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    5.1.1 Departmental canteens-Introduction

    5.1.2 Uniform orders for DC

    5.2.1 Administrative Set-up

    5.2.2 Managerial Functions

    5.3.1 Infrastructure

    5.3.2 Personnel

    5.3.3 Planning

    5.4.1 Organisational working of DC

    5.4.2 Structure of the organization

    5.5.1 Departmental Canteen in & around Pune

    5.5.2 Profile of departmental canteen surveyed


    5-1-1 Departmental Canteens : Introduction

  • The provision of refreshment to employees in the office and to workers in the

    industrial units is not only a welfare necessity but also keeps them active and healthy.

    This can be achieved only by establishing a canteen for the needs of the employees in

    the organisation. A canteen established by the organisation in which the workers are

    employed is a departmental canteen. The rules regarding the setting up of such a

    departmental canteen, the management of staff, funds are very important for the

    organisation or the industrial unit.

    It is essential to prepare a set of streamlined orders and procedures for the

    working and functioning of the departmental canteens. A departmental canteen is a

    canteen set up at government cost inside a government department/office/establishment

    or inside an industrial unit at the cost of the industrial unit itself for the employees or

    workers to meet their refreshments as a welfare measure and so to prepare tea/coffiee

    and snacks, lunch, meals as per the local requirements or the taste of the beneficiaries,

    concerned at reasonable rates at no profit, no loss basis by employing, by recruiting the

    required or authorized number of canteen employees, workers and which is controlled

    by the managing/canteen committee constituted for the same specific purpose.

    Canteens in the industrial units are included because these canteens too follow the same

    framework of streamlined set of orders and the network of management structures.

    Canteens run by the departments, canteens run by co-operative units,

    canteens run by the industrial units or organizations, canteens run by the workers on the

    establishment or by the employees hired for specific purpose are included in the

    category of departmental canteens. The departmental canteens are in a sense the

    canteens of the workers by the workers and for the employees. These are in house

    establishments, sometimes as a separate establishment on the premises of the industrial

    unit functioning as an independent department of the concern. In Defence

    establishments too, departmental canteens play a significant role in feeding the

    members of the different units. In Railways, the catering establishments are generally

    run as departmental canteens, even those ones which are let out to be run by the


    The functioning of the departmental canteen is in any respects similar to that of

    the other type of industrial canteens but the difference lies in the streamlined efficiency,

    the financial back-up and the way quality and quantity control is maintained at every

    stage of the management of the departmental canteens in the establishments of

    government and private enterprises.

  • 5-1-2 Uniform Orders for DC

    In the functioning of the Departmental canteens and in the canteens run in the

    Departments, Ministry Headquarters and regional offices, Central Government

    establishments, undertakings and other units, the controlling authority is that of the

    Director of Canteens under the control of Department of Personnel and Administrative

    Reforms. The Director of Canteens issues the broad guidelines and directives on how to

    run the canteens of this category and these streamlined uniform orders for the

    departmental canteens are collected in a complete set of instructions in what is called a

    green book.

    These streamlined uniform orders cover a wide range of matters related to the

    functioning of the departmental canteens in the central government departments but

    these instructions are applicable to the departmental canteens in the state government

    units and also the canteens run in the co-operative pattern. These uniform orders are a

    set of detailed guidelines about the procedures of functioning from the stage of

    purchasing provisions to the stage-of disposal of leftovers and as such a complete guide

    in the format of the Green Book. It is a set of instructions that begins with the

    procedure of registering a canteen of this category and the composition of the managing

    committee and then proceeds to offer guidelines on the various aspects of managing

    and running these departmental canteens as catering units and then concludes with the

    instructions and orders about the post-production measures in the catering management.

    The registration of departmental canteens is essential. The registration needs to be

    made by filling in the prescribed pro-forma and by paying the prescribed registration

    fees in the manner stipulated for the purpose. The departmental canteens functioning in

    the respective departments or ministries are managed by the managing committee

    constituted for the purpose. The managing committee consists of the members who are

    ex-officio members, that is, the members on the committee on account of the official

    status or designation that is held by them. The other members of the committee are

    those who are either nominated or elected from the different categories of employees in

    the department concerned in proportion to the number of members determined and the

    representation is decided in the manner specified for the purpose concerned. The

    procedural functioning is brought out in details in the set of uniform orders of these

    streamlined instructions. The same deals with the functioning of the departmental

    canteens. The uniform orders contain the entire pre-production, production and post-

    production operations in the departmental canteens.

  • The policy of the Government is to encourage the activities only of the

    canteen/tiffin room. The orders issued by the Government to regulate the functions of

    canteens/tiffin rooms apply only to these categories. The Statutory rules/conditions of

    service/status of civil servants etc. as and when granted to the employees of

    Departmental Canteens, shall be applicable to the employees of the Canteens run by the

    co-operative societies.

