Chapter(1:(The(Changing(World(of(Management( ?· Chapter(1:(The(Changing(World(of(Management ... Chapter(2:(The…

  • Published on
    25-Aug-2018

  • View
    212

  • Download
    0

Transcript

<ul><li><p>Chapter(1:(The(Changing(World(of(Management(</p><p>1.! Understand+the+personal+challenges+involved+in+becoming+a+new+manager+in+an+organisation+in+todays+world:+a.! Managers(set(goals,(organise(activities,(motivate(and(communicate,(measure(performance(and(develop(</p><p>people.(b.! Management:( the( attainment( of( organisational( goals( in( an( effective( and( efficient( manner( through(</p><p>planning,(organizing,(leading(and(controlling(organisational(resources.(c.! From(individual(identity:(</p><p>i.! Specialist;( performs( specific( tasks,( gets( things( done( through( own( efforts,( an( individual( actor,(works(relatively(independently(</p><p>d.! To(manager(identity:(i.! Generalist;(coordinates(diverse(tasks,(gets(things(done(through(others,(a(network(builder,(works(</p><p>in(highly(interdependent(manner.(e.! Strengths:( hardworking,( egalitarian,( open,( genuine( and( direct,( honest( and( ethical,( innovative,(</p><p>independent(thinkers,(flexible,(adaptable(and(resourceful(and(technically(sound(f.! Weaknesses:( ShortFterm( views,( lacking( strategic( perspectives,( openFmindedness( and( showing( rigidity(</p><p>towards(learning,(complacency,(poor(at(teamwork(and(empowerment,(inability(to(cope(with(differences,(poor(people(skills,(lacking(selfFconfidence.(</p><p>g.! Global(mindset.(2.! Describe+the+four+management+functions+and+the+type+of+management+activity+associated+with+each:+</p><p>a.! Planning:(setting(goals(and(deciding(activities.(i.! Identifying( goals( for( future( organisational( performance( and( deciding( on( the( tasks( and( use( of(</p><p>resources(needed(to(attain(them.(ii.! Good( planning( involves( understanding( the( enterprises( environment( and( how( it( is( changing,(</p><p>forecasting(changes(as(best(you(can,(and(considering(how(to(position(the(enterprise(to(make(its(market(offerings(attractive.(</p><p>b.! Organizing:(organizing(people(and(activities.(i.! Reflects(the(way(the(organisation(tries(to(accomplish(the(plan.(Involves(the(assignment(of(tasks,(</p><p>the(grouping(of(tasks(into(departments(and(the(allocation(of(resources(to(departments.(c.! Leading:(motivating,(communicating.(</p><p>i.! The(use(of(influence(to(motivate(employees(to(achieve(organisational(goals.(ii.! Creating(a(shared(culture(and(values,(communicating(goals(to(people(throughout(the(organisation(</p><p>and(infusing(employees(with(the(desire(to(perform(at(a(high(level.(d.! Controlling:(establishing(targets(and(measuring(performance.(</p><p>i.! Monitoring(employees(activities,(determining(whether(the(organisation(is(on(target(towards(its(goals(and(making(corrections(as(necessary.(</p><p>3.! Explain+ the+ difference+ between+ efficiency+ and+ effectiveness+ and+ their+ importance+ for+ organisational+performance,+including+in+terms+of+innovation+outcomes:+</p><p>a.! Difference:(the(cognitive(ability(to(see(the(organisation(as(a(whole(and(the(relationship(between(its(parts.(Involves(the(managers(thinking,(information(processing(and(planning(abilities.(</p><p>b.! Importance(for(organisational(performance:(4.! Describe+conceptual,+human+and+technical+skills,+and+their+relevance+for+managers+and+employees:+</p><p>a.! Conceptual(skills:(the(cognitive(ability(to(see(the(organisation(as(a(whole(and(the(relationship(between(its(parts.(Involves(the(managers(thinking,(information(processing(and(planning(abilities.(</p><p>b.! Human(skills:(the(managers(ability(to(work(with(and(through(other(people(and(to(work(effectively(as(a(group(member.(How(the(manager(relates(to(other(people,(their(ability(to(motivate,(facilitate,(coordinate,(lead,(communicate(and(resolve(conflicts.