Ch. 9 Cellular RespirationThe breakdown of food molecules to release energy to the cell.
Connection between photosynthesis andcellular respiration
In cellular respiration it is NADH NOT NADPH!
Anaerobic respiration: 2 kinds
Anaerobic respiration is used in wine-making
Aerobic Cellular Respiration1. Glycolysis: Glucose is brokencytoplasm2. Transition Reaction: Convert pyruvate to AcetylCoA3. Krebs Cycle: Produce most NADH and FADH24. Electron Transport Chain: Convert NADH and FADH2 to ATP
Glycolysis: breaking glucose into pyruvate occurs in cytoplasm
Transition Reaction: converts pyruvate to acetylcoAoccurs in intermembrane space of mitochondria
Substrate-level phosphorylation: when ATPsynthase makes ATP
General Summary of Krebs cycle (Know your blue sheet!)Occurs in matrix of mitochondria
Electron Transport Chain: converts NADH and FADH2 to ATPoccurs in cristae
Ch. 40,44 Metabolism
Strategies for Body TemperatureEndotherm: most body heat obtained internally (from metabolism)Endotherms tend to be homeotherms (maintain a constant body temperature)Ectotherms: most body heat obtained externally (from environment)Ectotherms tend to be poikilotherms (allow body temperature to fluctuate with environmental temperature)
Modes of Heat Loss and GainRadiation: heat loss or gain by a difference in body temperature and the environmentConduction: heat loss or gain by direct contact with an objectConvection: heat loss or gain by wind or water currentsEvaporation: heat loss only, cooling mechanism
Body Temp = Heat Produced + Heat Gained Heat Lost
(By Metabolism)(From Environment) (To Environment)
Torpor: HummingbirdsBody temperature and oxygenconsumption (red line) are highwhen hummingbirds are activeduring the day but may drop to 1/20 these levels during periodsof food shortage.Dawn Dusk
Osmoregulation: salt and water balance
What does osmoregulation for us?
Water Balance In The K-Rat
Special adaptations: Kangaroo rats
Excretion of nitrogenous wastes