    The orders issued by the Government apply to all the canteens/tiffin rooms

    functioning or to be set up, in any of the Ministry/ Department/Office/Establishment of

    the Government of India, industrial or non-industrial who get themselves registered

    with the office of the Director of Canteens, New Delhi. The instructions on this subject

    may be modified, in respect of Scientific Research Establishments like those controlled

    by the D.A.E., Defence R & D etc. or any other organisation engaged in specialised

    work, depending upon the local conditions and functional necessities, with the

    concurrence of their controlling Ministry/Department and in consultation with the

    Director of Canteens, New Delhi. If the office/establishment is located at more than one

    locations, where service from one canteen is not practicable, additional canteens/tiffin

    rooms are authorised as per the scales prescribed.

    Depending upon the local needs and taste of the customers, menus may be

    decided and adopted by the Managing Committees. Adequate variety in preparations

    may be rotated as desired by the customers. An illustrative list of menus containing

    vegetarian items is given below :

    Snacks : Idli, Vada, Dosa, Samosa, Bonda, Vegetable Cutlet, Mathi,

    Vegetable Sandwich, Butter toast

    Sweets : Burfi, Ladoo, Pinee, Gulabjaman, Pista, Rasgulla

    Beverages : Tea, Coffee, Cold Drinks.

    Lunch : Soup, Daal, Rice, Puri, Chapati, Raita, Sambar, Vegetables, Salad,

    Sweet dish, Fruits.

    Egg preparations and non-vegetarian dishes may be prepared as needed.

    The prices of snacks, lunch, tea, coffee etc., may be fixed in comparison to

    those prevailing in other Departmental Canteens and as prescribed by the Managing

    Committee concerned.

  • If the quality of an eatable is found to be substandard by an inspecting authority,

    the entire quantity will be destroyed and disciplinary action will be initiated against the

    workers concerned for recovery of the loss suffered by the canteen.

    If the weight of the individual piece of an eatable is lesser or if lesser quantity of

    raw material has been used than the reasonably prescribed limit, by the Managing

    Committee, disciplinary action will be initiated against the defaulting canteen


    The Director of Canteens under the control of the Department of Personnel and

    Administrative reforms does the co-ordination work and decides policy matters

    regarding canteens. The canteens registered centrally with the Director of Canteens and

    their Controlling Ministries/Departments will be on the regular availing list for the

    purpose of the dispatch of policy circulars. However, the circulars will be sent to other

    Ministries/Departments also for information. All correspondences from the

    Officers/Establishments, excepting registration of canteens, should be addressed

    through the administrative Ministry/Department.

    All departmental canteens will get themselves registered centrally with the

    Director of Canteens, New Delhi, by furnishing the particulars in the proforma

    prescribed together with the Registration fee

    5-2-1 Administrative Set-up

    Administration as the higher function and management as the operative function

    are both present in the organisational pattern of the departmental canteens. The policy

    decisions are made by the administrator working in the respective ministry or the

    department or the sectional unit or the establishment of the central and state

    governments about the running and functioning of the catering and canteen units. The

    policy matters are decided by these higher functionaries at the focal point of the

    organisation concerned. These policy decisions are actually implemented in the

    departmental canteens at the local level by the managing committee and the chairman

    and the secretary of this committee and the person who supervises the functioning of

    the departmental canteens. These responsible office-bearers are the administrators at

    the local level and make the suitable decisions sticking to the policy-decisions of the

    higher policy-makers. The plans of the organisational working are also decided and

    communicated by the policy-makers at the top level and the lower level functionaries

    carry on the administration of the departmental canteens on the lines determined at the

  • higher level. It is observed that the uniform streamlined set of orders instructions and

    guidelines is quite useful in the task of the administration of these departmental

    canteens both at the top level and the actually functioning lower level.

    The administration of departmental canteens is a co-operative human effort to

    achieve the common goal of feeding the employees a balanced diet with sufficient

    nutritious values as a welfare facility maintaining a high standard both in the quality

    and quantity of food service in the most hygienic environment. As such the

    administrative set-up of the departmental canteens has both a pyramid and a flat

    organisational and administrative structure. The pyramid organisational and

    administrative structure has the hierarchical pattern of unitary direction from the top

    level to the bottom level with the layers of the middle level. The top level, the middle

    level and the bottom level are the minimum three levels in the pyramid structure. The

    central or focal point of administration at the highest level is the top layer and the

    middle layer is the level which is below the top level and above the bottom level. The

    top level at the central point gives direction to the middle level passes it on to the lower

    level. The central, the state and the local levels are represented by the top, the middle

    and the lower levels. The flat organisational and administrative pattern is noticed at the

    lower level in which the horizontal pattern of administration from the manager to the

    steward or the captain and then to the waiters to the utility persons, helpers and the

    other menial staff function at the appropriate horizontal points. Thus the administrate

    set up of the departmental canteens functions in both the patterns which are vertical or

    pyramid and horizontal flat orgainsational as well as administrative pattern.

    The constitution of managing committees their status and strength and conduct

    of business and other related matters are out lined in the relevant provisions of the

    guidelines included in the Green Book.

    The managing committee for each canteen, as far as possible, should be

    constituted separately, out of the officers/ staff of the Department/ Office occupying the

    building in which the canteen is located. If a canteen in a building is shared by more

    than one Department / Office, the Managing committee should be a combined one. The

    funds, in such a case, should be proportionately shared, based on the office strength of

    each office, or the funds should be borne in full, by each department/ office for a term

    of three years in rotation. The Chairman and the Honorary Secretary for a term will

    normally be appointed from that Department/ Office, who provide the funds.

  • A model managing committee should be constituted of seven members

    (including the Chairman). This strength may however be varied at the discretion of the

    Chairman according to the local needs. The Chairman should preferably be the Head of

    the Department/ Office himself or his deputy. Higher the level of blessings, more

    automatic will be the results. The Honorary Secretary should normally be the Welfare

    Officer, or the administrative officer of the Department/ Officer of the minimum rank

    of a Section Officer or a Major or equivalent in services, who shall be nominated by the

    Head of the Office/ Estt., and in the case of Co- operative Canteens may be elected as

    per the by laws of the Society. One Official member of the rank of Section Officer/

    Major or above, is to be nominated by the Chairman of the Managing Committee. One

    each of the staff side members to represent group C and Group D staff, may be

    recommended by the staff side of the office council (JCM) if any functioning in that

    Department Office, or by the recognized service associations of the employees, subject

    to acceptance by the Chairman that the members recommended are the real

    representatives of the staff, or the Chairman may himself nominate these two members

    at his discretion. One lady member, if available in the Department/ Office, may be

    nominated by the Chairman as a co- opted member.

    All members of the Managing Committee in the case of the canteen run by a Co

    operative Society (excepting the Chairman who will be the Head of Office/ Estt. Or

    his nominee) will be elected as per the by laws of the Society. The manager of the

    canteen or any other canteen worker may be nominated by the Chairman as a co

    opted member to represent the canteen workers. The tenure of the managing

    committees of the departmental canteens shall be normally for three years duration,

    unless dissolved or changed earlier by the Head of the Office/ Estt. The committee

    functions in the Department / Office / Establishment, of the Government of India, for

    the welfare of the Government employees, under the orders of the Government of India.

    Its functions are connected with the affairs of the Union. The committee, therefore,

    does not enjoy an autonomous status. With respect to the contractual obligations it

    functions for and on behalf of the President of India. The proceeding of the

    committee will not be conducted or decided on resolutions or voting system, but the

    official decision will rest with the Chairman of the Managing Committee or the Head of

    the Department/ Office concerned (In the case of canteens run by the co- operative

    societies this provision will apply as per the by laws of the society and co- operative

    law in force). The presence of the Chairman, the Hony. Secy, and one more member

    will constitute the quorum for holding a meeting of the managing committee. In the

  • case of Co-operative Canteens it shall be as per the bye laws of the society. The rules

    of business specifying the powers, functions, duties, responsibilities of the members of

    the committee and of the canteen managers/ workers etc. and the systems, procedures,

    methods etc. to be followed for running of a canteen will be framed by the Managing

    Committee of the canteen. When the services of an official of rank not higher than that

    of a Section Officer can be spared out of the existing strength, the Head of the

    Department/ Office may depute such official for part time or whole time assistance to

    the Managing Committee of the Canteen. Stationery and office machines required to

    conduct the business of the Managing Committee and the Departmental Canteens will

    be provided by the Department / Office concerned. The Account Books and special

    Registers prescribed and the coupons will however be provided out of canteen funds.

    5.2.2 Managerial Functions

    The managerial functions in the running of the departmental canteens are not

    different as such from the managerial functions in running any catering canteen units,

    small or large industrial or departmental as these functions involve the activities which

    are basically performed by a manager to make the people to perform the activities

    involved in the actual production and service of food in a catering establishment. The

    six managerial functions are planning, organizing, directing, co-ordinating, controlling

    and evaluating. The planning process foresees the future and generally initiates the

    appropriate action process. The planning process chalks out the workable scheme. Then

    it develops a blueprint of the structure/arrangement of spaces and activity details.

    Planning is thus a mental exercise. Goal setting is fundamental to every such

    organisation as that helps people to know why they are doing what. The work becomes

    purposeful, creative, orderly, productive and satisfying to all along with planning the

    other functions like co-ordinating functions and divesting procedures begin working.

    The plan needs to be put in practice and for this purpose organising is an important

    function of managerial staff require mental effort but the function of directing initiates

    actual performance of tasks. The directing function is instructing, guiding, supervising,

    teaching and reviewing. Directing or leading people to work willingly and achieve

    organizational group and individual goal depends mainly on the personality of the

    manager. Co-ordinating is the binding together unifying and harmonizing of all

    activities and efforts. All the functions of management need to be co-ordinated to

    achieve goals. In all the managerial functions, the function of controlling is very

    important because control is necessary to give the right direction to activities. Constant

  • monitoring is necessary because in any establishment there are helping and also

    hindering factors. Controlling is very much significant for increasing the impact of the

    helping forces and for curbing the hindering forces. Control is exercised through

    budgets, work sheets, close supervision, regular inspection and security measures. The

    process of reviewing and evaluating is used for judging efficiency. A process of self-

    evaluation helps to ensure success. In the context of the departmental canteens, staff

    appraisal, food evaluation, viability and profitability assessment are the measures that

    may be used for the evaluation of its different operation.

    In the management of departmental canteens the fourteen principles of

    management laid down by Fayol are found to be applicable. These are division of work,

    delegation of authority, principle of responsibility, discipline, unity of command, unity

    of direction, priority of general interest, principle of reward and prize, principle of

    effective centralization, principle of scalar chain, principle of order, principle of equity,

    principle of initiative, and esprit to corps- the spirit of loyalty and devotion that unite

    the members of the team. These management principles and the managerial functions

    which bind the principles, functions and operations together, help running the

    departmental canteen efficiently to the satisfaction of the decision makers,

    administrative executives, management controllers, the staff involved and those

    consumers for whom the whole business is conducted. It must be noted that no

    operation like the running of a departmental canteen is run single handed but has to

    deal with people at work and has to attract enough people to serve and so such an

    operation must be based on sound principles and must function in planned co-

    ordinated manner. This can be done best by being scientific in approach to management

    of departmental canteens.

    5.3.1 Infrastructure

    In infrastructural facilities needed for the departmental canteens are included the site,

    construction, space, seating arrangements, and, water, electricity and fuel are the basic

    requirements to raise the infrastructure for a departmental canteen. Most of the canteens

    of this category are run by the central and state governments, public sector undertaking

    and establishments in defence, railways and air travel. The selection of location and

    land for the site construction of the departmental canteens is the task carried out by the

    responsible panels of higher authorities in the departments or the establishments


  • Adequate space is generally provided for the functioning of departmental canteen

    depending on the estimated number of consumers in such canteens. The supply of water

    and electricity is maintained appropriately and in the proportion required for the

    canteen purposes. The security arrangement is commensurate to the needs of the unit

    established. The supply of fuel is made as per the requirements of the catering unit in

    the manner desired but preferably the LPG gas cylinders are supplied in the sufficient

    quantity. The physical infrastructure and the basic amenities are provided by the

    department or the establishment and the material items such as the furniture, seating

    arrangement and equipment for storing, kitchen use, cooling, grinding, heating, boiling

    is supplied as required. The provisions in respect of these facilities are included in the

    Green Book. For the infrastructure of the Departmental Canteen, the unit concerned

    provides accommodation for the canteen in consultation with in charge of buildings.

    Initial provision of fixtures and the required number of fittings and their maintenance

    will have be taken care by the unit. The floor area for a canteen should be decided

    taking into account the strength of the unit. It should be sufficient to provide a dining

    hall of a size where 1/3rd

    of the office strength could be entertained at a time with the

    provision of a separate ladies room and preferably separate rooms for kitchen, pantry,

    store, gas/fuel room, dry ration, fresh vegetables room with the Bins/ Racks designed to

    follow the system of First in First Out, cabin for the coupon clerk and the dish

    washing room etc. The total area that may provided roughly for a canteen could be

    4000 sq. ft. This position has been revised that the floor area for canteens to be set up

    would be @ 1 sq. (0.09 sq. mt) per person in the unit including the space for dining hall

    and kitchen etc. However the accommodation provided under the previous standard

    scale will not be disturbed. Electricity and water bill will be paid by the concerned

    sections of the unit concerned. Cost of electricity charges for lights, fans, refrigeration,

    sterilization and water charges will be borne by the Establishment concerned.

    Consumption of LPG will be subsidized by the unit.

    Grants authorized in the form of standard minimum provision of Departmental

    assistance to start various types of canteens are as given hereunder:

  • Amount of grant authorised

    Type of Canteen For equipment For crockery

    utensils etc.




    (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

    A 12,000 3,000 5,000 20,000

    B 9,600 2,400 4,000 16,000

    C 7,200 1,800 3,000 12,000

    D 6,000 1,200 2,000 9,200

    Types of Tiffin Rooms

    A 500 200 - 700

    B 500 200 - 700

    For a larger group of canteens the amount of grant payable will be proportionately

    higher. Ministries/ Departments/ Offices may, however, consider depending upon the

    local needs and functional necessities of their offices, to sanction additional grants with

    the concurrence of their Integrated Financial Advisers. Upgradation of the type of

    canteen, can be done with the prior approval of the Director of Canteens, DP & AR.

    For canteens type D and above the subsidy on wages is 70 % payable by the

    Government (remaining 30% to be paid out of canteen funds) unless higher rates

    sanctioned under special orders of the Government.

    For Tiffin type A/B the subsidy on wages is 100% payable by the Government.

    The Subsidy on Wages to Ad hoc Leave Vacancy workers is 70 percent or at special

    rates sanctioned otherwise is claimable for canteen employees engaged on ad hoc/

    temporary/ leave vacancy basis etc.

    Interest free loan up to Rs. 5,000 per canteen and Rs. 500per Tiffin room are

    authorised to be sanctioned by the Head of Department / Office for bulk purchases of

    materials etc. which is repayable within five years, the first installment starting from

    not beyond the sixth month from the month of drawl of loan. In case of default , the

    Integrated Financial Advisers may recoup the installments out of the subsidy/ grants

    payable to the canteen. Loans may also be granted to meet the liability of the Canteens

    on payment of arrears of salaries to the Canteen employees due to the revision of their

    pay. Additional amounts of loans may also be sanctioned depending upon the local

    needs/ conditions, with the concurrence of the controlling Ministries/ Departments and

  • the Integrated Financial Advisers, repayment scheme for which shall be worked out in




    Articles of uniforms authorised To Whom Quantity entitled

    1. Set of coat, pant & cap, drill

    white cotton

    Bearers Three sets per year

    2. Set of Bush Shirt Pant,

    Apron and Cap Drill grey/ light

    blue cotton

    Halwais, Cooks, Asst. Halwais,

    Asst. Cooks, their helpers and

    Coffee/ Tea makers

    Two sets per year

    3. Set of overall, pant, cap, drill

    grey, light blue cotton

    Wash Boys Two pairs per year

    4. Set of Bush Shirt pant and

    cap, Drill Khaki cotton

    Sweepers Three pairs per year

    5. Shoes canvas white coloured Bearers Three pairs per year

    One pair per year

    6. Jerseys woolen

    (at winter stations)

    All the above employees. One per three years

    7. Gum boots common size All the above employees. One pair per canteen

    Two pairs per canteen

    8. Turbans for sikh


    As required Two per year

    Sanctioning authority for the above mentioned grants, subsidies, loans etc. will be the

    Head of the Department, industrial unit concerned unless otherwise specified.

    The standard illustrative lists of articles of equipment, kitchenware, utensils etc.

    to be provided at economical and competitive rates out of grants provided for the

    purpose, for use in the canteens are as under.

    Mini equipments : Refrigerator, gas cooking range with fittings, sterilizer

    Electric,, hot case electric, boiler water electric, urns

  • thermal stainless steel, grinder, electric, espresso coffee

    machine, stoves kerosene large, hot water bath (baine marie


    Kitchenware : Angithi small basin aluminum medium size, Belna, Buckets (enameled),

    Chakla/Pastry Board small, Chatni pots, sieves, atta,maida. Degshi with Lid aluminium

    12 dia & 10 dia, Dori Halwai, egg frier, frying pan medium steel, grinding stone

    large, jugs aluminium, keddu kash, karaha iron large, karaha-iorn small, kettle with

    lid aluminium, khoncha small and large, kitchen knife, knife for halwai, measures one

    litre aluminium, mugs aluminium, nail brush, parats aluminium, pona for bhoondi, poni

    iron, punch for coupons, silbatta, soap box, spoons (Karachi aluminium), tawas iron, tin

    box for coupon clerk tin cutter, toaster wire, tongs, tub galvanized, weighing scale

    small with weights.

    Crockery and cutlery : Coffee pots (4 cups capacity), cups and saucers flowery, cups

    and saucers ordinary, storeware, forks, knives and spoons tables, (stainless steel), jugs

    water, glass tumblers, katories stainless steel. Milk pots (2 cups capacity), plate full,

    quarter, salt and pepper containers plastic, forceps small white metal, sugar pots (2

    capacity), tea cosy with covers, tea pots (2 capacity), tea pots (4 capacity), tea sets (21

    sets Bengal) tea spoons stainless steel, tongs (stainless steel), trays ash medium, trays

    lunch stainless steel.

    These guidelines give instructions about the uniforms, equipments, and grants or

    subsides on wages. The physical and material aspects of the infrastructural facilities are

    taken care of by the authorities concerned and sufficient financial provision is made for

    the purposes of the departmental canteen staff and the other necessary expenditure. The

    provisions for the infrastrural facilities in departmental canteens are superior in many

    respects to those in the other are bound to be exceptional cases among the industrial

    canteens too in respect of the infrastructure provided.

    5.3.2 PERSONNEL

    The staff standard in respect of Canteens/ Tiffin Rooms laid down in the

    streamlined order dated the 10th

    December, 1964 is given below:



  • (Annexure III of Green-Book )



    Appointment Canteens Type Tiffin Rooms

    A B C D A B

    1. Manager 1 1 1 - - -

    2. Asstt. Manager cum store


    1 1 - - - -

    3. Manager cum Salesman - - - 1 - -

    4. Counter Clerk/ Salesman/

    kitchen Clerk

    2 1 1 1 1 -

    5. Coupon / Reserve Clerk 1 1 1 1 - -

    6. Halwai 1 1 1 1 - -

    7. Asst. Halwai 1 - - - - -

    8. Cook 1 1 - - - -

    9. Tea/ Coffee Maker 1 1 1 1 1 1

    10. Bearer 7 5 3 2 - -

    11. Wash boy/ Dish cleaner 2 2 1 1 1 1

    12. Sweeper 1 1 1 - - -

    19 15 10 8 3 2

    In addition to above the following staff is authorised in group of more then A type

    Canteen under one management in lieu of staff at serial No. 1 and 2 above.

    A group of two A Type


    A group of more than Two

    A Type Canteens

    13. General Manager 1 1

    14. Deputy General


    - 1

    15. Accountant 1 1

    16. Cashier 1 1

    17. Store Keeper 1 1

    18. Internal Auditor (Part time) (Part time)

  • The culture of management is made up of attitudes and values that set up a

    pattern of behaviour for actions and opinions. Management is about people as its task

    is to make people capable of performing jointly, to make their strength effective and

    their weakness irrelevant, Management is about securing commitment to values as its

    primary task is to set and exemplify those objectives, values and goals to which all

    those working in the organistion subscribe. Management is about developing staff as its

    task is to provide continuing training and development for all members of the

    workforce. Management is about achieving results and in the context of departmental

    canteens of feeding the workforce with a balanced diet. These underlying principles in

    the culture of management bring out the fact management is mainly concerned with the

    people who will work together with shared goals and values in a committed manner to

    achieve the desired results.

    The people who work together make the staff of that establishment and

    managing these people is the task of the personnel section in the organization. The

    effective utilization of human resources, establishment of healthy working relationships

    and encouragement of maximum development of individuals are the main objectives of

    dealing with and managing the personnel in an organization. The manager planning,

    staffing, terms and conditions of employment and personnel administration are the four

    aspects of the functional programme of integrating physical, financial and human

    resources. The guidelines for the same are given in the Green Book.

    The Departmental Canteen Employees (Recruitment and Conditions of Service)

    Rules 1980 was framed consequent on the canteen employees gaining the status of

    holders of civil posts with effect from 1st October, 1979. The conditions of service and

    recruitment rules for the employee of the canteens run by the co-operative societies will

    be the same in addition to the bye laws of the society and the local co- operative law

    in force. The rules governing the recruitment and condition of service are given in the

    Green Book. The existing instruction regarding ban on creation of posts apply to

    creation of posts of canteen/ Tiffin Room employee also.

    The employees of the Departmental canteens and Tiffin Rooms have been

    declared as holders of civil posts with effect from 1-10-79 vide Government of India

    Notification No. 6 (2) 23/77 Welfare (Canteens), dated the 11th

    December. Revised

    scales of pay announced by the Government on the recommendations of the Fourth Pay

    Commission are extended to non statutory canteen / tiffin room employees also. The

  • drawal of pay in the revised scales, exercise of option fixation of initial pay, date of

    next increment. Etc. will be governed by the same rules and orders as are applicable to

    the central Government servants.

    Dearness Allowance, House Rent Allowance, City Compensatory Allowance etc. at

    the revised rates with effect from the same dates, as in the case of other employees, are

    also admissible.

    In the context of the departmental canteens the recruitment of personnel is made

    by the department or the ministry concerned or by the competent authority in this

    behalf. The adequate number of employees is maintained in such establishment of

    departmental canteens, though sometimes there is difference between the authorised

    strength of employees and the actual number of employees. Generally, the department

    canteen employees are treated on par with the other employees of the parent ministry,

    departmental or establishment, but there are in some of these canteens, employees who

    are required to work on an ad-hoc basis and discrimination is made in the facilities

    given to the regular and to the ad-hoc employee in such canteens. The personnel

    management in the departmental canteen is found to be well disciplined and upto the


    5.3.3 Planning :

    The functioning of the departmental canteen depends on the planning of its operations

    in a systematic manner the planning of operations in the departmental canteens and the

    planning in the other industrial canteens does not basically differ as both the categories

    of canteens are involved in the feeding of the large groups of employees with the

    balanced diet of high nutritious values to the physical, financial and human resources

    are to be utilized to serve the specific purpose of providing quality food in the required

    quantity. The stages of planning need to be determined with due care.

    The preparation of food items is a significant stage in the canteen management and

    therefore pre production, production and post production stages need planned

    execution. Planning involves planning goals, planning objectives, planning strategies,

    planning operations and planning results. The planning and the determination of goals,

    and objectives, is a higher level function and so the policy makers, decision makers and

    the administrators carry on this task in an organisation like the departmental canteens.

    The planning of strategies, functions, operation and tasks is to be carried out at the local

  • level or the unit level. The planning of storing provisions, the preparation of provisions

    for the cooking, the preparation of food items and the service area preparation, and the

    actual execution of the serving of food items are the necessary stages of planning in

    running a departmental canteen. The estimates about the preparation of food need to be

    carefully planned. The different cooking operations involving steaming, boiling,

    pruning, baking, roasting and others need to be planned and executed with due

    precision and efficiency. In this planning are involved the store management, the space

    management, the kitchen management, the equipment management, the personnel

    management, and the waste management. In the department canteens these stages of

    planning are carried out by the management staff at the unit level.

    The planning of the preparation of the food items is carried out taking into

    consideration the tastes and demands of the consumers. The planning of physical,

    financial and human resources is to be done appropriately at the levels which are the

    most suitable for the specific purposes. In the context of the departmental canteen the

    provision of financial and physical resources is made by the policy makers but the

    utilization and execution of these resources and the planning of human resources, their

    utilization and the actual implementation of the planned strategies and operations is to

    be carried out by the managerial staff at the unit level of the departmental canteens.

    5- 4-1 Organisational working of DC

    The organisation like the departmental canteen is run by managing the physical,

    financial and human resources in an integrated manner to achieve the desired results of

    feeding satisfactorily the employees in a department. Money is the resource of the

    financial management of the departmental canteen and its provision is made by the

    department or the establishment concerned. The space, materials and equipment are the

    physical resources which are again supplied by the top level management of the

    departmental canteens. The working by the staff, the time and energy required for the

    operations and the procedures involved in preparing, holding, serving food and the

    cleaning of the premises are the factors which are part of the actual working of the

    organization such as a departmental canteen.

    The organisational working of a departmental canteen begins with the

    purchasing of provision. The purchases of both types of items non perishable and

    perishable need different procedures. The non- perishable items such as grains and

    spices, nuts, oil and other foodstuffs are purchased in bulk and are to be stored

    systematically. The perishable items like milk, vegetables, eggs, poultry and other

  • perishables need to be purchased at frequent intervals from every day to at least once in

    a week. The storage of the perishables needs cold storage facility. The menu planning

    is an important part of the organizational working of a catering unit like the

    departmental or an industrial canteen. In most of the canteens the meals and snacks

    both are served to the consumers. Rice, Dal, and chapatti, roti or paratha are the main

    items of the standardised meals plate. Dry and wet vegetables meaning vegetables

    without and with gravy or curry are essential items. Chutney, curds, pickles, raita, and

    papad are necessary accompaniments with salad of onions, cucumber, carrot, tomato,

    beet and radish, according to the availability of items. South Indian preparations are

    favored. Bakery products and snacks are in great demand, fast food items are getting

    popular. Food production process is an essential part of the preparation of food items,

    which involves many processes but cooking is the general term used for the entire

    processing network. The food service involves the mechanics of waiter service. The

    dining hall service in the departmental canteens is taken care of by the staff who is

    responsible for the floor management. Self service is being introduced in some of the

    canteens. The service in the hall or in the open yard is being encouraged these days.

    The dishwashing, cleaning and equipment maintenance are the final process in the

    orgainsational working of the departmental or industrial canteens. The organisational

    working involves the main task of preparation and serving of food items and disposal of

    waste materials including cleaning and washing.

    There are seventeen questions in the Questionnaire that cover this significant area

    of organisational working of the departmental canteens and responses to these

    questions are analyzed and interpreted at the appropriate portion of the survey

    undertaken in this study.

    5-4-2Structure of the organisation

    The structure of the organisation is the way the managements are designed in

    the administrative set up and management structures. The structures of the

    management are of four distinct types. The first type of the structure of management

    organisation is the tight bureaucratic structure with clear commands and control

    relationships and strict rules. These structures are known as the closed systems of

    management structures. The second type of management organisation structure is the

    loose network with a large degree of discretionary decision making which is known as

    the open system management structure. The third type is the project based structure of

    management organisation. The fourth type is the matrix structure management

  • organisation. Current notions farour giving more opportunities to individual at various

    levels to make ad hoc. decisions. This is empowering the individuals by making the

    rules loose with the process to be followed but at the same time tightening the control

    of results. In this pattern, the individual organizations and systems are held accountable

    for the choices and decisions they make in this loose tight arrangement one which is

    loose about means but tight about ends.

    In the context of the departmental canteens the structure of management

    organisation is generally of the first type in which the structure is of tight bureaucratic

    structure which is more or less a closed system structure. There is a centralized

    command and control system of policy making and implementation. The guidelines

    given in the Green book are the part of a centralised command and control system. The

    closed system of management organisation of decision making at the top and the

    execution at the lower level is the pattern of the organisational structure of the

    departmental canteens.

    The process of management consists of forecasting, planning, organizing,

    directing, co- ordinating, controlling, innovating, each of which contributes towards

    efficiency. The pattern of structure of organisation in the context of departmental

    canteens is that of the decision- making and policy matters at the top end of the

    structure and the execution and implementation at the lower end of the structure of

    management organisation. The same is followed by most of the departmental canteens.

    It is more or less similar to the pyramid structure with the tip of the summit at the top

    and the bottom base at the lower end. The summit top is represented by the top level

    management of policy makers and the administrators. The lower base at the bottom is

    the symbolic representation of the lower end workforce of those utility men, helpers,

    waiters, cooks and other employees who carry out the instructions of the policy

    makers and decision makers.

