather Station v. Comelec, G.R. 147571, May 5, 2001 Balancing of Interest Test Dangerous Tendency Test Clear and Present Danger Test Zaldivar vs. Sandiganbayan, 170 SCRA 1 (1989) Sanidad vs. COMELEC, G.R. 90878, January 29, 1990 Reno v. ACLU, D-96-511, June 26, 1997 Miriam College v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 127930, December 15, 2000 ABS-CBN Broadcasting c\Corp. v. Comelec, G.R. No. 133486, January 28, 2000 Chavez vs. Comelec Freedom of Expression, Libel and National Security Babst vs. NBI, 132 SCRA 316 (1984) Espuelas vs. NBI, 132 SCRA 316 (1984) Elizalde vs. CFI, 116 SCRA 93 (1982) Lopez vs. Court of Appeals, 34 SCRA 116 (1970) PJI v. Thoenen, G.R. No. 143372, December 13, 2005 Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397 (1989) Borjal v. CA., 301 SCRA 1 (1999) Baguio Midland Courier v. CA, G.R. No. 107566, November 25, 2004 Freedom of Expression and the Administration of Justice Cabansag vs. Fernandez, 102 Phil. 152 People vs. Alarcon, 69 Phil. 265 (1939) In Re Ramon Tulfo, AM 90-4-1545-0, April 17, 1990 Nestle Phils. Vs. Sanchez, 154 SCRA 542 (1987) In Re Atty. Emil Jurado AM 90-5-2373 July 12, 1990 Freedom of Expression, Movie Censorship, Obscenity and the Right to Privacy Gonzales vs. Kalaw Katikbak, 137 SCRA 356 (1985) Lagunzad vs. Sotto, Vda. De Gonzales 92 SCRA 476 (1979) Ayer Productions vs. Judge Capulong, 160 SCRA 861 (1988) KMU v. Director General, G.R. No. 167798, April 19, 2006 TRCB v. ABS-CBN, G.R. No. 155282, January 17, 2005 Reno v. ACLU, June 26, 1997, D-96-511 Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973) Ernando v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 159751, December 6, 2006 Radio Broadcasts Eastern Broadcasting Corp. (DYRE) vs. Dans, 137 SCRA 247 (1985)

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FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLYBP Blg. 880 (Public Assembly Act of 1985) Primicias vs. Fugoso, 80 Phil. 71 (1948) Navarro vs. Villegas, 31 SCRA 730 (1970) Ignacio vs. Ela, 99 Phil. 346 (1956) J.B.I. Reyes vs. Bagatsing, 125 SCRA 553 (1983) Ruiz vs. Gordon, 126 SCRA 233 (1983) Malabanan vs. Ramento, 129 SCRA 359 (1984) Arreza vs. GAUF, 137 SCRA 94 (1985) German vs. Barangan, 135 SCRA 514 (1985) Acosta v. CA and CSC GR 132088 Jun 28, 2000 Bayan v. Ermita, G.R. No. 169848, April 25, 2006

FREEDOM OF INFORMATIONArt. III, Sec. 7 Baldoza vs. Dimaano, 71 SCRA 14 (1976) Tanada vs. Tuvera, supra Valmonte vs. Belmonte, 170 SCRA 256 (1989) Legaspi vs. CSC, 150 SCRA 530 (1987) Garcia vs. BOI, 177 SCRA 374 (1989)

FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATIONArt. III, Sec. 8 Art. IX, Sec. 2 (5) Art. XIII, Sec. 3, par. 2 Occena vs. COMELEC, 127 SCRA 404 (1985) In re Edillon, 84 SCRA (1979) Rotary Intl v. Rotary Club, 481 U.S. 537 (1987)

FREEDOM OF RELIGIONArt. III, Sec. 5 Nonstablishment Clause Operation of Secretarian schools Art. XIV, Sec. 4(2) Religions instruction in Public schools Art. XIV, Sec. 3(3) Civil Code, Art. 359(1) Anti-evolution laws Epperson vs. Arkansas, 33 U.S. 27 (1968) Prayer and Bible reading in public schools Engel vs. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962) Abington Schools Dist. vs. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203 (1973) Stone v. Graham, 449 U.S. 39 (1980) Tax exemption Art. VI, Sec. 28 (3) Pubic aid to religion Art. VI, Sec. 29 (2) Aglipay vs. Ruiz, 64 Phil. 201 (1937) Mueller v. Allen, 463 U.S. 388 (1983) Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971) Wallace v. Jaffree, 472 U.S. 38 (1985) Islamic Da wah Counsil v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 153888, July 9, 2003 Intramural religious disputes Fonacier vs. CA, 96 Phil. 417 (1955) Free Exercise Clause Estrada v. Escritor, A.M. No. P-02-1651, June 22, 2006

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Flag salute West Va Board of Education vs. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624 (1943) Ebralinag v. Division Superintended (March 1, 1993) Freedom to propagate religious doctrines American Bible Society vs. City of Manila, 181 Phil. 386 (1957) Swaggart Ministries v. Cal Bd. Of Equalization, 493 U.S. 378 (1990) Exemption from Union shop Victoriano vs. Elizalde Rope Workers Union, 59 SCRA 54 (1974) Disqualification for local government officials Pamil vs. Watkins 367 U.S. 488 (1961) Religious Test Torcaso vs. Watkins 367 U.S. 488 (1961)

LIBERTY OF ABODE AND TRAVELArt. III, Sec. 6 Salonga vs. Hermosa, 97 SCRA 121 (1989) Caunca vs. Salazar, 82 Phil. 851 (1940) Manotok vs. CA. 142 SCRA 149 (1986) Marcos vs. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668 (1989) Silverio vs. CA, G.R . no. 94284 April 8, 1991 Lorenzo v. Director of Health, 50 Phil. 595

end.

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