Charting the Development of Portsmouth Harbour, Dockyard and Town in the Tudor Period

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    Charting the Development of Portsmouth Harbour,Dockyard and Town in the Tudor Period

    Dominic Fontana

    Published online: 23 October 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

    Abstract Portsmouth was crucial to the defence of Tudor England and consequently itwas mapped for military planning purposes throughout the Tudor period from 1545. The

    resulting sequence of maps records much of the town and harbour. The maps offer

    opportunities for furthering our understanding of Tudor Portsmouth and its population

    Additionally, images of the urban landscape provided by the Cowdray Engraving, which

    depicts the loss of Henry VIIIs warship Mary Rose on the 19th July 1545, may also be

    considered and compared with those presented in the early maps of the town. This paper

    considers the Portsmouth maps of 1545, 1552, 1584 and the chart of Portsmouth Harbour

    dating from between 1586 and 1620. These are examined in relation to one another and

    compared with evidence from the Cowdray Engraving.

    Keywords Portsmouth Cowdray engraving Mary Rose Tudor map


    In 1509, when Henry VIII came to the throne, English maps were relatively rare objects,

    used primarily as a means of displaying encyclopaedic and historical information rather

    than for practical purposes. However, during Henrys reign it was realised that they could

    prove extremely useful for both military and urban planning purposes as well as charting

    extant buildings and fortifications as a guide in planning further urban and military


    Portsmouth was most important to the security of England as it offered a good natural

    harbour along the south coast. Conversely, it was also the ideal invasion point for an enemy

    fleet, providing sheltered anchorage for many substantial ships, and deepwater quaysides

    D. Fontana (&)Department of Geography, University of Portsmouth, Buckingham Building, Lion Terrace, PortsmouthPO1 3HE, UKe-mail:


    J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282DOI 10.1007/s11457-013-9114-4

  • upon which to disembark speedily the very large quantities of soldiers, provisions and

    equipment required for an invasion. In 1538, when Henry VIII and England faced great

    threat of invasion from the French and Spanish, immediate steps were taken to fortify the

    whole of the south coast and in particular the vulnerable coastline around the Solent.

    Surveys were undertaken, maps were made, plans developed and the building of fortifi-

    cations undertaken, all along the coast (Harrington 2007: 6). Indeed, the coastal survey

    which resulted in the magnificent map detailing the coast from Exeter to Lands End (B.L.

    C.A. 1.i. 35, 36, 38, 39) made in 153940, was the largest single British governmental

    mapping initiative before the 19th century (Barber 2009: 216). Similarly, there are also

    the maps showing the coast from Poole to Portland and Lyme Regis (B.L. C.A. 1.i. 31, 33).

    Although an enormous investment in manpower and money, it has left us with a legacy of

    Tudor fortifications, and some of the maps and plans that were used for their planning and

    construction. Portsmouth itself was mapped both for Henry and his heirs. During the reigns

    of Edward VI and Elizabeth I, threats from abroad continued and consequently further

    maps were made and plans drawn up for the repair and re-fortification of the towns


    This paper considers the Portsmouth maps of 1545, 1552, 1584 (1545, British Library,

    Cotton Augustus I.i.81; 1552, British Library, Cotton Augustus I.ii.15 and 1584, British

    Library, Cotton Augustus I.ii.117) and the UK Hydrographic Office (UKHO) chart of

    Portsmouth Harbour dating from between 1586 and 1620 (UKHO chart D623). These are

    examined in relation to one another and compared with the Cowdray Engraving, an

    engraved copy of a Tudor wall painting of the battle scene off Portsmouth on the 19th of

    July 1545, during the invasion attempt by Francois I of France. This action is mostly

    remembered for the loss of Mary Rose. Although a significant event in itself, this was only

    a part of the overall military and naval conflict, which occurred on the Isle of Wight, in the

    Solent and the English Channel. The Cowdray image has proven to be topographically

    accurate and contains a great deal of pictorial information about both Portsmouth and its

    defences (Fontana and Hildred 2011). Viewed together, the maps and the engraving pro-

    vide a rich source of information for the study of the defence and urban development of

    Tudor Portsmouth and provide an unparalleled view on aspects of Tudor life at all levels of


    It is not possible here to illustrate adequately much of the map based material discussed

    in this paper as there is too much to reproduce in print and it would be difficult to provide

    sufficient detail within printed images. However, with the exception of the 1584 map of

    Portsmouth, the maps from the British Library collection are available online where they

    are presented in colour and can be zoomed into by the user so that the detail of the maps

    can be explored. Consequently, the available space in this paper has been used for illus-

    trations from the Cowdray Engraving and the UK Hydrographic Office chart D623.

    The Cowdray engraving (Size: 222 3 69 in.)

    The Cowdray Engraving is an important historic image depicting the French attempt to

    invade England in July 1545 and shows the loss of King Henry VIIIs warship, Mary Rose

    (Fig. 1). The full title of the engraving is The Encampment of the English forces near

    Portsmouth, Together with a view of the English and French fleets at commencement of

    the action between them on the XIXth July MDXLV. The engraving was published in

    1778, although the original painting from which it was derived was created shortly after the

    events shown, probably by May 1548 (Nurse 2012). The copy consulted for this paper is in

    264 J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282


  • a private collection and by kind permission of the owner the author is in possession of a

    high-resolution digital scan of the image, which enables the easy viewing of the picture at

    close quarters.

    The image presents a birds-eye panoramic view looking from north to south across the

    southern part of Portsea Island towards the Solent and to the Isle of Wight beyond. On the

    left-hand side of the image is the French invasion fleet shown as a mass of ships in St

    Helens Roads, off Bembridge Harbour, around the eastern end of the Isle of Wight. In the

    central upper right-hand area of the image are the ships of the English fleet, which are

    occupying the anchorage of Spithead and are set ready to oppose the French invasion. The

    town of Portsmouth is shown in the lower right-hand side and Southsea Castle is the large

    building in the centre of the image. Just above Southsea Castle are the mast-tops of the

    recently sunken Mary Rose, surrounded by a number of small boats attempting to rescue

    some of her crew.