(</p><p>c.! Technical(skills:(the(understanding(of(and(proficiency(in(the(performance(of(specific(tasks.(d.! Relevance(for(managers(and(employees:(</p><p>5.! Describe+management+types+and+the+horizontal+and+vertical+differences+between+them:+</p></li><li><p>Chapter(2:(The(Environment(and(Corporate(Culture(</p><p>1.! Define+an+organisational+ecosystem+and+how+the+general+and+task+environments+affect+an+organisations+ability+to+thrive:+</p><p>a.! Organisational(ecosystem:(i.! Includes(organisations( in(all(the(sectors(of(the(task(and(general(environments(that(provide(the(</p><p>resource(and(information(transactions,(flows(and(linkages(necessary(for(an(organisation(to(thrive.(Includes(all(elements(existing(outside(the(boundary(of(the(organisation(that(have(the(potential(to(affect(and(influence(the(organisation(</p><p>b.! General(and(task(environments:(i.! Task:(the(layer(of(the(external(environment(that(directly(influences(the(organisations(operations(</p><p>and(performance.(1.! Customers:(reputation(and(sales(2.! Competitors:(competition,(barriers(to(entry(3.! Suppliers:(supply(chain((competitiveness(and(effectiveness(of(supply(chain(partners.(4.! Labour( market:( relevant( skills( (computer( literacy),( education( and( training( to( meet(</p><p>demands(of(a(borderless(world.((ii.! General:(the(layer(of(the(external(environment(that(affects(the(organisation(indirectly.(</p><p>1.! International:(events(originating( in( foreign(countries:(new(competitors,( customers(and(suppliers.(</p><p>2.! Technological:(scientific(and(technologic(advancements(in(industry(and(society(at(large.(3.! SocioFcultural:(demographic(characteristics,(norms,(customs(and(values(of(the(population(</p><p>within(which(the(organisation(operates.(Age(and(education(levels.(4.! Economic:(economic(health(of(the(country(or(region(of(operation:(consumer(purchasing(</p><p>power,(UE(rate,(interest(rate.(5.! LegalFpolitical:(legislation,(pressure(groups.(6.! Natural(environment:(all(elements(that(occur(naturally(on(earth,(including(plants,(animals,(</p><p>rocks(and(natural(resources.(2.! Explain+the+strategies+that+managers+use+to+help+organisations+adapt+to+an+uncertain+or+turbulent+environment:+</p><p>a.! The(external(environment(creates(uncertainty(for(organisation(managers(as(they(know(what(goals(they(wish( to( achieve,( but( information( about( alternatives( and( future( events( are( incomplete( and( so( must(respond(by(designing(the(organisation(to(adapt(to(the(environment(or(influence(the(environment.(</p><p>b.! Adapt(the(organisation(to(changes(in(the(environment(by(spotting(and(acting(upon(strategic(issues:(i.! Boundary(spanning(roles:(Roles(assumed(by(people(and(or(departments(that(link(and(coordinate(</p><p>the(organisation(with(key(elements(in(the(external(environment.(Serves(two(purposes:(they(detect(and(process(information(about(changes(in(the(environment,(and(they(represent(the(organisations(interest(to(the(environment.(</p><p>1.! Marketing:(span(boundary(to(work(with(customers(and(suppliers:(market(research(2.! Business(intelligence:(spotting(patterns,(trends(and(relationships(that(may(be(significant(3.! Competitive( intelligence:( snooping( information( about( rivals( to( spot( threats( or(</p><p>opportunities(through(financial(reports,(internet,(news,(contacts.(ii.! Forecasting(and(planning:( spotting( trends(so(as( to(predict( future(events( to(soften( the(adverse(</p><p>effect(of(rapid(shifts(in(the(environment:(from(economic(models(to(newspaper(clipping(services.(iii.! InterForganisational(partnerships:(managers(work( to( reduce(costs(and(add(value( to(both( sides(</p><p>through(high(level(information(sharing.(iv.! Mergers(and(joint(ventures:(capitalise(on(each(others(resources(or(experience.