- Cellular Respiration Vocabulary:-Glycolysis -Kreb’s Cycle -Pyruvic acid -Fermentation -Aerobic Reaction -Anaerobic Reaction.
Cellular Respiration Vocabulary:-Glycolysis -Kreb’s Cycle -Pyruvic acid -Fermentation -Aerobic Reaction -Anaerobic Reaction.
<ul><li><p>Cellular RespirationVocabulary:-Glycolysis-Krebs Cycle-Pyruvic acid-Fermentation-Aerobic Reaction-Anaerobic Reaction</p></li><li><p>ReviewWhat is photosynthesis?Where does this occur?What is the difference between ATP and ADP?What is the difference between NADPH and NADP+?Light vs. Dark reactions</p></li><li><p>After glucose is made in photosynthesis, how is the energy in the sugar molecules released so it can be used by the organism? cellular respiration!Cellular Respiration occurs in both plant & animal cells WHERE????CYTOPLASM & MITOCHONDRIA!!! The Power House of the Cell!!</p></li><li><p>Cellular RespirationA Controlled ProcessFood (glucose), like fuel, is "burned" by our cells for energyif it's burned all at once, too much energy is releasedtherefore, the reaction is broken down into many small steps controlled by ENZYMESCells gradually release the energy from glucose and other compounds</p></li><li><p>the energy is transferred to the bonds of ATP which stores and releases the energy in usable amounts to be used by the cell</p><p>energy is stored in bonds between phosphate groups</p><p>AMPADPATPPP</p></li><li><p>Cellular RespirationProcess that releases ENERGY by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen</p><p>Occurs in both plants and animals</p></li><li><p>Cell respiration occurs in 3 stages:</p><p>GlycolysisCitric (Krebs) cycleElectron transport chain</p></li><li><p>Glycolysis(glyco= sugar, lysis = breaks down)Process occurs in the cytoplasmBreaks glucose down from 6-carbon compound into two 3-carbon compounds (called pyruvate)Equation: enzymes in C6H12O6 2 pyruvates + 2 ATP cytoplasm</p></li><li><p>Glycolysis can occur if oxygen is present (aerobic) or absent (anaerobic)Glycolysis is ALWAYS the first step in breaking down glucoseIf oxygen IS present, then cells proceed with Respiration/KrebsIf oxygen is NOT present, then cells ferment</p></li><li><p>Cellular Respiration can be broken down into 2 processes:</p><p>Glycolysis: breaking down glucose </p><p>Respiration (Krebs Cycle & Electron Transport Chain): uses oxygen to finish breaking down products from Glycolysis & release energy </p></li><li><p>GLUCOSEO2CO2H2O & heat energyGlucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + WaterC6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O Look familiar???</p></li><li><p>Respiration/Krebs Occurs in the Mitochondria of cellOnly if oxygen is PRESENT (aerobic)Uses the pyruvic acid from glycolysis to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATPProducts: 34 ATP per molecule of glucose carbon dioxidewater</p></li><li><p>So how does this happen?The Citric (Krebs) cycle and the electron transport chain turn the pyruvate into CO2, H2O, and ATP</p><p>To do this, pyurvate loses a carbon atom to make Acetyl CoA</p></li><li><p>Acetyl CoA enters the Krebs Cycle to produce CO2, NADH, and FADH2The NADH and FADH2 carry energy to the electron transport chain to make more ATP (this requires oxygen)</p><p>C6H12O6 + 6O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP</p></li><li><p>Summary of Cellular Respiration</p><p>GLYCOLYSISbreak sweetnessRESPIRATION/ Krebs CycleLocation in the cell:CytoplasmMitochondriaIt starts with:C6H12O6 (glucose)2 pyruvic acidIt ends with:2 (C3H6O3) pyruvic acidH2O, CO2, ATPIs Oxygen required?NOYES! AEROBIC# of ATPs Produced:2 (tiny)34 (lots!) </p></li><li><p>GRAND TOTAL= 36 ATP!!2 are produced in Glycolysis and 34 in Respiration/ Krebs Cycle18 times more ATP are produced in the presence of Oxygen!!</p></li><li><p>How efficient is this??The 36 ATP molecules the cell makes per 1 glucose represents about 38% of the total energy in glucose</p><p>Even though it doesnt seem like much, this is more efficient than your cars gas burning engine</p><p>What happens to the remaining 62%??? It is released as heat.</p></li><li><p>What happens if your cells arent getting enough oxygen?Respiration/Krebs CANNOT proceedFermentation occursPyruvic Acid builds up in animal muscle cells as LACTIC ACID feel the burn!</p><p>In other organisms, the pyruvic acid builds up, ferments, and becomes alcohol</p></li><li><p>Fermentation: release of energy from food molecules in absence of oxygen (anaerobic)</p><p>Enables cells to carry out energy production in the absence of Oxygenresult of glycolysis + fermentation yields 2 ATP molecules per 1 molecule of glucose (not nearly as much energy!!!!)</p></li><li><p>2 Fermentation Pathways:1.Lactic Acid Fermentation:pyruvic acid from glycolysis is converted to lactic acidlactic acid is produced in muscles during rapid exercise (body can't supply enough O2 to the tissues)the build-up of lactic acid causes a burning, painful sensation in your muscles</p></li><li><p>Energy & Exercise: Quick EnergyMuscle cells only contain enough ATP for a few seconds of burst energy emergency, starting gun of raceWhen this is gone, cells resort to lactic acid fermentation which can provide enough ATP for about 90 seconds</p></li><li><p>Long Term EnergyIf a race or energy need is longer, your body must go through cellular respiration to get enough ATP to continueEven well-conditioned athletes have to pace themselvesYour body stores energy in muscleglycogen these stores are enough to last for 15-20 minutes of activity when broken down through cellular respirationAfter this, your body begins to break down fats and other stored molecules</p></li><li><p>Alcoholic Fermentation: Occurs in yeast cells & some other microorganismsPyruvic acid is broken down into a 2-Carbon alcohol plus carbon dioxide</p></li><li><p>Alcoholic FermentationImportant to brewers & bakers! When yeast in dough runs out of oxygen it ferments, giving off bubbles of carbon dioxide gaswhich forms air space in breadAlcohol produced in the dough evaporates when bread is baked*(when the level of alcohol reaches 12%, yeast cells die)</p></li></ul>