Chemical Energy for Cells Chemical energy for cells comes in 2 forms: ATP= Adenosine Triphosphate (high energy) ADP= Adenosine Diphosphate (lower energy)

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Chemical Energy for Cells

Chemical Energy for CellsChemical energy for cells comes in 2 forms:ATP= Adenosine Triphosphate (high energy)ADP= Adenosine Diphosphate (lower energy)

triphosphateadenosineadenosinediphosphatetri=3di=2Different foods provide different amounts of ATP:Fats store the most energy.about 146 ATP from a triglyceride

Carbohydrates are the molecules most commonly broken down to make ATP. Up to 36 ATP from one glucose molecule

Proteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP, but have about the same amount of energy as a carbohydrate.

Chemical Energy in PlantsPlants are producers because they produce their own chemical energy through photosynthesis.Photosynthesis is a process that captures sunlight to make sugars (=carbs) for chemical energy.Photosynthesis happens in the chloroplast organelle (in leaf cells).Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts.

chloroplaststromagrana (thylakoids)grana/granum (pl.)(made up of thylakoids *containing chlorophyll)

stroma(fluid outside grana)thylakoidPhotosynthesis Equation:6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight C6H12O6 + 6O2

Sugar (glucose)2 parts of Photosynthesis: Light-Dependent reactions take place in/across thylakoid.(Sunlight and water are used to produce ATP and give off oxygen)

Light-Independent reactions take place in the stroma. (AKA: Calvin Cycle)(ATP and carbon dioxide are used to produce sugars)

C6H12O6grana (stack of thylakoids)thylakoidsunlight

1 six-carbon sugar6H2O6CO26O2

chloroplast1243energystroma (fluid outside the thylakoids)RespirationCellular Respiration is the opposite of photosynthesis:C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP(energy)* This is an aerobic process- it NEEDS oxygen

3 major steps:Glycolysis: NOT in mitochondria (in cytoplasm of cell) =anaerobic process to make ATP

In mitochondria:2) Krebs cycle (in matrix): makes small amount of ATP, releases carbon dioxide3) Electron transport (in inner membranes): makes ATP and releases water

6H O26CO 26O 2mitochondrionmatrix (area enclosedby inner membrane)

inner membraneATPATPenergyenergy from glycolysis1243andandand


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