(</p><p>c.! Influence(the(environment(to(make(it(more(compatible(with(organisational(needs:(i.! Advertising(and(public(relations:(influence(customers(tastes.(Influence(public(perception(about(</p><p>organisation(itself.(ii.! Political(activity:(paying(lobbyists(to(express(views(to(politicians((Cancer(Council)(</p></li><li><p>iii.! Trade( associations:( organisations( with( similar( interests( banding( together( to( influence( the(environment.(</p><p>3.! Define+corporate+culture+and+give+organisational+examples:+a.! Corporate(culture:( the(set(of(key(values,(beliefs,(understandings(and(norms(shared(by(members(of(an(</p><p>organisation.(b.! Organisational( examples:( symbols,( stories,( heroes,( slogans( and( ceremonies( and( their( relationship( to(</p><p>corporate(culture(4.! Explain+organisational+ symbols,+ stories,+heroes,+ slogans+and+ ceremonies+and+ their+ relationship+ to+ corporate+</p><p>culture.+</p><p>a.! Symbols:(an(object,(act(or(event(that(conveys(meaning(to(others((standards(of(behaviour:(firing(employee(for(theft)(</p><p>b.! Stories:(a(narrative(based(on(true(events(that( is(repeated(and(frequently(and(shared(by(organisational(employees((design(principles(enunciated(by(Steve(Jobs)(</p><p>c.! Heroes:(a(figure(who(exemplifies(the(deeds,(character(and(attributes(of(a(strong(corporate(culture(d.! Slogans:(a(phrase(of(sentence(that(succinctly(expresses(a(key(corporate(value(e.! Ceremonies:( a( planned( activity( that(makes( up( a( special( event( and( is( conducted( for( the( benefit( of( an(</p><p>audience(f.! Relationship(to(corporate(culture:(</p><p>5.! Describe+the+four+types+of+cultures+and+how+corporate+culture+relates+to+the+environment+a.! Adaptability(culture:(</p><p>i.! Characterised(by(values(that(support(the(companys(ability(to(interpret(and(translate(signals(from(the(environment(into(new(behaviour(responses.(</p><p>ii.! Suited(to(an(environment(that(requires(fast(response(and(highFrisk(decision(making.(iii.! Employees( have( the( autonomy( to( make( decisions( and( act( freely( to( meet( new( needs,( and(</p><p>responsiveness(to(customers.(iv.! Allows(businesses(to(move(quickly(to(respond(to(rapid(changes(in(the(environment.(</p><p>b.! Achievement(culture:(i.! A(resultsForientated(culture(that(values(competitiveness,(personal(initiative(and(achievement.(ii.! Suited(to(organisations(concerned(with(serving(specific(customers(in(the(external(environment,(</p><p>but(without(the(intense(need(for(flexibility(and(rapid(change.(iii.! Values(competitiveness,(aggressiveness,(personal(initiative,(costFcutting(and(willingness(to(work(</p><p>long(and(hard(to(achieve(results.(c.! Involvement(culture:(</p><p>i.! A(culture(that(places(high(value(on(meeting(the(needs(of(employees(and(values(cooperation(and(equality.(</p><p>ii.! Emphasises(an(internal(focus(on(the(involvement(and(participation(of(employees(to(adapt(rapidly(to(changing(needs(from(the(environment.(</p><p>iii.! Places( a( high( value( on( meeting( the( needs( of( employees,( and( the( organisation( may( be(characterised(by(a(caring,(family(like(atmosphere.(</p><p>iv.! Values(such(as(cooperation,(consideration(of(both(employees(and(customers(and(avoiding(status(differences.(</p><p>d.! Consistency(culture:(i.! A(culture(that(values(and(rewards(a(methodical,(rational,(orderly(way(of(doing(things(ii.! Uses(an(internal(focus(and(a(consistency(orientation(for(a(stable(environment.(iii.! Following( the( rules( and( being( thrifty( are( valued,( and( the( culture( supports( and( rewards( a(</p><p>methodical,(rational(approach.((6.! Define+a+cultural+leader+and+explain+the+tools+that+a+cultural+leader+uses+to+create+a+highHperformance+culture:+</p><p>a.! Cultural(leader:(The(cultural(leader(articulates(a(vision(for(the(organisational(culture(that(employees(can(believe(in.