Chapter 4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources

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Chapter 4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources. Copy the following root words: Bar/o = pressure (barometric pressure pressure of the air) Bell/ i = war (rebel one who fights) Bene = good (beneficial producing a good effect) Bi/a = two (biannual happening twice a year) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 4.1 Energy and Mineral ResourcesCopy the following root words:

Bar/o = pressure (barometric pressure pressure of the air)Bell/i = war (rebel one who fights)Bene = good (beneficial producing a good effect)Bi/a = two (biannual happening twice a year)Bibil/o = book (bibliography list of books used as a resource)Blast/o = immature cell (blastula early stage of development)Capt/cept = take (interception to stop or interrupt)Cardi/o = heart (cardiac arrest heart attack)Carn/I = meat (carnivore one who eats meat)Renewable vs. NonrenewableRenewable energy resource = can be replenished within months, years or decades.G Word: Making It Bio-Diesel Time: 01:27Future Car: Bio Diesel Time: 01:34Future Car: Future Of Alternative Fuel Time: 02:46

Solar powered car.

Electric CarNonrenewable energy resource = takes millions of years to form and accumulate.

FOSSIL FUELSInclude coal, oil and natural gas.COALFormed by heat and pressure on plant material .Takes millions of years.

COAL: Stages of DevelopmentStage 1. Peat = partially decayed plant material that sometimes looks like soil.

COAL: Stages of DevelopmentStage 2. Lignite = sedimentary rock (often called brown coal.

COAL: Stages of DevelopmentStage 3. Bituminous coal = sedimentary rock (also called soft coal.

COAL: Stages of DevelopmentStage 4. Anthracite = metamorphic rock (also called coal.

COAL Plentiful (see map pg 95) Surface mining scars the land Underground mining is hazardous to health and life.

COAL Creates pollution Damages our environmentHSW: Exploring Energy: Dependence on Fossil Fuels

PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS Petroleum (oil) and natural gas are made from the remains of plants and animals that were buried in ancient seas. Fill permeable beds like sandstone and become trapped (called an oil trap). OIL TRAPS must have a permanent reservoir rock and a cap rock to keep the oil and gas from escaping. (see Figure 3 pg 96) Anticline = uparched series of sedimentary rock layers that act as oil traps.

HSW: Dirty Jobs: Drilling For Oil Time: 05:37

TAR SANDS AND OIL SHALETAR SANDS mixtures of clay and sand with water and tar oil is similar to heavy crude oil more resistant to flow and hard to pump out currently strip mined takes 50% of the energy produced to make it processing uses huge amounts of fresh water leaves behind toxic wastesOIL SHALE rock containing waxy mixture of hydrocarbons (kerogen) kerogen vapor is processed and refined worlds oil shale supply is in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming sedimentary layers accumulated at bottom of extremely large, shallow lakes 57-36 million years ago heat energy 1/8 that of crude oil requires large amounts of fresh water to process not profitable

Formation of Mineral DepositsMineral RESOURCES are deposits with minerals that can be extracted.

Mineral RESERVES are deposits with minerals that can be extracted AT A PROFIT.Metallic Mineral Resources:IGNEOUS PROCESSES

Largest GOLD nugget ever found. Australia

Largest SILVER container. India

Copper smelting. China

Mercury Mine of Death. Peru

Lead mining vs. environment. Russia

Largest Platinum mine. South Africa

Largest nickel. CanadaFormation of precious minerals

Igneous processes: As a large body of magma cools, heavy minerals crystallize early and settle to the bottom of the magma chamber.

Hydrothermal solutions: Hot, metal-rich fluids left during late stages of movement and cooling of magma. Pg 99 Fig 6

Placer deposits: Eroded heavy minerals settle quickly from moving water while less dense particles continue to float. Pg 99 Fig 7Nonmetallic Mineral Resources:












TalcCH 4.2 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCESUltimate Alternative Energy Quiz Solar Energy Passive Solar Collectors = windows, glass domes, etc. Active Solar Collectors = large black boxes covered with plastic or glass. Voltaic Solar Collectors = photovoltaic (solar) cells can convert sun energy directly into electricity.

Nuclear Energy Radioactive materials release energy through nuclear fission. Heavy atoms like U-235 are hit with neutrons and split. Uncontrolled fission is as strong as an atomic explosion. Controlled fission involves moving neutron-absorbing rods into or out of a reactor. Nuclear energy drives steam turbines that turn electrical generators.

Nuclear Accident at Three Mile Island, PA - 1979

The accident began about 4:00 a.m. on March 28, 1979, when the plant experienced a failure in the main feedwater pumps which prevented the steam generators from removing heat. First the turbine, then the reactor automatically shut down. Immediately, the pressure in the nuclear portion of the plant began to increase. In order to prevent that pressure from becoming excessive, the relief valve was opened. The valve should have closed when the pressure decreased by a certain amount, but it did not. As a result, cooling water poured out of the stuck-open valve and caused the core of the reactor to overheat. Because adequate cooling was not available, the nuclear fuel and the long metal tubes which hold the nuclear fuel pellets ruptured and the fuel pellets began to melt.

No nuclear material was released into the atmosphere and no one was hurt.

Nuclear Accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine - 1986

On 26 April 1986 01:23:45 a.m. reactor number four at the Chernobyl plant, Ukraine, exploded. Further explosions and the resulting fire sent a plume of highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area. Four hundred times more fallout was released than had been by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.

The plume drifted over extensive parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Northern Europe, with light nuclear rain falling as far as Ireland. Large areas in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were badly contaminated, resulting in the evacuation and resettlement of over 336,000 people. According to official post-Soviet data, about 60% of the radioactive fallout landed in Belarus.

After Chernobyl

Wind50-60 years 5-10%

HydroelectricCurrently 5%

GeothermalLasts 10-15 years per well.



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