CHAPTER FIFTEEN The West and the Changing Balance of Power World Civilizations, The Global Experience AP* Edition, 5th Edition Stearns/Adas/Schwartz/Gilbert.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> CHAPTER FIFTEEN The West and the Changing Balance of Power World Civilizations, The Global Experience AP* Edition, 5th Edition Stearns/Adas/Schwartz/Gilbert Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman *AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of The College Entrance Examination Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Chapter 15: The West and the Changing Balance of Power Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007 I. The Decline of the Old Order II. The Rise of the West III. Western Expansion: The Experimental Phase IV. Outside the World Network </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Chapter 15: The West and the Changing Balance of Power Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007 I. The Decline of the Old Order Abbasids destroyed by Mongols, 13th century Baghdad fell to Mongols Overreliance on foreign troops and advisors Byzantine Empire in decline Constantinople falls to Ottomans Turks in 1453 A. Social and Cultural Change in the Middle East Society became less secular, more focused on religious ideas Religious leaders in control by 1300 Ibn-Rushd (Averres) from Muslim Spain spoke of Greek rationalism More popular in Europe, ignored by Middle East As caliphate declined, landlords dominated peasants Peasants lost freedom, became serf on large plantations Economic decline: Agricultural production and development declined, trading declined, taxes declined B. A Power Vacuum in International Leadership Mongols Decline hinders international trade Ottomans Not an international power, no established international trade network </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Chapter 15: The West and the Changing Balance of Power Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007 I. The Decline of the Old Order C. Chinese Thrust and Withdrawal Ming (brilliant) dynasty (1368-1644) Replaces the Yuan Expansionist Into Mongolia, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet State sponsors commercial ventures to India, Middle East, Africa Chinese fleets Zhenghe, Muslim admiral from western China Why did expeditions stop in 1433? China became more isolationist Still trade in Asian area Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Chapter 15: The West and the Changing Balance of Power Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007 II. The Rise of the West Period of relative stagnation, 14th, 15th centuries Why was the rise of the West surprising? Still awed by other bureaucracies Church under attack warrior aristocrats softened life ridiculous tournaments/armor Warrior aristocrats indulged in ritual, had soft lifestyle No longer useful militarily lives of ordinary Europeans falling apart Famine -Food supplies insufficient food supply not enough for population, no new food production techniques Vulnerable to bubonic plague (Black Death) Chinas population hit by 30% Europe lost 30 million (at its worse from 1348-1375) Led to strikes/peasant uprisings A. Sources of Dynamism: Medieval Vitality Monarchies Increasingly centralized --- non-aristocratic soldiers paid directly by royal govt. Aristocracy less of a threat The Hundred Years War (Britain vs. France) stimulated innovations in military organization Iberia Monarchs strengthened through Reconquista Christian leaders re-conquered parts of Spain and Portugal and drove out the Muslims </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Chapter 15: The West and the Changing Balance of Power Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007 Commercial Activity Increased Church accepted capitalism, profit-seeking Advancement in technology iron-work (bells and weapons) Timekeeping B. Imitation and International Problems (Two Additional Factors Related to Europes International Position) Mongol Empire provided new access to Asian knowledge and technology (printing, compass, explosive powder) Western Europe eager learners because of internal conflict and merchant zeal Trade imbalance Western elites increasingly consuming Asian luxury products Europeans had only to offer wool, tin, copper, honey, salt Unfavorable balance had to made up in gold gold famine threatened European economic collapse Trade also threatened by rise of Ottomans, who were positioned to act as intermediaries in Asian trade routes. This was impetus to find other routes to Asia </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Chapter 15: The West and the Changing Balance of Power Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007 II. The Rise of the West C. Secular Directions in the Italian Renaissance Wests surge forward rebirth of culture and political views of Classical Europe Artists created more human-centered works of art humanism Artist/writers pushed for own reputation/glory Works now secular, and religious simultaneously Italy center of initial Renaissance wealthy merchants wanted to impress others patrons Help sponsor cultural activities, scholars competition D. Human Values and Renaissance Culture Focus of art changed its a cultural revolution Subject people, nature, portraits Introduction of perspective using new colors and materials Vivid, realistic statues similar to classic Rome/Greece Not a full separation from Medieval World since art usually had to involve religion Change mindset looking outward Italian commerce and shipping building block Ambitious city-state governments funded new ventures, eager to collect taxes Human ambition, pursuit of glory focused on exploration/conquest </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Chapter 15: The West and the Changing Balance of Power Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007 E. The Iberian Spirit of Religious Mission Key center for change by the 14yh century Castile and Aragon (major regional monarchies) allied through marriage in 1469 Spanish and Portugese rulers pushing military/religious agenda Had effective armies (infantry and cavalry) Mission of govt. armies to push Christianity, expel Arabs/Jews Government enforced Church codes Inquisition courts to enforce orthodoxy Important factor was government with religious mission III. Western Expansion: The Experimental Phase A. Early Explorations The Genoese Vivaldi brothers sought western route to the Indies (spice-producing areas in South and southeast Asia) 1291, disappear after passing Gibraltar 14th century explorers Canary Islands, Madeiras, possibly the Azores Spanish expeditions along west African coast What innovations encouraged early explorations? </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Chapter 15: The West and the Changing Balance of Power Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007 B. Colonial Patterns How do you make expeditions profitable? Henry the Navigator pushed for scientific, intellectual, religious, economic motivations Funded 1/3 of Portugese voyages before death in 1460 Azores, Maderias, Canaries under the control of Portugal and Spain Islands off Africa became test ground for colonialism Large agricultural estates used for cash crops for European markets sugar first, then cotton, tobacco Portugese brought in slaves from northwestern Africa Success of early programs led to expansion Southern Atlantic, coast of Africa, across the Atlantic Forces influencing European expansion inferiorities and fears - Muslims energies of Renaissance merchants economic pressures population surge </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Chapter 15: The West and the Changing Balance of Power Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007 IV. Outside the World Network Americas and Polynesia not part of international trade A. Political Issues in the Americas Aztec and Inca challenged after 1400 Aztecs face resistance from subjects Inca expansion jeopardizes the state Local leaders a threat to central power B. Expansion, Migration, and Conquest in Polynesia 700-1400 Migrations, conquest Hawaii settled Organized into regional kingdoms, warlike Caste system with priests and nobles on top Polynesian Expansion </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Chapter 15: The West and the Changing Balance of Power Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007 IV. Outside the World Network C. Isolated Achievements by the Maoris New Zealand settled as early as the 8th century Maori successfully adapted to lad that was colder and harsher than homeland Population expansion from small group to about 200,000 in 18 th century Most elaborate of Polynesian art D. Adding Up the Changes 1400 a time of change globally Technological change (compass, astrolabe) Why did existing patterns (continuity) in Africa persist? </li> </ul>

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