Cellular Respiration. The process by which the mitochondria breaks down glucose to produce ATP is called cellular respiration. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Cellular Respiration </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> The process by which the mitochondria breaks down glucose to produce ATP is called cellular respiration. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> How much energy is actually present in food? 1 gram of sugar glucose, when burned in the presence of oxygen, releases 3811 calories of heat energy! Cellular Respiration </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> calorie- the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. C or Calorie used on food labels = 1000 calories (kilocalorie) Cellular Respiration </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Cells release the energy from glucose and other food components (they dont burn it) Cellular Respiration </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> When the body has oxygen, aerobic respiration can take place and produce 36 ATP molecules. There are 3 stages of aerobic respiration: Glycolysis Krebs cycle (aka Citric Acid Cycle) Electron transport chain </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> THE BIG PICTURE </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Glycolysis Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Glycolysis Glycolysis is the process where glucose is broken down in 2 pyruvic acid molecules. Pyruvic acid is a 3 carbon molecule. The net gain of ATP molecules in glycolysis is 2 ATP molecules. 4 -2 2 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Glycolysis Following glycolysis, the pyruvic acid moves into the mitochondria. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> The Krebs Cycle The Krebs cycle takes place in the MATRIX! Pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle and becomes broken down. As this occurs, 2 carbon dioxide molecules are released. In addition, 2 ATP molecules are released. Electron carriers such as FAD and NAD are used to pick up energized electrons and pass them to the ETC. AKA Citric Acid Cycle </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> The Krebs Cycle AKA Citric Acid Cycle </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Krebs Cycle Electron carriers FYI: Flavin adenine dinucleotide Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> The Electron Transport Chain The last step of respiration is the electron transport chain or ETC. It takes place in the inner membrane. In the presence of oxygen, the electron transport chain will produce 32 ATP molecules and water. The total of ATP molecules released from AEROBIC respiration is 36. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Electron Transport Chain Animation: http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/Bio231/etc.htmlhttp://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/Bio231/etc.html http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/etc/movie.htm http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072437316/student_view0/chapter9/animations.html# Electron carriers NADH and FADH 2 release the Hydrogen ions across the membrane. This creates a concentration gradient. When oxygen enters the ETC, it becomes the final electron acceptor of the Hydrogens and creates H 2 O. As the hydrogen ions come back across the membrane, ADP is converted into ATP. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Electron Transport Chain Electron carriers NADH and FADH release the Hydrogen ions to proteins to cross the membrane. This creates a concentration gradient. When oxygen enters the ETC, it becomes the final electron acceptor of the Hydrogen ions and creates H 2 O. As the hydrogen ions come back across the membrane, ADP is converted into ATP. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> THE BIG PICTURE </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Cellular respiration </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Anaerobic Resp There are times when cells are without oxygen for a short period of time. When this happens, anaerobic respiration is taking place. In anaerobic respiration, glycolysis takes place; then followed by one of two pathways: LLactic Acid Fermentation or Alcoholic Fermentation. Total ATP molecules released = 2. AKA Fermentation </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Aerobic: presence of oxygen Anaerobic: absence of oxygen Aerobic respiration </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Types of Anaerobic Respiration When our cells run out of oxygen and begin fermentation, we build up lactic acid. That lactic acid build up in the muscle makes us feel a cramp and burning sensation. C 6 H 12 O 6 ATP + lactic acid </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> fermentation </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Types of Anaerobic Respiration Some fungi also undergo fermentation. They release ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. C 6 H 12 O 6 ATP + CO 2 + ethyl alcohol This process is key for the yeast that create wine and other alcoholic beverages. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Yeast undergo this type of fermentation when making bread. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> fermentation </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration Photosynthesis Respiration Glucose made Light energy required ATP broken down in 2 nd phase of p.s. CO 2 taken in O 2 released Needs water Takes place in chloroplast Takes place in autotrophs Glucose broken down Light is not required Energy created in ATP CO 2 released O 2 taken in Water released Takes place in mitochondria Takes place in all organisms Require use of ATP molecules Take place in plants Necessary to sustain all life on earth </li> </ul>

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