Chemistry 104 Chapter Five PowerPoint Notes - 104 Chapter Five PowerPoint Notes Page1 Chemical Bonding: ... pyramidal Molecular shape MAR Structure ... Chemistry 104 Chapter Five PowerPoint Notes

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  • Chemistry 104 Chapter Five PowerPoint Notes

    Page 1

    Chemical Bonding: TheCovalent Bond Model

    Chapter 5

    Chemistry 104Professor Michael Russell

    MAR

    Covalent Bonds

    A covalent bond is a bond formed by sharingelectrons between atoms.

    A molecule is a group of atoms held together bycovalent bonds.

    Nonmetals form covalent bonds withnonmetals. They reach the Noble Gasconfiguration by sharing an appropriatenumber of electrons.

    MAR

    A water molecule results when two hydrogenatoms and one oxygen atom are covalentlybonded:

    MAR

    Are these compounds bonded through ionic or covalentbonding?PCl5 covalent (all nonmetals)Na2O ionic (metallic sodium)SO3 covalent (all nonmetals)CaSO3 ionic (metallic calcium)SbAs ?!? metalloids go both ways!

    Test Yourself

    Nomenclature of covalent compoundsdifferent from ionic compounds; important

    to know the difference

  • Chemistry 104 Chapter Five PowerPoint Notes

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    Naming Molecular Compounds

    When two or more nonmetal elements combinethey form covalent compounds.

    The formulas of covalent compounds arewritten with the less electronegative (i.e.more metal-like) element first.

    More electronegative element gets -ide suffixUse Greek Prefixes to indicate number of

    atoms present.

    MAR

    Greek Prefixes

    1 mono 6 hexa

    2 di 7 hepta

    3 tri 8 octa

    4 tetra 9 nona

    5 penta 10 deca

    MAR

    Covalent compounds and nomenclature:

    boron trichloride

    nitrogen dioxide

    sulfur trioxide

    MAR

    Test Yourself - Covalent BondingGive the names for the following formulas:N2O5SO2OF2P2O3NOGive the formulas for the following names:tetraphosphorus decaoxidecarbon dioxidecarbon monoxidenitrogen dioxide

    dinitrogen pentaoxidesulfur dioxideoxygen difluoridediphosphorus trioxidenitrogen monoxide

    P4O10CO2CONO2

    Practice, practice, practice!

  • Chemistry 104 Chapter Five PowerPoint Notes

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    When atoms come together, electrical interactions occur.Some interactions are repulsive:

    positively charged nuclei repel each othernegatively charged electrons repel each other.

    Other interactions are attractive:nucleus A attracts electrons in atom B and vice-versa

    If attractive forces > repulsive forcescovalent bond formed

    MAR

    A covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms:

    A covalent bond is the result of attractive andrepulsive forces between atoms.

    MAR

    1s orbitals on two individual H atoms bendtogether and overlap to give egg shaped regionin the hydrogen molecule - the covalent bond.

    This shared pair of electrons in a covalentbond often represented as a line between atoms.

    MAR

    A Bond length is the optimum distancebetween nuclei in a covalent bond.If atoms too far apart:

    attractive forces are smallno bond forms

    If atoms are too close:repulsive forces strongpushes atoms apartno bond forms

  • Chemistry 104 Chapter Five PowerPoint Notes

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    A graph of potential energy versusinternuclear distance for hydrogen.

    MAR

    When two chlorine atoms approach each other,the unpaired 3p electrons are shared by bothatoms in a covalent bond.Each chlorine atom in the Cl2 molecule has 7electrons in its own valence shell, and sharingone more gives each valence shell an octet.

    MAR

    In addition to H2 and Cl2, five other elementsalways exist as diatomic molecule.

