Cellular RespirationHow do living things release energy???Quick ReviewMost energy used thru conversion of ATP molecules into ADP moleculesThus cells must continually convert ADP molecules back into ATP moleculesThis process is known as. CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Name the three stages of cellular respiration. Give an overview of glycolysis. Explain why glycolysis probably evolved before the other stages of aerobic respiration. Describe the structure of the mitochondrion and its role in aerobic respiration. List the steps of the Krebs cycle, and identify its products. Explain how electron transport results in many molecules of ATP. Describe how chemiosmotic gradients in mitochondria store energy to produce ATP. State the possible number of ATP molecules that can result from aerobic respiration. Define fermentation. Describe lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation. Compare the advantages of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Compare cellular respiration to photosynthesis
Breathing versus Cellular RespirationBreathing: physical process that allows animals and humans to come into contact with gases in the air
Cellular respiration: chemical process that releases energy from organic compounds (food), gradually converting it into energy that is stored in ATP molecules
Correlation between a campfire and Cellular RespirationAnalyzing a campfire can clarify your understanding of cellular respiration. A campfire breaks chemical bonds in wood, releasing stored energy as light and heatCellular respiration breaks chemical bonds in glucose, releasing stored energy and transferring some to 38 ATP; some energy is lost as heat.
Chemical Pathways Food is the raw material that provides the energy for your body to function Cells use food to synthesize new molecules to carry out their life processes
Cells do not BURN glucose, they slowly release energy from it and other food compounds through several pathways (processes)1st pathway glycolysis: releases only a small amount of energy (2 net ATP)If oxygen present, it will lead to two other pathways that release a lot of energy: Krebs cycle & Electron Transport ChainIf oxygen absent glycolysis is followed by a different pathway: Alcoholic Fermentation or Lactic Acid Fermentation
Overview of Cellular RespirationIn presence of oxygen (aerobic) glycolysis is followed by: ______________ ______________ Krebs CycleElectron Transport Chain
All three combined make up Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis + Krebs Cycle + Electron Transport ChainProcess that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Each of these 3 stages captures some of the chemicalenergy available in food molecules and uses it to produce ATPEquation for cellular respiration:6O2 + C6H12O6 ------- 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (ATP)oxygen + glucose ----- carbon dioxide + water + energy123
What is the process of glycolysis????
GlycolysisProcess takes place in the cytosol of the cytoplasm outside of mitochondria; coverts glucose with the help of 2 ATP molecules and eventually releases 4 ATP molecules; for a net gain of 2 ATP molecules.
ATP & NADH production in GlycolysisStep 1: breaks 1 molecule of glucose in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3-carbon compound)
Step 2: 2 NAD+ ;electron carrier accepts 4 high-energy electrons transfers themto 2 NADH molecules and 2 H+ thus passing the energy stored in the glucose
Step 3: 4 ADP added producing 4 ATP
Step 4: 2 remaining pyruvic acids enter Krebs Cycle in presence of oxygen; IF no oxygen another pathway is followedNAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)2 NADH & 2 H+ produced 2 ATP used up become 2 ADP4 ATP producedNet gain =2 ATP
Glycolysis is a fast processCells produce thousands of ATP molecules in a few millisecondsGlycolysis alone DOES NOT require oxygenIt can supply chemical energy to cells when oxygen is NOT available
However if a cell generates large amounts of ATP from glycolysis it can run into problems a. the cells available NAD+ molecules become filled up with electrons b. glycolysis shuts down, cannot proceed without available NAD+ molecules c. ATP production stops
Anaerobic to Aerobic Respiration
Glycolysis evolved before the other stages of cellular respiration; other stages need oxygenNo oxygen in Earths atmosphere when life first evolved about 3.5 to 4 b.y.a. Without oxygen anaerobic respiration2 or 3 billion years ago, oxygen was gradually added to the atmosphere by early photosynthetic bacteria; period the oxygen catastrophe aerobic organisms
Lets look at the pathway that follows gycolysis with the presence of oxygen..aerobic respiration
BUT FIRSTMitochondrion StructureMitochondrion has two separate membranes: inner and outer membrane.Three compartments: intermembrane space, cristae space, and matrix
AEROBIC RESPIRATION:The Krebs Cycle and Electron TransportEnd of glycolysis 90% of chemical energy from glucose still unused, locked in high-energy electrons of pyruvic acidExtracted by worlds most powerful electron receptor Krebs and Electron Transport require oxygen thus they are aerobic processesOXYGEN
The Krebs Cycle 1. 2nd stage of cellular respiration 2. Named after Hans Krebs, British biochemist in 1937 3. Here pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions 4. Citric acid is the 1st compound formed in this series of reactions, so Krebs is sometimes called the Citric or Citric Acid Cycle.
Pyruvic acid enters from glycolysis;One carbon removed = CO2 formed
NAD+ again changed to NADH
CoA joins remaining 2 carbons =Acetyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA added to 4 carbon Compound = Citric acid (6-C)
Citric acid broken down to 5-carbonthen 4 carbon; more CO2 released
Along the way more NADH and FADH2 formed
One molecule of ATP also made
2 turns & 2 pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) yield:10 NADH (2 from glycolysis)2 FADH24 ATP (2 from glycolysis)
Cycle starts anew
Uses for the products of the Krebs CycleCarbon dioxide is exhaled (waste product)ATP can be used for cellular activitiesHigh-energy electrons (stored in NADH & FADH2) can be used to make huge amounts of ATP in the presence of oxygen
Electrons from Krebs cycle are passed to electron transport chain by NADH & FADH2At end of the chain an enzyme combines electrons from the electron chain with H+ ions and oxygen to form waterEach time 2 high-energy electrons transport down the electron chain, their energy is used to transport H+ ions across the membraneH+ ions build up in intermembrane space it is now positively charged, other side of membrane negatively charged (DISPLAY) Electrochemical gradient (chemiosmotic gradient) created for ATP synthase to work (OFF)ATP synthase converts ADP into ATP (DISPLAY)
The Total ATP production of Aerobic CRHow much chemical energy comes from one molecule of glucose??Absence of oxygen:Only 2 ATP molecules from glycolysisPresence of oxygen:2 net ATP molecules from glycolysis36 more ATP molecules from Krebs Cycle and electron transport
These 38 ATP molecules represent 38% of the total energy of glucose, remaining 62% is released as heat, thus your body feels warmer after vigorous exercise and does not freeze in winter.
Lets look at the pathway that follows gycolysis without the presence of oxygen..anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic Respiration: FermentationThis occurs after glycolysis when oxygen absent, thus anaerobic processFermentation releases energy from food molecules in absence of oxygenIn this process cells convert NADH to NAD+ by passing high-energy electrons back to pyruvic acidNow glycolysis has NAD+ and can continue producing ATPThere are 2 types of fermentation:Alcoholic fermentationLactic acid fermentation
Anaerobic and aerobic respiration share the glycolysis pathway. If oxygen is absent, fermentation may take place, producing lactic acid or ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Products of fermentation still contain chemical energy, and are used widely to make foods and fuels.
Alcoholic Fermentation Yeast and a few other microorganisms use alcoholic fermentation, forming ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastesEquation for alcoholic fermentation: pyruvic acid + NADH ethyl alcohol + CO2 + NAD+
Lactic Acid FermentationMany cells convert accumulated pyruvic acid from gycolysis to lactic acid; lactic acid fermentation regenerates NAD+ so glycolysis can continueEquation for lactic acid fermentation: pyruvic acid + NADH lactic acid + NAD+4. When your body cannot supply enough oxygen to muscle tissues during exercise, this is produced 5. Without oxygen the body is unable to produce all the ATP it requires, so lactic acid fermentation takes over
Running, swimming, or riding a bike as fast as you can = large muscles in your legs and arms that quickly run out of oxygenmuscles begin to rapidly produce ATP by lactic acid fermentation.The buildup of lactic acid fermentation causes a painful burning sensation making your muscles feel sore
How do you stop it?????NEED TO INTAKE OXYGEN
Energy and ExerciseInitially body uses ATP which is already available in musclesThen new ATP made by Lactic Acid Fermentation and Cellular RespirationEventually energy supply runs out A. Quick Energy 1. ATP in muscles only lasts a few seconds 2. ATP from lactic acid fermentation lasts about 90 seconds - this then creates a by-product (lactic acid) which the body must get rid of, the body releases it by panting heavily (intake of oxygen)
B. Long-Term Energy - exercise lasting longer than 90 seconds utilizes cellular respiration to generate a continuous supply of ATP - cellular respiration releases energy slower than fermentation, thus athletes can pace themselves - body stores energy in muscles and tissues in the form of glycogen (carbohydrate) -- stores of glycogen usually lasts for 15-20 minutes of activity, then the body starts to break down other molecules like fat for energy HOW LONG DO YOU NEED TO ACTIVE BEFORE YOU START TO BURN FAT?????17-22 minutes
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration: A Comparison
Advantages of Aerobic RespirationMajor advantage more energy released Enough energy to produce up to 38 ATP
Advantages of Anaerobic RespirationLets organisms live in places where there is little or no oxygenQuickly produces ATP
Relationship between Cellular Respiration and PhotosynthesisEquation for Cellular Respiration:6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (ATP)Equation for Photosynthesis:6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (sunlight) 6O2 + C6H12O6
LETS REVIEWHow many stages does cellular respiration have? ____________What are the stages of cellular respiration? ________________________________________________________________________Where does glycolysis take place? ____________________________________Where does the Krebs cycle take place? ___________________________________3GLYCOLYSIS, KREBS CYCLE, AND ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAINCYTOSOL OF THE CYTOPLASM OF MITOCHONDRIAIN THE MATRIX OF MITOCHONDRIA
Where is the Electron Transport Chain located? __________________________________What do high-energy electrons help the cells build? ____________________________________________________________________What are the stage(s) of aerobic respiration? ____________________________________________________________________
INNER MEMBRANE OF MITOCHONDRIAMOLECULES LIKE GLUCOSE; ATPGLYCOLYSIS, KREBS CYCLE, AND ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
What are the stage(s) of anaerobic respiration? ____________________________________________________________________What are the two types of fermentation? ____________________________________________________________________Which fermentation process do humans use? __________________________________
GLYCOLYSIS, FOLLOWED BY FERMENTATIONALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION AND LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION
Lesson Summary In the two to three billion years since photosynthesis added oxygen to earths atmosphere, life has become mostly aerobic. Some organisms and types of cells retain the older, anaerobic pathways for making ATP;these pathways comprise anaerobic respiration or fermentation.Muscle cells can continue to produce ATP when O2 runs low using lactic acid fermentation, but muscle fatigue and pain may result.Both alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation pathways change pyruvate in order to continue producing ATP by glycolysis.Aerobic respiration is far more energy-efficient than anaerobic respiration. Aerobic processes produce up to 38 ATP per glucose. Anaerobic processes yield only 2 ATP per glucose.
*A working muscle cell converts ADP into ATP at a rate of about 10 million molecules per second. What is the energy source?????Chemical energy stored in food.*Glycolysis Greek glucose means sweet (glucose)Latin lysis means process of loosening or decomposing
Glycolysis breaking glucoseSo what would hydrolysis mean??? Breaking with water
Pictures of two cells:Top animal cell Bottom plant cell
What organelle is pictured on the right??? Mitochondrion*How many pathways follow glycolysis in presence of oxygen?????? TWO*These happen in the presence of WHAT????? OXYGEN!!!!!!!
Where does the glucose used in respiration come from?From the breakdown of carbohydrates by cells
*Click to show definition of cytosol and cytoplasm for note sheetsTop right corner mitochondriaHave them answer question in their packet about what else is produced?**Byabillion years agoExplain oxygen catastropheno photsynthetic organisms at the timeAccording to the endosymbiotic theory, engulfing of some of these aerobic bacteria led to eukaryotic cells with mitochondria, and multicellularity followed. After that, living things could use oxygen to break down glucose and make ATP. Today we live in an atmosphere which is 21% oxygen and most organisms make ATP with oxygen. They follow glycolysis with the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain to make more ATP than by glycolysis alone. Cellular respiration that proceeds in the presence of oxygen is called aerobic respiration.
*Have them label structures in packet then do following notes:The inner membrane folds into cristae which divide the organelle into three compartmentsintermembrane space (between inner and outer membrane), cristae space (formed by infoldings of the inner membrane), and matrix ( space enclosed by the inner membrane). The second stage of cellular respiration, the Krebs Cycle, takes place in the matrix. The third stage, Electron Transport Chain, takes place on the inner membrane.***In eukaryotes, electron transport chain is a series of carrier proteins located in the inner membrane of the mitochondrionIn prokaryotes, same chain only in the cell membrane**This causes bread dough to rise a. Yeast runs out of oxygen, starts to ferment b. gives off bubbles of carbon dioxide making air spaces you see in a slice of bread c. small amount of alcohol is formed, evaporates when bread is baked
*The amount of energy produced by aerobic respiration may explain why aerobic organisms came to dominate life on Earth. It may also explain how organisms were able to become multicellular and increase in size.
**Almost opposite processes:Photosynthesis deposits energy; cellular respiration withdraws energyPhotosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from atmosphere; cellular respiration puts it backPhotosynthesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere; cellular respiration uses it to release energy from food
Cellular respiration in all eukaryotes and some prokaryotesPhotosynthesis only occurs in plants, algae, and some bacteria