    This picture is just one image derived from a set of five large wall paintings which once

    decorated the dining hall at Cowdray house in Midhurst, Sussex. They were probably

    painted for Sir Anthony Browne, Master of the Kings Horse, between 1545 and 1548. The

    identity of the artist is unknown. Browne inherited Cowdray from his half-brother in 1543

    and it remained one of his principal residences until his death in 1548. Sir Anthony is

    shown prominently in the centre of the Portsmouth image riding a white horse following

    immediately behind King Henry VIII, who is also mounted. Next to Browne is Sir Charles

    Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, commanding the English land forces at Portsmouth (Ayloffe


    The image, as we have it today, is in the form of a printed reproduction from hand-

    engraved copper printing plates. These were commissioned by the Society of Antiquaries

    of London in the 1770 s. Although it has been reduced to about one-third of the size of the

    original wall painting, the reproduction is still very large at over 2 m wide and, as a result it

    had to be engraved onto two separate copperplates which were, in turn, printed onto two

    sheets of extra large paper called Antiquarian (Nurse 2007: 144). The reproduction of

    such a large and detailed image required the creation of special paper by James Whatman

    who specifically invented equipment to manufacture sheets of the required size (Nurse

    2007: 155). The engravings themselves were made by James Basire of Great Queen Street,

    London. Basire specialised in antiquarian subjects and used a painstaking, carefully drawn

    and, even for the time, rather old fashioned style of engraving (Ackroyd 1995: 35).

    Although there is no direct documentary evidence, William Blake, painter and poet, is

    Fig. 1 The whole of the Cowdray Engraving showing the battle in the Solent off Portsmouth on 19th July1545. The ships on the left are the French fleet with the English ships in the centre and to the right of thepicture. The land in the top of the image is the Isle of Wight and the southern shore of Portsmouth is at thebottom. The sea in the middle is Spithead and the Solent (private collection, used by permission)

    J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282 265


  • likely to have been involved in the engraving of the image. He was apprenticed as an

    engraver to Basire in 1772, living in Basires household until 1778, the year in which the

    engraving was completed and published. The engraving of the image was a major com-

    mission and took 2 years to complete, causing some difficulties for the Society of Anti-

    quaries because of the expense involved (Nurse 2007:156). However, it is fortuitous that

    the Antiquaries continued with the reproduction of the pictures because on the 24th

    September, 1793, Cowdray House was largely destroyed by fire (Hope 1919) and the

    original wall paintings were lost.

    The Antiquaries distributed black-and-white copies of the engraving to members of the

    Society and a number of these copies still survive. The copy used for this project has been

    coloured by hand, probably using watercolour paints, and it is likely that this colouring was

    done shortly after the initial distribution of the prints to the members of the Society in the

    late 1770 s. It is not known if the colours used were chosen with reference to the original

    wall painting, but this seems unlikely. There is one other coloured copy of the engraving

    still known to exist, also in private hands. The colours used in the second known version of

    the engraving are significantly different to the copy used here and are somewhat brighter.

    A written description of the original painting was made by Sir Joseph Ayloffe (Ayloffe

    1775). Ayloffe considered the painting to be an accurate representation of the scene and

    was fulsome in his praise. is evidently handled with the greatest attention to truth; all isregular, circumstantial, and intelligible, nothing misrepresented, disguised, or confused.

    He also made a few notes about the colours that had been used in the original painting.

    Therefore, the image content remains available to us in the form of the engraving although

    the colouring of the copy used for this study must be treated with some care as it is unlikely

    to have been derived from the original wall painting.

    Within the illustration, there is considerable amount of identifiable topographical detail

    evident. Several English ships are shown passing through Portsmouth Harbours narrow

    entrance on their way to join the rest of the English fleet at Spithead. Some of the English

    ships are using the Swashway, a shallow channel which cuts southward across Spitbank

    adjacent to the harbour entrance, providing a slightly shorter route to Spithead. This

    underwater landscape feature is very clearly depicted in the United Kingdom Hydrographic

    Office chart D623. Consequently, we can be reasonably certain of the late Tudor seabed

    topography and from the map discern that it was very similar to the modern configuration.

    The shape of Spitbank has a significant effect on the tidal currents which, in turn, directly

    affect the navigational access to Portsmouth Harbour. Today, the Isle of Wight ferries, with

    their relatively shallow draught, use this route across the Solent at almost all states of the

    tide as they ply between the island and Portsmouth. These vessels are equipped with

    modern engines and steering systems, so they are more able to cope with the powerful tidal

    currents running through the harbour entrance caused by the ebb and flow of the tidal

    cycle. Sailing vessels without motor power are severely constrained by these currents and

    must adhere to tightly defined tidal time windows to enter or leave Portsmouth Harbour.

    This natural phenomenon is crucial in the planning and development of effective harbour

    defences. The location of the underwater sandbanks and navigable channel ensured all

    vessels entering the harbour would need to sail close to the southern shore of Portsea

    Island, from Southsea Castle to the Round Tower and consequently, the defence of the

    harbour required that enough guns of sufficient range and destructive capability were

    positioned in batteries along the shore and on either side of the harbours entrance and this

    is exactly the situation depicted in the Cowdray Engraving with guns mounted at Southsea

    Castle and along Portsmouths defensive walls from the Greene Bulwark at the southeast

    corner of the town to the Round Tower by the harbour entrance.

    266 J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282


  • The Cowdray image also shows many identifiable features of the built environment of

    Portsmouth, Gosport and the Isle of Wight. On the Portsmouth side of the harbour entrance

    is the Round Tower, a circular stone structure dating from the 153040 s which probably

    replaced an earlier tower on the same site. On the Gosport shore opposite the Round Tower

    is Fort Blockhouse. Adjacent to the Round Tower is the capstan for raising a defensive

    boom chain, which could be drawn across the harbour entrance suspended beneath a series

    of small boats roped together. This would close the harbour to shipping, or at the very least

    significantly hinder entry for enemy vessels delaying them in a location close to the

    defending guns mounted in the Round Tower and at Fort Blockhouse. The chain is also

    shown on the 1584 map of Portsmouth fortifications and referred to in John Lelands

    Itinerary (written c. 153543). Williams (1979: 11) suggests that the chain was not

    available for the 1545 battle, which could explain why the capstan is shown in the

    Cowdray Engraving, but the chain itself is not and that the figure standing next to the

    capstan is making an almost forlorn gesture towards it.