(The(cultural(leader(heeds(the(day(to(day(activities(that(reinforce(the(cultural(vision.(</p></li><li><p>Chapter(4:(Ethics,(Social(Responsibility(and(Sustainable(Development(</p><p>1.! Define+ethics+and+explain+how+ethical+behaviour+relates+to+behaviour+governed+by+law+and+free+choice:+a.! Ethics:(is(the(code(of(moral(principles(and(values(that(governs(the(behaviours(of(a(person(or(group(with(</p><p>respect(to(what(is(right(or(wrong.(b.! Law(and(free(choice:(Ethics( is(the(middle(ground(that(exists(between(the(law(and(free(choice.( It( is(not(</p><p>what(cant(be(done((law)(nor(what(can(be(done((free(choice)(but(what(ought(to(be(done.(An(ethical(issue(is(present(in(any(situation(when(the(actions(of(an(individual(or(organisation(may(harm(or(benefit(others(</p><p>2.! Discuss+why+ethics+is+important+for+managers+and+identify+recent+events+that+call+for+a+renewed+commitment+to+ethical+management:+</p><p>a.! Importance( for(managers:(Managers( are( responsible( for( seeing( that( resources( are( used( to( serve( the(interests(of(stakeholders,(including(shareholders,(employees,(customers(and(society.(Ethical(dilemma:(a(situation(that(arises(when(all(alternative(choices(or(behaviours(have(been(deemed(undesirable(because(of(potentially(negative(ethical(consequences(making(it(difficult(to(distinguish(right(from(wrong.(</p><p>b.! Managers( set( the( ethical( climate( and( act( as( a( role(model( for( ethical( behaviour.(Managers( are( under(enormous(pressure(to(meet(short(term(earnings(goals(and(some(even(use(accounting(gimmicks(or(other(techniques(to(show(returns(that(meet(market(expectations(rather(than(ones(that(reflect(true(performance(</p><p>c.! Recent(events:(Examples(of(unethical(behaviour(towards:(i.! Customers:(False(or(deceptive(sales(practices,(submitting(misleading(invoices,(fabricating(product(</p><p>quality(data(ii.! Financiers:( Falsifying( financial( reports,( breaching( database( controls,( using( confidential(</p><p>information(iii.! Society:(Violating(environmental(standards,(exposing(public(to(safety(risks,(violating(international(</p><p>human(rights(iv.! Suppliers:( Accepting( favours( or( kickbacks,( violating( contract( terms,( paying( without( accurate(</p><p>records(or(invoices.(v.! Employees:( Discriminating( against( employees,( creating( hostile( work( environments,( violating(</p><p>health(and(safety(rules.(3.! Explain+the+utilitarian,+individualism,+moral+rights,+justice+and+practical+approaches+for+making+ethical+decisions:+</p><p>a.! Utilitarian:(i.! Jeremy(Bentham(and(John(Stuart(Mill(ii.! Moral(behaviour(produces(the(greatest(good(for(the(greatest(number.(iii.! A(decision(maker(is(expected(to(consider(the(effect(of(each(decision(alternative(on(all(parties(and(</p><p>select(the(one(that(optimizes(the(benefits( for(the(greatest(number(of(people.( (Kill(one(to(save(five).(</p><p>b.! Individualism:(i.! Acts(are(moral(when(they(promote(the(individuals(best(longFterm(interests.(ii.! Promotes(honesty(and(integrity(because(that(works(best(in(the(long(run.(iii.! Not(popular.(</p><p>c.! Moral(rights:(i.! Asserts(that(human(beings(have(fundamental(rights(and(liberties(that(cannot(be(taken(away(by(an(</p><p>individuals(decision.(ii.! An(ethically(correct(decision(is(one(that(best(maintains(the(rights(of(those(affected(by(it.(iii.! Avoid(interfering(with(the(fundamental(rights(of(others:(privacy,(consent,(speech.(</p><p>d.! Justice:(i.! Moral(decisions(must(be(based(on(standards(of(equity,(fairness(and(impartiality.(Three(types(of(</p><p>justice(1.! Distributive(justice:(requires(that(different(treatment(of(people(not(be(based(on(arbitrary(</p><p>characteristics.(a.! Salaries(differing(between(men(and(women(</p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >