Cellular Respiration Review. Cellular Respiration 1. Define cellular respiration. A process that releases energy from food, such as the simple sugar glucose,

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  • Slide 1
  • Cellular Respiration Review
  • Slide 2
  • Cellular Respiration 1. Define cellular respiration. A process that releases energy from food, such as the simple sugar glucose, when there is oxygen present. 2. Name several organisms that undergo cellular respiration respiration Nearly all living things undergo cellular respiration*. Exceptions include a few microscopic marine animals (Loricifera) and some bacteria.
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  • Cellular Respiration 3. Using chemical formulas, write the balanced equation for cellular respiration. equation for cellular respiration. 4. Now write out the equation using words. Oxygen + Glucose yields Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy
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  • Cellular Respiration 5. What organelle in eukaryotes is involved in cellular respiration? cellular respiration? The mitochondrion 6. What is a common analogy for mitochondria? Mitochondria are sometimes called cellular power plants or the powerhouses of the cell.
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  • Cellular Respiration 7. Where in eukaryotes are mitochondria found? In all cells. Depending on the organism and the type of cell, the number of mitochondria can range from one to thousands. Root tip of a corn plant. Mitochondria
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  • Cellular Respiration 8. What kind of human cells contain the most and least number of mitochondria? and least number of mitochondria? Cells that require the most energy contain the highest number of mitochondria. The cells of the brain, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the eye contain the greatest number (as many as 10,000 per cell) while the skin cells, which do not require much energy, contain only a few hundred. Skeletal Muscle
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  • Cellular Respiration 9. Identify the mitochondria in this micrograph of a human pancreatic cell. a human pancreatic cell. Pancreas cell Nucleus Nucleolus Endoplasmic reticulum Pancreas The pancreas secretes insulin in response to glucose levels in the blood. Mitochondria
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  • Cellular Respiration Identify the following structures of the mitochondrion. 10 11 12 13
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  • Cellular Respiration Identify the following structures of the mitochondrion. Outer membrane 11 12 13
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  • Cellular Respiration Identify the following structures of the mitochondrion. Outer membrane Inner membrane 12 13
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  • Cellular Respiration Identify the following structures of the mitochondrion. Outer membrane Inner membrane Inner membrane space 13
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  • Cellular Respiration Identify the following structures of the mitochondrion. Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Inner membrane
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  • Cellular Respiration 14. What are the three main stages of cellular respiration? cellular respiration? Glycolysis (Converting glucose to pyruvic acid) The Krebs cycle (Breaking down pyruvic acid into CO 2 ) Electron Transport (Making lots of ATP) Pyruvic acid Three Carbon dioxide ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP Glucose Two pyruvic acid
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  • Cellular Respiration 15. Where in the mitochondrion does each stage of cellular respiration occur? stage of cellular respiration occur? Glycolysis takes place in the cells cytoplasm outside the mitochondrion The Krebs cycle occurs in the matrix The Electron Transport Chain operates in the inner membrane.
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  • Cellular Respiration 16. What happens during glycolysis? Four enzymes are used to break glucose into two molecules of G3P* Five enzymes then convert G3P into pyruvic acid** Four ATP are produced. Two ATP are invested to get this done. *G3P is Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ** Pyruvic acid is known as pyruvate A net of two ATP are made. Glucose Two G3P Two pyruvic acid ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP Two electron carriers pick up electrons during the process Electron carriers
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  • Cellular Respiration 17. What happens in the Krebs cycle? Pyruvic acid enters the mitochondrial matrix where it will enter the Krebs cycle. Acetyl CoA Oxaloacetate Electron carriers Matrix Mitochondrion Enzymes Pyruvic acid
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  • Cellular Respiration 17. What happens in the Krebs cycle? Here pyruvic acid will interact with enzymes and other molecules. Acetyl CoA Oxaloacetate Electron carriers Matrix Mitochondrion Enzymes
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  • Cellular Respiration 17. What happens in the Krebs cycle? Electron carriers After a series of chemical reactions, three carbon dioxide molecules are produced. Matrix Mitochondrion Enzymes
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  • Cellular Respiration 17. What happens in the Krebs cycle? Electron carriers In addition, a molecule of ATP is generated Matrix Mitochondrion Enzymes ATP
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  • Cellular Respiration 17. What happens in the Krebs cycle? Electron carriers* also pick up excess electrons. Matrix Mitochondrion Enzymes ATP Electron carriers * Electron carriers NAD + and FAD
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Mitochondrion Enzymes ATP Electron carriers * Electron carriers NAD + and FAD 17. What happens in the Krebs cycle? Electron carriers* also pick up excess electrons. They then travel to the inner membrane.