    Also identifiable are the Square Tower, originating as a wood and earth structure around

    c. 1495 and rebuilt of stone during Henry VIIIs reign. Other structures clearly shown in

    the picture include in the southeast corner of Portsmouth the Saluting Platform, Long

    Curtain and what was then known as the Greene Bulwark and this still extant structure is

    now called the Kings Bastion. Further east along the Southsea shoreline the smaller

    defences of what were later to become Lumps Fort and Eastney Fort are also clearly

    shown. The half-timbered building in the lower left-hand side of the picture is Eastney

    Farm which was the only substantial building in that part of Portsea Island at the time and

    survived until the 1920 s. Eastney Farm (marked as Easto Ferm) is one of just five

    places shown on Portsea Island in John Nordens 1595 County map of Hampshire.

    Within Portsmouths town walls there is also considerable detail shown which can be

    compared with the 1584 map (Fig. 2). The four brewhouses are labelled on the 1584 map

    with their names; The dragon, The Lyon, The White Hart and The Rose, and are clearly

    shown as being located around a pond, probably a freshwater spring providing the sig-

    nificant quantities of water essential for brewing. The four brewhouses were established in

    1515 by Henry VIII to provide beer for his ships. They produced considerable quantities,

    making 500 barrels per day in 1515 (Eley 1988). Provisioning of Henrys fleet and shore

    forts was an enormous task requiring significant organisation and by 1547 naval victualling

    was regularly accounted to the Exchequer (Knighton and Loades 2014). The engraving

    shows the brewhouses as timber framed buildings located almost as though they were

    mounted on stilts above a pond which extends underneath and around the buildings.

    Evidence for the brewhouses is also provided in the maps of 1545 and 1552. In the 1545

    map they are shown as four rectangular buildings with a small square extension added to

    one side of each building, with the four brewhouses being grouped around a square pond.

    In the 1552 map the buildings are presented in birds-eye view as a group of low buildings

    with pitched roofs set around an irregularly shaped pond. On the right-hand side of the

    image, Portsmouths defences adjacent to the narrow entrance to Portsmouth Harbour are

    depicted. The engraving shows a wall with a gate separating the Round Tower with its

    associated buildings and palisade from the main part of the town. Adjacent to this gate and

    wall are two buildings, one of which is shown as being constructed on stilts extending over

    the water of the Camber. This is probably the Swane bakery, which is named on the 1584


    Shown alongside the brewhouses in the engraving are the buildings of the mediaeval

    hospice, Domus Dei, surrounded by the precinct wall, separating it from the town. The

    western side of the wall is breached by a gateway located in what is now Penny Street, and

    J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282 267


  • provides the entrance to the site. The north facing precinct wall is pierced by four windows

    and the Great Hall is shown as having two windows with stone tracery and a large chimney

    placed in between them. Archaeological excavation undertaken in May 2009 for the

    Channel Four television Time Team programme (Series 17, Episode Nine) has provided

    archaeological confirmation of the location of the eastern precinct wall of the Domus Dei

    (Wessex Archaeology 2010, Trench 2, Paragraph 4.3.12: 12) and this concurs with the site

    as shown in the 1545, 1552 and 1584 maps.

    In the extreme lower right of the picture can be seen Town Quay in the Camber Dock

    (Fig. 3) with what appear to be stone quaysides on either side, forming a small rectangular

    inlet. This shape is also recorded in the 1545 map and is echoed in the birds-eye view

    depiction on the 1552 map, although the lengths of the projections appear unequal, con-

    trasting with their presentation in the 1545 map. To the left of Town Quay there is a small

    vessel either loading or unloading barrels, alongside a small crane or derrick. In front of

    this scene there are a line of four gabions (wicker baskets containing earth or sand, used to

    provide temporary fortifications) and behind these are four guns facing outwards towards

    the Camber. These appear to be mounted on part of the town wall embankment, which is

    topped with a crenellated wall. This is truncated on either side, forming a gap between the

    sections of the wall. On the 1545 map this position is filled with a circular bastion placed

    on top of an earth mound which projects northwards from the walls. The depiction in the

    Cowdray Engraving suggests that this bastion had not been completed at the time of the

    battle in July 1545, although, implied by the gap in the wall, space had been reserved for its

    future construction. The 1552 map shows a pentagonal shaped bastion projecting out from

    the wall in place of the circular bastion depicted in the 1545 map. The 1584 map shows a

    semicircular bastion, which is open on the side facing into the town with its parapet walls

    joining the general run of the parapet around the town. From this sequence of map and

    pictorial evidence, it seems likely that the 1584 map depiction most closely reflects the

    bastion that was eventually constructed.

    As it is shown in the Cowdray Engraving the line of the crenellated wall westward of

    the gap merges into some trees, which suggests that the wall itself did not completely

    encircle the town at this time. On the 1545 map an almost square bastion is drawn as

    Fig. 2 Detail from the Cowdray Engraving showing the four brewhouses located above a pond in the left ofthis picture and the buildings of the mediaeval hospice Domus Dei surrounded by its precinct wall. Thearched entrance from Penny Street into the enclosed Domus Dei site can be seen in the right hand of theimage (private collection, used by permission)

    268 J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282


  • forming the northwestern most part of the defences of the town. As shown in the 1545 map,

    it appears to be equipped with a doorway adjacent to the parapet of the Town Walls giving

    entry to an L- shaped space from which a staircase transits to a second, possibly higher

    level. The 1552 map displays a largely similar square bastion structure although no internal

    walls or staircases have been defined. The entrance doorway is in a similar position to that

    shown in the 1545 map. The 1584 map also shows a square bastion which has been labelled

    ye square bastion. Internally, there is an L-shaped structure shown but it is not in the same

    position as depicted in the 1545 map. The entrance to the interior of the bastion is via a

    narrow passage between the right-angled corner of the town wall parapet and the inner

    corner of the bastion itself. The sequence suggests that this bastion was planned, but not

    built by the time of the 1545 battle.

    In the engraving, just above the crenellated Town Wall parapet, a long storehouse can

    be seen. In the 1545 map the long storehouse is clearly shown with an entrance doorway

    close to Town Quay and another one halfway along its eastern side, which is depicted on

    the map as being closed. Interestingly, the Cowdray Engraving shows the doorway on the

    eastern end of the building facing away from the Town Quay and the 1545 map shows this

    as just a blank end wall without doorway. This location is marked in the 1584 map as an

    area which has been burned. The storehouses were destroyed by fire on 4th August 1576

    (Calendar of State Papers Domestic 15471580: 526). Hodson (1978: 33) cites this as

    evidence for the earliest possible date of the 1584 map.

    One of the central subjects of the Cowdray picture is the sinking of Mary Rose.

    Although this specific incident happened at Spithead and does not occur directly within

    part of Portsmouth town or the harbour, it is nonetheless an extremely useful element of the

    data contained within the picture. Because Mary Rose was excavated from the seabed of

    the Solent the exact location of her sinking is known and this fixed spot assists with the

    understanding of the geography of the battlefield as presented within the image. In turn,

    this helps to develop a fuller understanding of all of the other information presented within

    the picture.

    The appearance of the sunken Mary Rose presents what is an accurate depiction of the

    ship resting on the seabed with only the highest parts of two of the ships masts protruding

    Fig. 3 Detail from the extreme lower right corner of the Cowdray Engraving showing Town Quay as arectangular shaped inlet. Notice that crossing the lower part of the image is the crenulated parapet of thetown wall exhibiting a gap in wall itself, close to the four guns and gabions. To the right of this detail thelong storehouse showing a doorway facing to the east unlike the 1545 map which shows the doorway facingwest (private collection, used by permission)

    J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282 269


  • above the surface of the sea, complete with their fighting tops. The foremast mainsail can

    be seen floating on the surface of the water surrounded by a number of drowned sailors.

    The image shows one man clinging to the underside of the fighting top of the main mast

    with two men on the foremast, one clinging to the mast itself and the other standing on the

    fighting top, waving animatedly. The depiction of the masts would suggest that Mary Rose

    had been proceeding in a northerly direction at the time that she sank, which accords with

    her excavated archaeological position, and that she was rigged with the mainsail on the

    foremast. Within the image there is no suggestion of the mainsail on the main mast, which

    may imply that this was reefed at the time of the sinking. Consequently, it is probable that

    Mary Rose had a similar sail configuration set for her final passage to a number of the other

    English vessels depicted in the engraving. which are shown with bowsprit sails and lateen

    sails set.

    The action between the vanguard of the English ships and the French is clearly shown in

    the centre of the image where an advance party of four French galleys is seen exchanging

    fire with the largest of the English ships, Henri Grace a Dieu. Towards the front of the

    French main fleet is a galley flying a flag bearing the crossed keys of St Peter and just

    behind it there is another galley which appears to be partially submerged. This may well be

    the vessel referred to in the letter by John, Lord Russell to Sir William Pagett. Written on

    the 23rd July he states at the writing of your letters, 17 of the [French] galleys came inthe order of battle to the fight, of the which one was sunk (Knighton and Loades 2002).

    To the left of the sunken galley a large ship may be seen with its masts sloping markedly

    towards the left. It is possible that this represents the second French flagship mentioned in

    Martin Du Bellays account of the battle written after 1546 (Martin Du Bellay,

    1495/81559). He was a French nobleman who accompanied the French invasion fleet in

    July 1545 (Stone 1907). He recounts that this vessel is said to have run aground shortly

    after leaving harbour in France and as a result was reported to have damaged its keel which

    could have caused displacement of its masts.

    On the Isle of Wight, French troops are depicted as making landings on the southern

    side of Bembridge Harbour and in Sandown Bay and the village of Bembridge itself is

    shown as being on fire (Fig. 4). The illustration of these incidents concur with the written

    account provided by Martin Du Bellay (Stone 1907) within which he suggested that it was

    the French tactic of wasting and burning his [Henry VIIIs] country in his sight such that

    Henry would be forced to send rashly his fleet from the safety of Spithead to attack the

    French fleet, thereby bringing on a more general open engagement much to the advantage

    of the French.

    In another interesting little vignette within the picture, the bridge at Yarbridge on the

    Isle of Wight, connecting Bembridge with the main part of the Isle of Wight across a

    muddy intertidal area, is shown as being defended by the English with two cannons. Part of

    the bridge structure has been demolished as a defensive measure to keep the French

    constrained to the isolated eastern end of the Island. This incident is also recounted in Du

    Bellays account (Stone 1907): put the enemy to flight, and forced them to retreatinland to a stream which they crossed by a bridge, cutting it behind them for fear of our

    pursuit, and there made a stand awaiting reinforcement.

    Considered on its own therefore, the Cowdray Engraving is an image containing a

    considerable amount of data. Much of this can be compared, contrasted and in many cases

    confirmed, with archaeological, documentary and the map-based spatial information. It is

    however, most important that such an image is considered en toto and in conjunction with

    these other sources of data, rather than just selecting occasional details or vignettes. Such

    an inclusive, cross-disciplinary approach will provide a more comprehensive

    270 J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282


  • understanding of the way in which the picture conveys and presents its stories. The image

    can be examined on a number of levels and for a variety of subjects including topo-

    graphical, architectural, social, military and logistical aspects of Tudor life and conse-

    quently the engraving deserves further detailed analysis by an interdisciplinary team.

    Plan of Portsmouth 1545: British Library, Cotton Augustus I.i.81(Size: 22.8 3 30.7 in.; Scale: 1:1200)

    The first of the Portsmouth maps dates from 1545 and was produced for Henry VIII. It is

    the earliest known scale plan of any town in England and is noteworthy for its accuracy and

    detail. It was made to show proposals for improvements to the defences of Portsmouth,

    probably after the French invasion attempt of July 1545. There is a note written on the

    right-hand side of the map which reads This plat is in every inch C foote, meaning that

    the map has been made at an intended scale of 1 inch to 100 feet. The map was very

    carefully drawn and the circular lines defining the bastions of the towns wall have been

    made using a compass. Indeed, the holes in the paper made by the compass points are still

    clearly evident.

    The map presents a modern style of plan with each building being described by the

    position of its walls rather than a birds-eye pictorial image, as often encountered with

    maps of the period. Interestingly, the map even shows the positions of the doorways

    opening onto the street as well as the interior ones; however, the rear doorways to the

    houses are not recorded. The doorposts for each doorway are marked as small circles on the

    ends of the lines, representing the doorframes and walls, leaving a gap to denote the

    doorway itself. This is a tremendous level of detail and it must have taken the surveyors a

    considerable time to gather the information.

    Fig. 4 Detail from the Cowdray Engraving. French troops, having landed on the eastern end of the Isle ofWight have set fire to the village of Bembridge and, according to Martin Du Bellay (Stone 1907), with theintention of enraging the English such that they would rashly send their fleet out of the safety of Solent toattack the French ships anchored at St Helens Road. English troops have built a fortification, equipped withtwo guns, at the western end of Yarbridge and have breached the final arches of the bridge itself in anattempt to deny a dry crossing point to the French whereby they could advance their attack into the heart ofthe Isle of Wight (private collection, used by permission)

    J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282 271


  • When compared with the 1552 map, the 1545 map may be considered to appear rather

    plain and technical in its presentation of the built environment of the town. The 1552 map

    contains pictorial drawings of the buildings. There is a considerable coincidence of

    information presented by the two maps and this adds confidence in the accuracy of their

    depiction of the town. As with any historic map, the data as presented need to be inter-

    preted and understood by the map user in the light of their own research questions rather

    than simply being accepted purely at face value. The combined use of several data sources

    enhances this understanding. In the case of Tudor Portsmouth, the availability of several

    maps as well as the Cowdray image and some archaeologically derived data further

    enhances this process (Fig. 5).

    The 1545 map depicts the four brewhouses shown in the Cowdray Engraving. There are

    also other features clearly evident in the 1545 map; the church of St Thomas, the former

    mediaeval hospice Domus Dei in the southeastern quadrant of the town, and its precinct

    wall, and the towns two bakeries, the Swane near the Camber, and the Anker to the north

    of St Thomass Church. Again, considerable care has been taken by the surveyors to gather

    detailed information, and plan representations of the bread ovens have been drawn into

    these bakeries the Swane has two ovens and the Anker four (Fig. 6). The names of the

    bakeries are recorded in the 1584 map. Interestingly, although the hospice of the Domus

    Dei had been closed as an ecclesiastical site by 1540 and was being used as an armoury in

    1545, the survey recorded two further bread ovens within one of its smaller buildings,

    giving the town of Portsmouth a total of eight potentially available bread ovens. Unfor-

    tunately, during the Time Team excavations of May 2009, it was not possible to excavate

    that specific location. A trench (Trench 2, Wessex Archaeology 2010:12) opened just to the

    south of this location revealed a flagged floor, parts of which may have been used in the

    original mediaeval hall although much repair and reuse had clearly taken place during the

    conversion of the Domus Dei into the Governors House in the 1580s.

    Another interesting detail in the 1545 map is the inclusion of a small rectangular

    building located on the Camber quayside in Oyster Street. This depicts two forges, com-

    plete with their bellows to provide an additional supply of oxygen to the fires and the two

    anvils. The hearths are set at either end of the building alongside doorways with the

    bellows arranged between the two fires facing outwards from the centre of the building.

    The anvils are located right by the doorways, presumably to allow the smith to work in

    better daylight and cooler air. Clearly the smithy was considered an important facility and,

    as such, has been duly recorded in the 1545 map. Intriguingly it does not appear at all in the

    1552 map or the 1584 map. This seems an important omission and raises the question of

    whether this might have been a temporary smithy or simply a proposal for one in the 1545

    map. A quayside location would have been convenient as the wood or charcoal for the

    forge could easily be supplied from the Forest of Bere to the north and transported by boat

    from either Fareham or Portchester. The town must have had a smithy throughout its

    history as any town or village would certainly need the services of a blacksmith.

    The map also shows the important defensive structures of the town including the Round

    Tower at the entrance to Portsmouth Harbour, the Square Tower and its adjacent gun

    platform and the town walls themselves, which include a number of bastions. There is also

    a transverse rampart and ditch which cuts off the northeast section of the walled area

    separating it from the rest of the town. This is very clearly shown in the Cowdray

    Engraving as a raised area of ground contained within a small crenellated wall running the

    length of the diagonal which directly meets with the Town Wall. This structure is also

    recorded in the 1552 map of Portsmouth as a wall and bank, however it differs from the

    Cowdray and the 1545 maps depiction as it terminates in a small Square Tower (which

    272 J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282


  • was not built) at the southeastern end close to the four brewhouses. The addition of an

    angle-bastion of contemporary Italian type to the southeast rampart is indicated in pencil

    on the 1545 map. Therefore, this map shows the extant defences and urban development, as

    well as proposals for major defensive modifications which were never constructed. This

    mixture of existing and proposed information presented within the single map sheet can

    Fig. 5 Detail from the Cowdray Engraving showing the defences from the Greene Bulwark in thesoutheastern corner (left), where there are four guns mounted, along the walls facing towards the navigablechannel into Portsmouth Harbour, with one gun shown, followed by the Saluting Platform (beneath the largeflag), which mounts seven guns, adjacent to the Square Tower at the right-hand end of this detail (privatecollection, used by permission)

    Fig. 6 The Round Tower is shown in the Cowdray Engraving as being separated from the town by apalisade along the centre of the peninsula at the south side of the Camber. At the eastern end of this palisadethere appears to be a gate giving access from the town to the area outside the palisade and closed gate nearbygiving access to the inside of the palisade area and the Round Tower itself. These gates are located close tothe site of what later became King Jamess gate (1687). The timber-framed building built on piles over thewater in the Camber dock is probably the Swane bakery (private collection, used by permission)

    J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282 273


  • cause some difficulty for a researcher interpreting the information as presented. However,

    despite this difficulty, these proposals are important as they provide evidence of the earliest

    design for fortifying an English town using an Italian style fully flanked bastion system

    (British Library 2012).

    Plan of Portsmouth 1552: British Library Cotton Augustus I.ii.15(Size: 21.5 3 29.5 in.; Scale: 1:2400)

    This map shows both the old town of Portsmouth itself and the settlement of Gosport on

    the western side of Portsmouth Harbour. Clearly shown is the narrow harbour entrance,

    complete with the defensive structures of the Square Tower and the Round Tower on the

    Portsmouth side and Fort Blockhouse on the Gosport side. A second, larger fort is shown

    on the Gosport peninsula. This consists of a circular keep within a circular perimeter wall,

    and represents Lymdens Bulwark. The map has been partly drawn in plan view and partly

    in birds-eye view. Features such as the streets, town walls, bastions and land parcels are

    shown as outlines in their plan position. The birds-eye approach provides sketches of

    buildings and some major fortifications. This provides much illustrative detail of the

    buildings and fortifications within Portsmouth town, but not very much is shown on the

    Gosport side. There are no text annotations to the map, which is unusual. This may suggest

    that the map was intended to provide illustrative support for discussions between people

    who knew Portsmouth well and who would not have required labels or annotations naming

    the particular locations.

    Dating of this map is not exact, as it could have been produced at any time between

    1545 when works on the defensive walls began, and 1563, by which time the configuration

    of the Town Quay in the Camber had been significantly altered. It seems likely that the

    map was produced in 1552, because in that year John Rogers was ordered to survey the

    town. It was also visited by the 14 year-old King Edward VI on the 9th August 1552, when

    he expressed some dissatisfaction at the state of the defences (Williams 1979:10).

    The Round Tower is shown as being connected to the town by a palisade along the

    centre of the peninsula surrounding the Camber. At the eastern end of this palisade is a

    second one, which crosses the peninsula laterally and is fitted with what appear to be gates

    giving access from the town to either side of the longitudinal palisade. This is located at the

    site of what later became King Jamess Gate and is situated just behind the Swane bakery,

    which is also clearly shown on both the 1545 and 1584 maps of Portsmouth. This pre-

    sentation of information also bears some comparison with the depiction of the structures

    within the Cowdray Engraving.

    Both the Round Tower and St Thomass Church are shown with signal braziers

    mounted on their roofs, and the one on the church tower is also clearly visible in the

    Cowdray Engraving (see Fig. 6).

    The Town Gate Bastion is shown in some detail at the north-eastern end of the High

    Street and it is possible to see the arrangements for controlled access into the town (Fig. 7).

    This is achieved through an entrance on the western side of the bastion by crossing a small

    bridge over a moat into what appears to be an enclosed courtyard. This was probably fitted

    with gates at either end, providing a mechanism with which to control tightly entry to, and

    exit from, the town. Again, the Town Gate Bastion the guardhouse to the right of the gate

    as well as the guideposts on the bridge by which one enters the town are shown.

    274 J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282


  • Portsmouth 1584: British Library, Cotton MS Augustus I.ii.117 (Size: 27.2 3 26 in.)

    This is also a remarkable map of Portsmouth which contains considerable information

    about the land use and development of the town. It is also particularly notable because it

    includes overlays specifically designed to show the intended positions of proposed new

    defensive structures to strengthen the towns defences in preparation for the expected

    Spanish attacks. One of these overlays shows plans for the replacement of the wall between

    the Saluting Platform and the Square Tower combined with the construction of a new wall

    between the Square Tower and the Round Tower. The other shows the potential con-

    struction of a moat along the line of Penny Street. This moat then extends south-eastwards

    to join the existing ditch behind the Kings Bastion. Hodson (1978:33) suggests that this

    modification would have reduced the towns area and removed the vulnerable southeast

    corner. Although this would have been the case, it must be recognised that this would also

    have increased the length of the towns perimeter wall and left the Domus Dei outside of

    their protection. It is possible that had these modifications to the towns walls been made,

    the entirety of the Domus Dei would have been demolished. The result would leave a clear

    field to the front of the new town walls, denying areas of cover and refuge to any attacking

    soldiers and ensuring that they could be seen by defenders of the town. Demolition of the

    Domus Dei would also have provided a free and on-site source of building stone for the

    new walls. However, the decision was taken to convert some of the buildings of the Domus

    Dei into a suitable residence for the Governor of Portsmouth instead. Interestingly, Wright

    (1873:1718) provides useful information about specific room sizes within a number of the

    buildings of the Domus Dei complex derived from building repair estimates of 1581 and

    1582 for converting Gods House and other buildings into a residence for a Governor.

    The Domus Dei was converted into the Governors house in the early 1580 s and the town

    walls remained in their original position. The maps concentration on matters of defence is

    further reinforced by the drawing of the boom chain at the harbour entrance adjacent to the

    Round Tower.

    Most of the streets within the town walls have been included, although the map does not

    show internal field divisions or individual plots. Many of the buildings have been drawn

    and these are marked with their function and the names of their owners or tenants. The four

    Fig. 7 Town Gate Bastion in the Cowdray Engraving. It is possible to identify the guardhouse to the rightof the gate as well as the guideposts on the bridge by which one enters the town (private collection, used bypermission)

    J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282 275


  • brewhouses are named, as are the two bakeries, ye Swane, near Oyster Street and The

    Q Barkhouse called ye Anker on St Thomass Street. Also named is Whight House a

    prison just to the east of the High Street and set back behind the main run of houses.

    Adjacent to this is the T. playhouse (Town Playhouse) and further south along the High

    Street the position of the Toune house (Town Hall) is shown in the centre of the High

    Street close to St Thomass Church. The church itself is drawn as a long, low, pitched roof

    building. It has a tower on its eastern side, three windows and an arched door on its western

    elevation and a single one on the north side. There is no signalling brazier shown on the

    tower roof. A path connects the eastern side of the churchs nave to the High Street, which

    passes between two houses.

    There is no date recorded on this map although it is known that the storehouses next to

    the Town Quay were destroyed by fire on the 4th August 1576. These are shown on this

    map as burned, thereby providing an earliest date for its compilation. Hodson (1978:33)

    places the latest date as 1584 when Spicers Wall was commenced as this is not shown in

    the map. However, given the repair estimates of 1581 and 1582 for converting the Domus

    Dei into the Governors residence, it would seem likely that the map and its overlays were

    compiled before this reuse of the Domus Dei was decided. Consequently, its date may be

    around 1580 or 1581.

    Chart of Portsmouth Harbour, Between 1586 and 1620: Admiralty UK HydrographicOffice D623 (Size: 29.7 3 48.5 in.; Scale: 1:10560)

    This is a large, attractive and extremely well produced manuscript map of the entrance to

    Portsmouth Harbour. It is the earliest known chart in the UK Hydrographic Offices

    archive (Fig. 8). It shows the deep-water areas and mudflats within the harbour as well as

    the settlements and defensive features of the surrounding landscape. It has been accurately

    surveyed, and, most notably for such an early map, includes a realistic representation of the

    seabed topography covering the approach to Portsmouth Harbours entrance, even

    recording the presence of the Swashway channel across Spitbank (marked The Swach).