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    HaveNoFearOfIceClearBrew

    Elements that Exist asDiatomic Molecules

  • Chemistry 104 Chapter Five PowerPoint Notes

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    Have - Hydrogen, H2No - Nitrogen, N2Fear - Fluorine, F2Of - Oxygen, O2Ice - Iodine, I2Clear - Chlorine, Cl2Brew - Bromine, Br2

    Elements that Exist asDiatomic Molecules

    "HONClBrIF"

    MAR

    Covalent Bonds and the PeriodicTable

    Covalent bonds can form between unlike atoms aswell, making possible a vast number of molecularcompounds.

    Water, H2O, consists of two hydrogen atoms joined bycovalent bonds to one oxygen atom.

    Ammonia, NH3, consists of three hydrogen atomsjoined by covalent bonds to one nitrogen atom.

    In most covalent molecules, each atom shares enoughelectrons to achieve a noble gas configuration.

    MAR

    Fig 5.4 For P, S, Cl, and other elements in the third period andbelow, the number of covalent bonds may vary, as indicated bythe numbers shown in parentheses.

    MAR

    Multiple Covalent BondsSingle bond: A bond formed by sharing two

    electrons or one pair represented by asingle line between the atoms.

    Double bond: A bond formed by sharing fourelectrons or two pairs represented by twolines (=) between the atoms.

    Double bond

    Single bond

  • Chemistry 104 Chapter Five PowerPoint Notes

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    Triple bond: A bond formed by sharing sixelectrons or three pairs represented by threelines () between the atoms.

    MAR

    Coordinate Covalent BondsCoordinate Covalent Bond: The covalent bondthat forms when both electrons are donated by thesame atom.

    MAR

    Molecular Formulas and LewisStructures

    Molecular Formula: A formula that shows thenumber and kind of atoms in a moleculeStructural formula: Molecular representationthat shows the connections among atoms byusing lines to represent covalent bonds

    Example for water:H2O = molecular formulaH-O-H = structural formula

    MAR

    Lewis structure: Molecular representationshowing both the connections among atomsand the locations of lone pair valenceelectrons.A lone pair is a pair of electrons not used forbonding.

    Lewis structure example for water:lone pair electrons

    single bond (bonding electrons)

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    Drawing Lewis StructureTo draw a Lewis structure, you need to knowthe connections among atoms.Knowing common bonding patterns simplifieswriting Lewis structure.

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    Building a Lewis Dot StructureAmmonia, NH31. Decide on central atom; never H. Central atom is atom of lowest affinity

    for electrons (usually first atom listed) Therefore, N is central2. Count valence electrons H = 1 and N = 5 Total = (3 x 1) + 5 = 8 electrons or 4 pairs

    Pairs can be lone or bonding

    MAR

    3. Form a covalent bondbetween the central atomand surrounding atoms.

    4. Remaining electrons formLONE PAIRS to complete octetas needed.

    Building a Lewis Dot Structure

    3 BOND PAIRS and 1 LONE PAIR.Note that N has an octet (8 electrons),

    while H shares only 2 electronsMAR

    Lewis structure rules:1: Decide on a central atom and find the total

    number of valence electrons in molecule orion

    2: Draw a line between each pair of connectedatoms to represent a covalent bond

    3: Add lone pairs so that each peripheral atom(except H) gets an octet

    4: Place all remaining electrons on the centralatom

    5: If central atom does not have an octet, takelone pair(s) from neighboring atom(s) andform multiple bond(s) to the central atom

  • Chemistry 104 Chapter Five PowerPoint Notes

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    Carbon Dioxide, CO21. Central atom = _______2. Valence electrons = __ or __ pairs3. Form single bonds.

    This leaves 6 pairs.4. Place lone pairs on outer atoms.

    MAR

    Carbon Dioxide, CO24. Place lone pairs on outer atoms.

    5. So that C has an octet, we shall formDOUBLE BONDS between C and O.

    Practice, practice, practice!

