Cellular Respiration How do cells use food to make energy (ATP)? Chapter 9.

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Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration

Cellular RespirationHow do cells use food to make energy (ATP)?Chapter 9Batteries of Life Adenosine Triphosphate ATPAdenosine Diphosphate ADP

AdenineRibose3 Phosphate groupsATPCellular RespirationThe process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6H2O + 6CO2 + Energy

Main Types of Energy-Releasing Pathways Aerobic pathways

Evolved laterRequire oxygenStart with glycolysis in cytoplasmCompleted in mitochondriaAnaerobic pathways

Evolved firstDont require oxygenStart with glycolysis in cytoplasmCompleted in cytoplasm

3 Steps - When Oxygen is PresentGlycolysisKrebs Cycle (Citric Acid cycle)Electron Transport Chain (Oxidative Phosphorylation)

GlucoseGlycolysisCytoplasmPyruvic acidElectrons carried in NADHKrebs CycleElectrons carried in NADH and FADH2Electron Transport ChainMitochondrionCellular Respiration: An OverviewMitochondrion

GlucoseTo the electron transport chainGlycolysis2 Pyruvic acidGlycolysisGlucose broken into 2 molecules of Pyruvic AcidOxygen not required2 ATP are used and 4 ATP and 2 NADH are producedOccurs for a short time because NAD+ are used up

10Krebs CycleWhen O2 is present, pyruvic acid from glycolysis produces CO2, ATP, NADH and FADH2. 1 molecule of Glucose produces 2 turns of the cycle

Citric Acid ProductionThe Krebs Cycle

MitochondrionElectron Transport ChainNADH and FADH2 made in glyoclysis and the Krebs Cycle are used to make ATPOxygen accepts low energy electrons and H+ to form water.ATP produced when H+ diffuses across the membrane

Electron Transport ChainElectron TransportHydrogen Ion MovementATP ProductionATP synthaseChannelInner MembraneMatrixIntermembrane Space

MitochondrionWhat does 1 molecule of glucose produce?36-38 ATP

How do we measure energy?calorie- the amount of energy needed to raise the temp of 1 g of water 1 degree celsius.

IMPORTANT NOTE FOR YOUR LIFEFood is labeled ___Calories/servingCapital letter means Kilocalories = 1000 calories. Package tells you how much energy the food can give you!What happens when O2 isnt available?Fermentation2 Typesoccurs after glycolysisanaerobic - without oxygenAlcohol FermentationLactic Acid Fermentation

Alcohol Fermentation

BakingYeasts during this process release carbon dioxide which causes bread to rise

GlucosePyruvic acidLactic acidLactic Acid FermentationThe BurnLarge muscles that run out of oxygen quickly build up lactic acid which causes a painful burning sensation.This occurs in animal cellsQuick Energy - Anaerobic4 seconds of ATP in the cell5 seconds - 90 seconds - Lactic Acid FermentationOxygen debt and Heavy BreathingAnaerobic training builds up glycogen in the muscles and develops lactic acid tolerance

Priscah Jeptoo: winner for women 2:25:24Geoffrey Mutai: winner for men: 2:08:07NYC Marathon 2013Long-Term Energy - AerobicCellular Respiration after 90 secondsGlycogen (Carbs) during the first 15-20 minutesFats after 20 minutesAerobic activity increases the size and number of mitochondria and increase oxygen delivery by improving the heart and lungsWhere does a runner get energy for a 5K race?1st- any available ATP2nd- glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation3rd- cellular respiration Break down sugarsWhen out of sugars, break down fats4th- sometimes revert back to glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation if their body is not fit enough for the distance/terrain.

Where does your body look for energy?1. Carbs (Glucose for CR)When out of carbs2. Fats When out of fats3. ProteinsWhen out of proteinsyou are dead. CreatineCreatine Phosphate donates a phosphate to ADP to make more ATPProlongs the 4 seconds before lactic acid fermentationAllows for more repetitions and more intense workoutsIf abused could lead to kidney and liver problems

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