    The map is oriented with West-South-West to the top and is intended to be viewed in a

    landscape position, as the majority of the labels have been written with this viewpoint in


    The map has annotations marking the beaches along the shoreline, and prominently

    displays all the defensive positions as well as the offshore water depths. It is possible that

    this combination of features on the map was intended to provide a map suitable for

    planning defensive operations around Portsmouth Harbour. The maps orientation

    encourages the viewer to consider potential shipping approaches towards the harbour

    entrance and makes the positions of the defensive fortifications and the locations of the

    potential landing beaches remarkably clear. After the French invasion attempt of 1545 in

    which Mary Rose was lost, the next serious invasion threat was from the Spanish Armada

    in 1588 and the English continued to expect further attempts to be made in the years


    The date of this map is difficult to determine and there have been a number of sug-

    gestions made, including as late as 1665 by Hodson (1978) and around 1620 by the

    National Maritime Museum. Internal evidence from the map itself however provides some

    indication of an earlier date. The walls of Portsmouth town are drawn in their later

    Elizabethan configuration, with the Four Houses Bulwark (named after the nearby four

    brewhouses) shown in the centre of the long curtain wall on the eastern side of the town.

    276 J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282


  • This structure was built around 1584 to 1586 when Portsmouths defences were remodelled

    by Popinjay and Pearse (English Heritage 2012). This was the first bastion to be built on

    the site and was remodelled by de Gomme in 167785. This bastion is not shown in the

    Cowdray engraving as the engraving predates this construction by around 40 years.

    Evidence for an earlier date is suggested by Hasleworth Castle, which is shown as being

    still extant on the Gosport peninsula (Figs. 9, 10) Hasleworth was said to have been

    destroyed on the order of King Philip, and there is a story that when he sailed into

    Southampton in 1554 to marry Queen Mary at Winchester, all of the forts around the

    Solent and along Southampton Water fired salutes except Hasleworth, which was

    demolished as a consequence (Williams 1979:14). Alternatively, Williams suggests that

    Hasleworth Castle was scrapped as a result of a review of coastal fortifications by the

    Marquis of Winchester under instructions dated 1556 (Williams 1979:14; Colvin 1982).

    Hasleworth Castle is shown in a miniature architectural sketch in the Burghley atlas map of

    the Isle of Wight (British Library, Royal 18 D iii, f. 18), dating to around 1570. This

    suggests that Hasleworth Castle was still standing at the time. Interestingly, on Daniel

    Favreau de la Fabvollieres 1665 Portsmouth map (British Library, Add. MS. 16371a.),

    Hasleworth Castle is marked as beaten downe by King Philip. Nordens 1595 county

    map of Hampshire records Riames ofy Haselworth Castle (Remains of Hasleworth

    Castle) at this location. The evidence therefore suggests that this map dates from around

    1620 at the latest, and it is quite possible that it may be as early as the mid-1580 s, although

    an earliest date is more likely to be 1590.

    The compass rose outside the harbour mouth on Chart D623 (Fig. 11) has a pencil line

    running north and extending through the tower of St Thomass Church. This is not a

    navigation mark. To follow it when steering a ship would run the ship aground on the

    shallow water of the Spit. Intriguingly, the fleur-de-lis of the compass rose lies

    Fig. 8 Chart D623 is the earliest chart in the UK Hydrographic Office collection. The chart shows theentrance to Portsmouth Harbour with Portsea Island in the lower left of the image and the Gosport peninsulain the upper right. There is considerable, and accurate, detail provided of the seabed topography and themudflats and channels within Portsmouth harbour (UK Hydrographic Office

    J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282 277


  • immediately on top of the wreck site of Mary Rose. Is this an intentional feature of this

    chart, perhaps providing a means of locating the wreck or is it merely a coincidence?

    Furthermore, the central point of the compass rose can be fixed by lines of sight to

    Nettlestone Fort on the Isle of Wight, Cowes Castle, Pagham church tower on the Selsey

    peninsula in West Sussex and the tower of St Thomass church in Old Portsmouth. From

    this central point it is exactly 750 yards along the sight line to St Thomass church tower to

    arrive at the wreck site of Mary Rose.

    Also of considerable interest is the representation of The Dock which is the Royal

    Dockyard, set apart from and to the north of the town. It is depicted as being surrounded by

    a wall (Figs. 12, 13). The Dock is outside of the extents of the 1545, 1552 and 1584 maps

    Fig. 9 Detail from the Cowdray Engraving showing the Gosport peninsula with the three forts (LR):Haselworth Castle, Lymdens Bulwark and Fort Blockhouse. The inlet on the right-hand of this detail isHaslar Creek (private collection, used by permission)

    Fig. 10 Detail from UK Hydrographic Office chart D623 showing Haselworth Castle on the Gosportpeninsula (UK Hydrographic Office

    278 J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282


  • of Portsmouth and is also outside the field of view of the Cowdray Engraving. Conse-

    quently it is not illustrated in any of the other sources examined here. There are six

    buildings shown within the Dock. Also clearly indicated is the position of the entrance to

    Fig. 11 Detail from UK Hydrographic Office chart D623 showing the entrance to Portsmouth Harbour andSpitbank extending from the Gosport shoreline alongside the main navigational channel into Portsmouthharbour (UK Hydrographic Office

    Fig. 12 Detail from UK Hydrographic Office chart D623 showing the town of Portsmouth. The town wallsand the arrow-shaped bastions are clearly shown, as is St Thomass church and two pitched roof buildingswhich represent the tidal mill next to the mill pond. Town key is marked. Note that its shape is not the sameas the representation in the 1545 map or the Cowdray Engraving as it appears to have been filled in (UKHydrographic Office

    J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282 279


  • the dry dock, which was established by Henry VII in 1496. Also on the site were a

    storehouse, forge and smithy (Riley 2002:9). The circular feature between the Dock and

    the town is what is now known as the Mast Pond and still exists within the Royal Naval

    Base at Portsmouth. This pond was filled with seawater and was used to season timber

    especially selected for making ships masts; the process ensured that the timber was

    springy and supple thereby creating pliable but strong ships masts that could transmit the

    force of the wind through the vessel without breaking.


    Between 1545 and, at the absolute latest 1620, we have a remarkable set of documents.