    MAR

    Shape of MoleculesMolecular shapes can be predicted by notinghow many bonds and electron pairs surroundindividual atoms and applying valence-shellelectron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory.Basic idea of VSEPR: negatively chargedelectron clouds in bonds and lone pairs repeleach other, keeping them as far apart as possible

    MAR

    VSEPR

  • Chemistry 104 Chapter Five PowerPoint Notes

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    To apply VSEPR theory:1: Draw the Lewis structure of the molecule and

    identify the central atom2: Count the number of electron charge clouds

    (lone and bonding pairs) surrounding thecentral atom.

    3: Predict molecular shape by assuming thatclouds orient so they are as far away fromone another as possible.

    VSEPR Rules

    MAR

    VSEPR Shape Predictor Table - Table 5.1

    4

    4

    4

    3

    3

    2

    Clouds

    2

    3

    4

    2

    3

    2

    Bonds

    2

    1

    0

    1

    0

    0

    LonePairs

    tetrahedral

    tetrahedral

    tetrahedral

    planartriangular

    planartriangular

    linear

    ElectronPair Geom.

    bent

    pyramidal

    tetrahedral

    bent

    planartriangular

    linear

    MolecularShape

    109

    109

    109

    120

    120

    180

    Angles

    always polar

    always polar

    always polar

    Notes

    tetrahedral EPG,pyramidal Molecularshape

    MAR

    Structure Determination byVSEPR

    Ammonia, NH31. Draw Lewis electron dot structure2. Count Electron charge clouds(bonds and lone pairs) = 43. The 4 electron pairs are at thecorners of a tetrahedron.

    MAR

    Structure Determination byVSEPR

    Ammonia, NH3There are 4 electron pairs at the corners

    of a tetrahedron.

    The ELECTRON PAIR GEOMETRY istetrahedral.

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    Ammonia, NH3The electron pair geometry is tetrahedral.

    The MOLECULAR GEOMETRY the positions ofthe atoms is PYRAMIDAL.

    Structure Determination byVSEPR

    MAR

    Describe the Lewis structure, electron pairgeometry and molecular shape of methane, CH4.

    Number of valence electrons = 4 + 1(4) = 8Number of electron pairs = 4Central atom = CLewis structure: C in the middle of four H atoms,

    each connected by one lone pairThe electron pair geometry is tetrahedral.The molecular shape is also tetrahedral .

    Test Yourself

    MAR

    Polar Covalent Bonds andElectronegativity

    Electrons in a covalent bond occupy the regionbetween the bonded atoms.

    If atoms in bond identical (H2, Cl2, etc.) electronsare attracted equally to both atoms and areshared equally.

    If atoms in bond different (HCl, HF, etc.) electronsmay be attracted more strongly by one atomthan by the other and are shared unequally.

    Such bonds are known as polar covalent bonds.

    MAR

  • Chemistry 104 Chapter Five PowerPoint Notes

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    In HCl, electrons spend more time near Cl than H.Although molecule is overall neutral, the chlorine ismore negative than the hydrogen, resulting in partialcharges on the atoms.

    Partial charges represented by placing - on the morenegative atom and + on the more positive atom.

    Ability of an atom to attract electrons is called theatoms electronegativity.

    Fluorine, the most electronegative element, assigned avalue of 4, and less electronegative atoms assignedlower values

    MAR

    Electronegativities and the periodic table

    MAR

    Polar Molecules

    Entire molecule can be polar if electrons areattracted more strongly to one part of themolecule than another.

    Molecules polarity is due to the sum of allindividual bond polarities and lone-paircontributions in the molecule.

    MAR

    Molecular polarity is represented by an arrowpointing at the negative end and is crossed atthe positive end to resemble a positive sign.

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    Molecular polarity depends on the shape of themolecule as well as the presence of polarcovalent bonds and lone-pairs

    MAR

    Test Yourself

    nonpolar polar polar

    Are BF3, Cl2CO, and NH3 polar or nonpolar?

    To review and study for Chapter 5, look atthe "Concepts to Remember" at the end

    of Chapter Five

    End of Chapter 5

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