Ch 9: Energy in a CellATP, Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
I. EnergyEnergy is essential for life. All living organisms must be able to obtain energy from the environment they live in.
Plants are able to trap the light energy in sunlight and store it to use when necessary. (Autotrophs)
Animals obtain energy from plants or other animals that eat plants. (Heterotrophs)
Energy is stored in chemical bonds of ATP = adenosine triphosphate.
ATPmade of:1. adenosine molecule2. ribose sugar3. three phosphates
held together by chemical bonds
ATP CycleWhen a phosphate is broken off of ATP, energy is released and ADP is formed.When a phosphate is added to ADP, energy is stored and ATP is formed. **So the way energy is stored and released with ATP is to add or remove a phosphate.
Formation and breakdown of ATP creates a source of energyadenosinePPPPAdenosine triphosphate (ATP)Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
III. ATP EquationThis formula is a true reversible reaction and is shown with a double-headed arrow. The molecules can be used over and over again. It can be written with ATP on the left or on the right.ADP + P + energy ATPORATP ADP + P + energy
Uses of Cell Energy Provide energy for muscle cells (muscle contraction) Cell division and cell repairMaintain homeostasisTransport molecules and proteins through the cell membrane.Making molecules
VocabularyPhotosynthesis process by which autotrophs turn sunlight into chemical energy; make foodPigments compounds that absorb/reflect wavelengths of light
VocabularyChlorophyll green pigment found in plant chloroplasts
Chloroplast cell organelle where photosynthesis occurs
What is the ultimate source of all energy?
How does the energy get from the sun into the foods we eat?
What process captures the light energy and uses it to make food?
OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESISPLANTS TAKE INCO2 AND H2OPLANTS MAKE GLUCOSE AND OXYGENSUNLIGHT PROVIDES THE ENERGY FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS
PhotosynthesisWhat is photosynthesis?Photosynthesis is the process by which:watercarbon dioxideoxygenglucoseTAKE INAND USINGMAKEPLANTS(producers)
Photosynthesis FormulaHow would this be written as a chemical equation?What goes in? (the reactants)What comes out? (the products)H2OCO2C6H12O6O2
Photosynthesis FormulaWhats wrong with this equation?The number of atoms is not equal on both sides of the equation.Balance the equation so that the number of atoms of each element is equal on both sides.666(1)Now balance it as if TWO glucose molecules were being produced.
Photosynthesis ReviewWhat goes in? (the reactants)What comes out? (the products)
How do cells make energy?Cellular Respiration
I. Cellular Respiration the process by which glucose molecules are broken down to release energy
Series of chemical reactions which produce ATP.There are 2 forms of cellular respiration.Mitochondria is the cell organelle where respiration occurs.
A. 2 Forms of Cellular Respiration:
Aerobic Respiration requires oxygen & produces 36 ATP molecules
Anaerobic Respiration does NOT require oxygen & produces 2 ATP molecules
Cellular RespirationWhat is cellular respiration?Cellular respiration is the process by which:water carbon dioxideoxygenglucoseTAKE INMAKEmitochondriaATP
Cellular Respiration FormulaHow would this be written as a chemical equation?What goes in? (the reactants)What comes out? (the products)H2OCO2C6H12O6O2
Equation for Cellular Respiration
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATPanimal cellsplant cells
PhotosynthesisCellular Respiration food synthesizedfood broken down energy from sun stored in glucoseenergy of glucose released carbon dioxide taken incarbon dioxide given off oxygen given offoxygen taken in produces sugars produces carbon dioxide and water requires lightdoes not require light occurs only in presence of chlorophylloccurs in all living cells
*The sun. Ask the students where they have heard this in previous units?*Accept all answers.Tell the students this is the major concept we want them to learn today.*See if the students know the answer.Ask what they know about the process.*The energy from the sun is captured by the chlorophyll in the leaf. Two compounds must be taken in by the plant from the environment carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide goes through the stoma on the leaf. Water is taken up through the roots. The water is split into oxygen and hydrogen. The oxygen is released from the plant through the stoma. The hydrogen combines with the carbon dioxide to make glucose.*Photosynthesis is the process by which plants (producers) take in water and carbon dioxide and using light energy and chlorophyll make oxygen and glucose*The equation shows that light and chlorophyll are needed for the reaction, but are not part of the reaction itself.*