    Each individually records considerable detail about the town of Portsmouth, its situation

    and its defensive capability. These cover a 75-year period at most and may possibly

    represent a more tightly defined period of just over 40 years. In order to extract the data

    contained within, they need to be examined and then interpreted. When considered

    together these documents present a rich source of information which can be used to

    develop a better understanding of Tudor approaches to the defence of both Portsmouth and

    the realm. The images also assist in developing an understanding of the sequence of

    development within the urban landscape of Portsmouth. However, it remains difficult to

    make absolute assertions about specific locations. Visual sources of data such as maps and

    pictures can be difficult to interpret, analyse and then present the results from that research.

    Research based on such data requires a multidisciplinary range of skills and knowledge to

    fully utilise the potential information available within the sources. Consequently, this

    present research can but merely scratch the surface of what may be understood if the

    research were to be undertaken by a team of researchers assembled with such a range of

    expertise in mind.

    Acknowledgments Thanks are due to Peter Barber and Andrea Clarke at the British Library and PhillipClayton-Gore and Guy Hannaford of the UK Hydrographic Office, for their considerable assistance in

    Fig. 13 Detail from UK Hydrographic Office chart D623 showing the Royal Dockyard at Portsmouth. Notethe channel and entry into The Dock. The circular feature to the left of the Dock is what is now known asthe Mast Pond (UK Hydrographic Office

    280 J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282


  • assembling an exhibition of historic maps of Portsmouth, which was held at the Mary Rose Museum,Portsmouth, in the summer of 2010. Also, very many thanks to all the staff at the Mary Rose Trust and inparticular, John Lippiett and Alexzandra Hildred for their continuing support and enthusiasm. KesterKeighley for his most generous provision of the high resolution scan of the Cowdray engraving. Thanks arealso due to C.J. Sansom for providing an excellent reason to extend my understanding of Tudor Portsmouthduring the writing of his historical novel Heartstone.


    Ackroyd P (1995) Blake. Vintage, Random HouseAyloffe Sir J (1775) An account of some ancient English historical paintings at Cowdry, in Sussex.

    Archaeologia 3:239272Barber, Peter (2009) Henry VIII man and Monarch, catalogue edited by Susan Doran, British library,

    London. 23 April6 September 2009British Library (2012) Plan of Portsmouth from 1545, available online at:

    onlineex/unvbrit/p/001cotaugi00001u00081000.html. Accessed 22 Nov. 2012Calendar of State Papers, Domestic 15471580, p 526Colvin, H.M. (ed.) (1982) The history of the Kings Works, volume 4: 14851660 (Part 2), Her Majestys

    Stationery Office, pp 5124Eley Philip (1988) Portsmouth breweries 14921847, The Portsmouth papers, 51. Portsmouth City Council,

    PortsmouthEnglish Heritage (2012), Pembroke Bastion, Pastscape, available online at:

    hob.aspx?hob_id=893109&sort=2&type=&typeselect=c&rational=a&class1=None&period=None&county=1292697&district=None&parish=None&place=Four%20Houses%20Bulwark%20&recordsperpage=10&source=text&rtype=&rnumber. Accessed 22 Nov. 2012

    Fontana D, Hildred A (2011) The theatre of the war, Geographical evidence from the Cowdray Engravingand GIS. In: Gardiner J (ed) Weapons of Warre: the armaments of the Mary Rose. The Mary RoseTrust, Portsmouth, pp 871886

    Harrington Peter (2007) The castles of Henry VIII. Osprey, Oxford, p 6Hodson D (1978) Maps of Portsmouth before 1801. Portsmouth Record Series, City of PortsmouthHope Sir William Henry St John (1919) Cowdray and Easebourne Priory in the County of Sussex. Country

    life, LondonKnighton C.S. and Loades D (2002) Letters from the Mary Rose, Sutton Publishing Ltd. Letter 61,

    pp117118Knighton C.S. and Loades, D. (eds.) (2014) More Documents for the Last Campaign of The Mary Rose,

    Navy Records Society, forthcomingNurse B (2007) Making history: Antiquaries in Britain, 17072007. Royal Academy of Arts, London p144Nurse B (2012) The Sherwin Brothers copy of the lost mary rose wall painting at cowdray house. Anti-

    quaries J 92:371384Riley R (2002) Portsmouth Ships. Tempus Publishing, Stroud, Gloucestershire, Dockyard and TownStone, Percy G (1907) Two Accounts of The French Descent on The Isle of Wight Under Claude Dan-

    nebault, July, 1545. Extracted from the memoirs of Martin Du Bellay, 1513-46, and from the Mss. ofSir John Oglander, 15851655, With a digest of the two accounts., The Isle of Wight County Press,Newport, Isle of Wight

    Wessex Archaeology (2010) Governors Green, Portsmouth, Hampshire, Archaeological EvaluationReport, Report reference: 71502.01, Available at Accessed 12 Nov. 2012

    Williams, G. H. (1979) The western defences of Portsmouth Harbour 1400-1800. The Portsmouth Papers;30, Portsmouth City Council, Portsmouth

    Wright, H. P. (1873) The story of the Domus Dei of Portsmouth, James Parker and Co. London, pp1718

    Online Maps

    Portsmouth 1545 is available online from the British Library at: . Accessed Oct. 2013

    Portsmouth 1552 is available online from the British Library at: . Accessed Oct. 2013

    J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282 281


  • Nordens map of Hampshire, 1595 is available online from Old Hampshire Mapped at: Accessed Oct. 2013

    Detail of Portsmouth from Nordens map of Hampshire, 1595 is available at: Accessed Oct. 2013

    282 J Mari Arch (2013) 8:263282


    Charting the Development of Portsmouth Harbour, Dockyard and Town in the Tudor PeriodAbstractIntroductionThe Cowdray engraving (Size: 222 x 69 in.)Plan of Portsmouth 1545: British Library, Cotton Augustus I.i.81 (Size: 22.8 x 30.7 in.; Scale: 1:1200)Plan of Portsmouth 1552: British Library Cotton Augustus I.ii.15 (Size: 21.5 x 29.5 in.; Scale: 1:2400)Portsmouth 1584: British Library, Cotton MS Augustus I.ii.117 (Size: 27.2 x 26 in.)Chart of Portsmouth Harbour, Between 1586 and 1620: Admiralty UK Hydrographic Office D623 (Size: 29.7 x 48.5 in.; Scale: 1:10560)ConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferences


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