    5-5-1 Departmental Canteens in and around Pune

    There are several central and state government offices in and around Pune. The

    headquarters of the Southern command is situated in Pune. There are many other

    Defence production units like Ammunition Factory, Ordnance Depot and defence

    Research establishments like DRDO, ARDL and AIT, command hospital, Artificial

    Limb centre, Bombay Engineering Group, Mines and Sappers, Defence Accounts,

    Army Physical Training centre and other units are functioning in Pune. It is also the

    headquarters of the Air force unit. The training Institute like National Defence

  • Academy is at Khadakwasla near Pune. The National Virology Institute functions in

    Pune. The Income Tax Commissionerate and the Central Excise Department offices are

    working in Pune. The Zoological survey of India, the Botnical survey of India, the

    Archeology Department office and other central government offices have their Pune

    branches functioning here. The National Chemical Laboratory has occupied a

    significant position in the research establishments all over the World. The Central

    Power and Water Research Institute is another unique institution in Pune. The Tropical

    Metereology Department and other units have made significant contributions to the

    scientific forecasting of the weather and monsoon conditions for the entire country and

    in Pune this department is known by the name of Simla Office. The All India Radio

    Station Pune and the Film and Television Institute in Pune, the National Film Arcive

    made their mark in the fields related to their functioning. The Armed Forces Medical

    College is situated in Pune.

    Similarly, Pune is the administrative headquaters of the region named Western

    Maharashtra. The Governor of the state resides during the rainy season in the Raj

    Bhavan. The directorates of departments like Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Co-

    operation, Forests, Education, Higher Education, Youth and Sports, Social Welfare and

    others are working from Pune. The regional level offices of the other departments of

    the state are situated in Pune. Text book Bureau and HSC, SSC Board offices and

    SCERT have their headquarters in Pune. There are many state level institutions in Pune.

    In addition to these central and state government offices, there are many Universities

    such as Pune, Bharati, DY Patil, Symbiosis, Tilak Maharashtra and others that function

    from Pune. Similarly, hospitals like Sassoon Hospital, Chest Hospital, Deenanath

    Mangeshkar Hospital, Ruby Hall Clinic, YC Hospital, Birla Hospital and Inlax Burhani

    Hospital and many others have made Pune a major healthcare destination. A large

    number of educational institutions and IT units are established in Pune.

    Most of these institutions mentioned above have the units of canteens in their

    establishment and a large majority of these canteens are run as departmental canteens.

    Their number is very large but those that have responded to the Questionnaire designed

    for the purpose of the present study are fourteen departmental canteens.

    5-5-2Profile of departmental canteens surveyed

    The departmental canteens which have replied the questions in the 50 question

    Questionnaire are from the defence units, the railway organisation, a public sector

    undertaking and an industrial unit. The two departmental canteens in the defence

  • establishment are RDE (Engg) Dighi. The Base camp unit is in the Army Headquarters

    and its departmental canten caters to the needs of the members of this unit. The other

    unit is a research and development unit of the defence development wing, mainly doing

    work in the engineering research and it is situated in Dighi, which is now a part of Pune

    metropolitan region. The catering requirements of the staff of this research unit in

    engineering are met by the departmental canteen attached to this unit and located on its


    There are two establishments in the railway organisation which have the

    departmental canteens attached to them. Pune has recently been made a divisional

    railway headquarters but from the introduction of the railways in this part of the

    country, Pune was an important halt for all south- bound railway passengers. Mumbai

    Bengaluru and Mumbai Chennai routes operate through Pune railway station, though

    now Konkan Railway has opened an alternative route to commuters desirous of

    travelling to south. Now the gauge conversion has taken place but till then Pune was the

    terminal station for the meter guage railway. This being the case the catering facilities

    were most in demand at Pune railway station. The railway catering service has

    departmental canteens at Pune railway station. This facility is available for all the

    twenty four hours. The catering service is of multi cuisine pattern offering South

    Indian, Punjabi, Continental and Chinese vegetarian and non vegetarian items. It is a

    fine catering establishment of the departmental canteen category and the survey

    conducted for this study has covered these departmental canteens of Railway

    Departmental catering at Pune station. The South Contral Railway departmental

    canteens are located at Ghorpadi in Pune area. This suburban station in Pune has a loco

    shed for the maintenance of diesel engines round the clock. The staff at this servicing

    centre needs catering facilities and therefore the departmental canteen service is made

    available to them almost for the entire duration of their working hours. The

    departmental railway canteens cover the two categories of general public utility

    catering and staff catering units.

    The remaining departmental canteen are situated in Pimpri Chinchwad area.

    Greaves India is a subsidiary of Ruston Greaves company situated in the Pimpri

    Chinchwad industrial belt of the Pune region. This company runs the company owned

    departmental canteens for the catering requirements of the employees working in the

    three different shifts in the plant and premises of the company that has engineering

    goods production as its major function. Hindustan Antibiotics Limited is the public

  • sector undertaking in Pimpri and it is the largest life saving drug production unit in the

    country. The high turnout of the plant workers and other employees need facilities of

    refreshment and food and therefore the departmental canteen facilities are made

    available by the company management on the premises of the company in Pimpri. The

    shifts are run in the company and the same pattern is followed in the departmental

    canteens of the company. These are the fourteen departmental canteens surveyed in the

    present study through the responses to the questionnaire and a brief profile of these

    departmental canteens is offered in this section and thus the ground is prepared for the

    presentation, interpretation and analysis of data related to the administration and

    management of the industrial and departmental canteens in and around Pune during the

    span of five years from 1998 to 2002.



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