Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism (MLA papers) In a research paper, you will draw on the work of other writers, and you must document their contributions.

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<p>Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism (MLA papers)</p> <p>Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism (MLA papers)In a research paper, you will draw on the work of other writers, and you must document their contributions by citing your sources. Sources are cited for two reasons:to tell readers where your information comes fromso that they can assess its reliability and, if interested, find and read the original sourceto give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideasBorrowing another writers language, sentence structures, or ideas without proper acknowledgment is a form of dishonesty known as plagiarism.You must include a citation when you quote from a source, when you summarize or paraphrase, and when you borrow facts that are not common knowledge.Understand how the MLA system worksAcademic English requires the MLA (Modern Language Association) system of in-text citations. Here, briefly, is how the MLA citation system usually works.The source is introduced by a signal phrase that names its author.The material being cited is followed by a page number in parentheses.At the end of the paper, a list of works cited (arranged alphabetically by authors last names) gives complete publication information for the source.</p> <p>in-text citationLegal scholar Jay Kesan points out that the law holds employers liable for employees actions such as violations of copyright laws, the distribution of offensive or graphic sexual material, and illegal disclosure of confidential information (312).</p> <p>entry in the list of works citedKesan, Jay P. Cyber-Working or Cyber-Shirking? A First Principles Examination of Electronic Privacy in the Workplace. Florida Law Review 54.2 (2002): 289-332. Print.Avoid plagiarism when quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing sourcesYour research paper represents your ideas in conversation with the ideas in your sources. To be fair and responsible, you must acknowledge your debt to the writers of those sources. If you dont, you commit plagiarism, a serious academic offense. In general, these three acts are considered plagiarism: (1) failing to cite quotations and borrowed ideas(2) failing to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks(3) failing to put summaries and paraphrases in your own wordsCiting quotations and borrowed ideasYou must cite all direct quotations. You must also cite any ideas borrowed from a source: summaries and paraphrases; statistics and other specific facts; and visuals such as cartoons, graphs, and diagrams.The only exception is common knowledgeinformation your readers could easily find in any number of general sources. When you have seen information repeatedly, you dont need to cite it. However, when information has appeared in only one or two sources, when it is highly specific (as with statistics), or when it is controversial, you should cite the source. When in doubt, cite the source.Enclosing borrowed language in quotation marksTo indicate that you are using a sources exact phrases or sentences, you must enclose them in quotation marks unless they have been set off from the text by indenting. To omit the quotation marks is to claimfalselythat the language is your own. Such an omission is plagiarism even if you have cited the source.original sourceWithout adequate discipline, the World Wide Web can be a tremendous time sink; no other medium comes close to matching the Internets depth of materials, interactivity, and sheer distractive potential.Frederick Lane, The Naked Employee, p. 142plagiarismFrederick Lane points out that if people do not have adequate discipline, the World Wide Web can be a tremendous time sink; no other medium comes close to matching the Internets depth of materials, interactivity, and sheer distractive potential (142).</p> <p>borrowed language in quotation marksFrederick Lane points out that for those not exercising self-control, the World Wide Web can be a tremendous time sink; no other medium comes close to matching the Internets depth of materials, interactivity, and sheer distractive potential (142).Putting summaries and paraphrases in your own wordsSummaries and paraphrases are written in your own words. A summary condenses information from a source; a paraphrase uses roughly the same number of words as the original source to convey the information. When you summarize or paraphrase, it is not enough to name the source; you must restate the sources meaning using your own language. You commit plagiarism if you patch write half-copy the authors sentences, either by mixing the authors phrases with your own without using quotation marks or by plugging your synonyms into the authors sentence structure.</p> <p>The first paraphrase of the following source is plagiarized. Even though the source is cited, too much of its language is borrowed from the original. The highlighted strings of words have been copied exactly (without quotation marks). In addition, the writer has closely echoed the sentence structure of the source, merely substituting some synonyms (restricted for limited, modern era for computer age, monitoring for surveillance, and inexpensive for cheap).original sourceIn earlier times, surveillance was limited to the information that a supervisor could observe and record firsthand and to primitive counting devices. In the computer age surveillance can be instantaneous, unblinking, cheap, and, maybe most importantly, easy.Carl Botan and Mihaela Vorvoreanu, What Do Employees Think about Electronic Surveillance at Work?, p. 126plagiarism: unacceptable borrowingScholars Carl Botan and Mihaela Vorvoreanu argue that in earlier times monitoring of employees was restricted to the information that a supervisor could observe and record firsthand. In the modern era, monitoring can be instantaneous, inexpensive, and, most importantly, easy.To avoid plagiarizing an authors language, resist the temptation to look at the source while you are summarizing or paraphrasing. Following these steps will help you avoid plagiarizing the source. When you fully understand another writers meaning, you can more easily and accurately represent those ideas in your own wordsAfter you have read the passage you want to paraphrase, set the source aside. Ask yourself, What is the authors meaning? In your own words, state your understanding of the authors basic point. Return to the source and check that you havent used the authors language or sentence structure or misrepresented the authors ideas..acceptable paraphraseScholars Carl Botan and Mihaela Vorvoreanu claim that the nature of workplace surveillance has changed over time. Before the arrival of computers, managers could collect only small amounts of information about their employees based on what they saw or heard. Now, because computers are standard workplace technology, employers can monitor employees efficiently (126).</p>

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