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Mitochondrion Enzymes * Electron carriers NAD + and FAD 18. What do the carriers do with their electrons? The electron carriers drop off their electrons at the inner membrane. Electron carriers
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Mitochondrion * Electron carriers NAD + and FAD The carriers then return to the matrix to pick up more electrons while other molecules are recycled. Electron carriers Acetyl CoA Oxaloacetate Enzymes 18. What do the carriers do with their electrons?
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane At the inner membrane, the electron carriers attach themselves to membrane proteins. Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm Electron carriers 19. What happens to the electrons at the inner membrane? H + ions ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane The electrons are then passed to the protein. Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm Electron carriers 19. What happens to the electrons at the inner membrane? H + ions ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane Some of the energy from the transfer of electrons is used to pump hydrogen ions (H + ) into the inner membrane space. 19. What happens to the electrons at the inner membrane? Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm H + ions ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane Meanwhile, the shuttle protein ubiquinone moves in to pick up the electrons. 19. What happens to the electrons at the inner membrane? Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm H + ions Ubiquinone ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane The shuttle will move the electrons to the next protein. 19. What happens to the electrons at the inner membrane? Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm H + ions Ubiquinone ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane Some of the energy from the transfer of electrons will be used to pump more H + ions across the membrane. 19. What happens to the electrons at the inner membrane? Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm H + ions Cytochrome C ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane The electrons will then be shuttled by cytochrome c to their last protein. 19. What happens to the electrons at the inner membrane? Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm H + ions Cytochrome C ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane Again, H + ions will be pumped across the membrane. 19. What happens to the electrons at the inner membrane? Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm H + ions ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane Finally, an oxygen atom will pick up the two electrons along with two H + ions to form a molecule of water. 19. What happens to the electrons at the inner membrane? Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm H + ions O2O2O2O2 H2OH2OH2OH2O ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane Water will exit the mitochondrion 20. Where does the water molecule go? Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm H + ions H2OH2OH2OH2O ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane As more H + is pumped into the inner membrane space, the space becomes more acidic. This causes the pH to drop. 21. How will the pH in the inner membrane space change? Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm H + ions pH 7.2 pH 7.8 ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane There are more H + ions in the inner membrane space, which sets up a concentration gradient. 22. How does the concentration of H + ions in the matrix compare to that in the inner membrane space? compare to that in the inner membrane space? Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm H + ions High H + Concentration Low H + Concentration ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane The H + ions will flow down their concentration gradient from the inner membrane space toward the matrix. 23. In which direction is the concentration gradient? Outer membrane Inner membrane space Cytoplasm H + ions Gradient High H + Concentration Low H + Concentration ATP Synthase
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane The H + ions will flow through an enzyme called ATP synthase. This flow provides the energy needed to generate ATP from ADP. 24. Through what membrane protein will the H + ions flow? Outer membrane Cytoplasm H + ions ADP ADP ATP Synthase P ATP
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  • Cellular Respiration Matrix Inner membrane One glucose molecule yields about 36 to 38 ATP (2 ATP from glycolysis, 2 ATP from the Krebs cycle, and 32 to 34 ATP from the electron transport chain). 25. About how many ATP can be generated by cellular respiration from one glucose molecule? respiration from one glucose molecule? Outer membrane Cytoplasm H + ions ATP ATP Synthase ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP Inner membrane space

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